Koliko se zna o sendviču grofa od sendviča?

Koliko se zna o sendviču grofa od sendviča?


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Prema članku Wikipedije o sendvičima, hrana je dobila ime po grofu od sendviča. Koliko detalja postoji o njegovom prvom sendviču? Ima li dovoljno detalja da se to točno ponovno stvori?


Rečeno je da je četvrti grof od sendviča, John Montagu, izumitelj sendviča. Također je bio pristaša kapetana Jamesa Cooka kao prvog gospodara admiraliteta koji je odobravao sredstva za Cookovu drugu i treću ekspediciju na Pacifik. Zauzvrat, kapetan Cook nazvao je po njemu Sandwich Islands (Hawaii).

Priča kaže da je Grof igrao poker i htio jesti meso bez napuštanja poker stola. Zato je zamolio svoje sluge da meso stave između dvije kriške kruha. Ideja za poker stolom možda nije sasvim točna. Možda su, a možda i nisu, izmislili ljudi koji mu nisu bili prijatelji. Druga priča kaže da je možda radio i da nije želio napustiti stol.

Mnogi članci koje čitam jednostavno kažu da je stavio "meso" između kruha. Međutim, ovaj članak kaže da se slana govedina (usoljena govedina) uklapa u to doba. Sol se koristila kao konzervans.

Nadam se da ovo pomaže.

http://www.npr.org/blogs/waitwait/2010/11/29/131670129/sandwich-monday-the-sandwich-that-may-or-may-not-have-started-it-all


John Montagu, četvrti grof od sendviča

Naši urednici će pregledati ono što ste podnijeli i odlučiti trebate li izmijeniti članak.

John Montagu, četvrti grof od sendviča, u cijelosti John Montagu, četvrti grof od sendviča, vikont Hinchingbrooke, barun Montagu od Saint Neotsa, (rođen 13. studenog 1718. - umro 30. travnja 1792., London, Engleska), prvi britanski gospodar Admiraliteta tijekom Američke revolucije (1776. - 81.) i čovjek po kojem je sendvič dobio ime.

Nakon što je 1729. naslijedio svog djeda, Edwarda Montagua, trećeg grofa, studirao je na Eton and Trinity Collegeu u Cambridgeu, otputovao u inozemstvo, a zatim je 1739. zauzeo svoje mjesto u Domu lordova. Bio je general -poštar (1768–70 ) i državni tajnik za sjeverni odjel (1763–65, 1770–71). U tom drugom svojstvu sudjelovao je u vodećem progonu (1763.) protiv Johna Wilkesa, britanskog političara i agitatora, čiji je nekoć bio prijatelj, čime je stekao sabriket "Jemmyja Twitchera", nakon izdajničkog lika u filmu Johna Gaya Prosjačka opera. Bio je i prvi gospodar Admiraliteta (1748–51, 1771–82). U posljednjem razdoblju kritičari su ga optužili da je službu koristio za dobivanje mita i za distribuciju političkih poslova. Iako su ga često napadali zbog korupcije, prepoznata je njegova administrativna sposobnost. Međutim, tijekom Američke revolucije inzistirao je na zadržavanju većeg dijela britanske flote u europskim vodama zbog mogućnosti francuskog napada, a bio je izložen znatnim kritikama zbog nedovoljne pomorske pripremljenosti.

Njegov interes za pomorska pitanja i promicanje istraživanja doveli su engleskog istraživača kapetana Jamesa Cooka da 1778. po njemu nazove Sandwich Islands (Hawaii). Putovanje oko Sredozemlja objavljen je 1799. U svom privatnom životu, Sandwich je bio rasipni kockar i grabljivac. Sendvič je dobio njegovo ime, međutim, priča se koja povezuje podrijetlo imena s posebnim incidentom 1762. godine u kojem je Sandwich (prema izvještaju u francuskoj putnoj knjizi) proveo 24 sata za stolom za igre bez druge hrane biti apokrifni.

Urednici Encyclopaedia Britannica Ovaj je članak posljednji put izmijenio i nadopunio Jeff Wallenfeldt, menadžer za zemljopis i povijest.


Fascinantna povijest banh mi

Na prvi pogled, uličica uz ulicu Cao Thang u Ho Chi Minh Cityju (Saigon) mogla bi se zamijeniti s bezbroj drugih diljem ovog osam -milijunskog grada. Motocikli prolaze pokraj trgovina u kojima se prodaju rabljeni mobiteli, sportski ruksaci i paketi šampona. Služi jedan ulični prodavač lepinja thit nuong (rezanci od riže sa svinjetinom na žaru), dok drugi – vozeći motor na tri kotača – promiču osvježavajuće radosti kem dua (sladoled od kokosa) po vrućem danu.

Razlika je u tome što je ova užurbana uličica Saigon posvećeno tlo za ljubitelje sendviča. To je zato što je zdepasta zgrada blijede breskve s zahrđalom limenom krošnjom i izblijedjelim znakom rodno mjesto sendviča koji je zavladao svijetom: banh mi. I pojesti jedan ovdje, na nuli, dolazi s iznenađenjem.

Ali prvo, što je banh mi?

Nijedan sendvič se zaista ne može usporediti. To je čista fuzijska hrana u kojoj se svaki zalogaj složenih sastojaka pahuljica, kiselog povrća, začina, začinskog bilja i mesa na žaru udvostručuje kao pouka povijesti i filozofije ove zemlje.

Tijekom francuskog kolonijalnog razdoblja od 1887. do 1954. Vijetnam je naučio o puno novih stvari: kava, kršćanstvo, rimska abeceda, preslatke vile, ogromni zatvori u europskom stilu i hrskave bagete. U početku su ove kruhove bile napunjene najskupljim mesom, postajući isključivo sendvič bogate osobe poznat kao banh tay ili "zapadni kruh". ”

Vijetnamski banh mi sendvič & mdash Fotografija ljubaznošću Getty Images / rudisill

Zatim su se 1954. godine, nakon francuskog poraza kod Dien Bien Phua, vijetnamski proizvođači sendviča prebacili u yin-yang. To je ono čemu vijetnamski kuhari uvijek teže: balansiranje "toplih" i "hladnih" sastojaka kako bi se gosti zatekli osjećali sretno i zdravo. (Mještani će vam reći, ako idete na ekskluzivno jelo, recimo, manga i#x2013 rijetkog "vrućeg" voća –, pripremite se za gadan kašalj.)

Jedenje lokalnog banh mi pokazuje kako to funkcionira.

Počinje ljuskavim omotačem od pšeničnog kruha (mi znači pšenica). Zatim dublje zalazi u začin čilija, bogatstvo pržene svinjetine ili roštilja, slani okus umaka Maggi (fermentirani pšenični protein koji su Francuzi donijeli), omekšavajući majonez i cilantro i taj osebujan hrskavi krastavac, rotkvica ili mrkva . Pisac Andrew Lam dotično je sažeo svaki okus kao "trenutak zanosa". Amen.

Vjerovalo se da banh mi dolazi iz Hoa Ma, okruga 3 sendvič radnje otvorena od 1958. godine, a na ovom mjestu od 1960. Njegovi tvorci bili su sjevernjački par koji je emigrirao u Saigon nakon 1954. godine i nazvao svoju trgovinu po svom selu izvan Hanoja. Cilj je bio stvoriti hranu za ponijeti sa svježim namirnicama i – za razliku od francuskog prequel – koja se prodaje po pristupačnijoj cijeni.

Ovaj bahn mi spot još je otvoren i vodi ga ista obitelj, zapravo, unuka Thanh Truc sastavlja svako jelo unaprijed.

Svako jutro osoblje izbacuje večere na jedan od 15 vanjskih aluminijskih stolova. Dvojezični jelovnik opisuje dvije stavke: sendvič od raznovrsnog svinjskog mesa i mesa sa ili bez dva pečena jaja. Ono što slijedi malo je iznenađujuće.

Prvo dolazi kruh, isporučen sam na zelenom tanjuru, zajedno s poslužiteljem p ât é premazanim u mayo, a drugi s ukiseljenim povrćem. Uskoro slijedi vruća ploča s proteinima – dva jaja sa zlatnim jarmovima, tofu na žaru izrezan na trokute, pržena svinjetina, narezana kobasica i luk na žaru.

Mnogi lokalni zalogajnici, čiji su motori parkirani pored stola, na vrhu tanjura nalaze se u umaku Maggi ili chili, a zatim jedu vilicom, naizmjence s zalogajima kruha ručno rastavljenim. Drugi strpaju sastojke u mini sendviče koje sami grade.

Ovo nije svakodnevno iskustvo u Vijetnamu, niti bilo gdje drugo. Većina sendviča ovdje poslužuje se od uličnih prodavača koji sve sastavljaju u pomalo tajnu kombinaciju. Ovdje više dolazi kao banh mi kit. Sve je na otvorenom. I pomaže vam da vidite složenost banh mi u svoj njenoj ukusnoj slavi.

Moguće je da nekim entuzijastima za sendviče koji žestoko raspravljaju o tome što je i nije "sendvič" na društvenim mrežama može biti neugodno zbog ove DIY metodologije. Iskreno, Hoa Ma je ​​previše zaposlen da bi brinuo o tome što se kvalificira kao "sendvič", ali oni zasigurno znaju što je to banh mi.

I svijet je primijetio.

Hoa Ma (ul. Cao Thang 53, okrug 3) otvoren je svaki dan od 6 do 11 sati. Sendviči s jajima koštaju oko 2 USD, a bez njih idu oko 1,50 USD. Poslužuju i vodu i kavu.


Sendvič

Naši urednici će pregledati ono što ste podnijeli i odlučiti trebate li izmijeniti članak.

Sendvič, u svom osnovnom obliku, kriške mesa, sira ili druge hrane smještene između dvije kriške kruha. Iako ovaj način konzumacije mora biti star koliko i meso i kruh, naziv je usvojen tek u 18. stoljeću za Johna Montagua, četvrtog grofa od Sandwicha. Prema često citiranom izvještaju iz suvremene francuske putopisne knjige, Sandwich mu je jednom prilikom za stolom za igru ​​donio narezano meso i kruh kako bi mogao nastaviti igrati dok jede, čini se vjerojatnijim da je pojeo te sendviče dok je radio za svojim stolom ili da ih je svijet postao svjestan kad ih je zatražio u londonskom društvu. Njegov je naslov posudio priručnik za pripremu, a uskoro je postalo moderno posluživati ​​sendviče na europskom kontinentu, a riječ je ugrađena u francuski jezik. Od tada je sendvič ugrađen u gotovo svaku kuhinju Zapada zbog svoje jednostavnosti pripreme, prenosivosti i beskrajne raznolikosti.

Bilo koja vrsta peciva ili kruha i bilo koja vrsta hrane koja se može prikladno pojesti može ići u sendvič, vruća ili hladna. Britanski sendviči s čajem rade se od tanko narezanog kruha napunjenog ribljom pastom, krastavcem, potočarkom ili rajčicom. skandinavski smørrebrød poslužuju se otvorenih lica, s umjetnički sastavljenim preljevima od ribe, narezanog mesa i salata. U Francuskoj su izdubljene rolice popularna baza. Sjedinjene Države dale su razrađene formule za sendviče, od kojih su dvije najuspješnije klupski sendvič od narezane piletine ili puretine, slanine, zelene salate i rajčice, te sendvič Reuben od goveđeg mesa, švicarskog sira, kiselog kupusa i ruskog preljeva posluženog na žaru na crno kruh. Vrući sendviči, osobito sveprisutni hamburger na lepinji, sastavni su dio američke prehrane, a sendvič s maslacem od kikirikija i želeom glavni su oslonac američkog školarca.


Grof od sendviča je pravi momak. Evo 's svega što trebate znati.

Grof od sendviča zvuči kao mitska figura iz britanskog folklora, ali on je, zapravo, vrlo stvarna osoba. John Montagu, koji trenutno nosi tu titulu, 11. je grof od sendviča i služi u Domu lordova.

Kako bismo započeli HuffPostov mjesec epskih sendviča, intervjuirali smo Montagua, koji odgovara na formalnu adresu - bez šale - lorda Sandwicha.

Montagu je ispričao HuffPostu o svojim nadama i snovima u vezi s sendvičima s ribom, svojim pravim osjećajima prema majonezi i svom uvjerenju da se polovice sendviča uvijek trebaju rezati na trokute. No, najprije zaronimo duboko u povijest njegove zavidne titule.

Montagu je izravan potomak Johna Montagua, četvrtog grofa od sendviča, koji se često smatra izumiteljem sendviča. Iako ga možda nije izmislio, sendvič je po njemu dobio ime po osobito lijenom trenutku domišljatosti:

Prema legendi, četvrti grof uživao je u kockanju, a usred posebno zadivljujućeg poteza za kartaškim stolom 1762. nije jeo ništa osim komada pečenke između dvije kriške prepečenog kruha jer ga je mogao držati u jednoj ruci, dopuštajući mu da nastavi igrati bez pauze za obrok.

U različitim izvedbama ove priče grof posebno traži govedinu između dvije kriške kruha ili samo traži nešto što bi mogao pojesti, a da ne mora napustiti stol s kartama, što je natjeralo kućnog kuhara da postane kreativan. Neki navode da je bio ovisnik o kockanju, dok je barem jedan biograf postavio stav da se ne kocka već radije radi za svojim stolom i ne želi uzeti pauzu za obroke.

Kako god se to smanjilo, povjesničari znaju da je njegov naslov, grof od sendviča, bio povezan s pojmom hrane "sendvič", koji je u to vrijeme postao moderan u Engleskoj.

Godine 1762., autor i povjesničar Edward Gibbon zapisao je u dnevniku da je promatrao „Dvadeset ili trideset, možda, prvih ljudi u kraljevstvu, u modi i bogatstvu, koji su se suzili za malim stolovima prekrivenim salvetom, u sredini kavane, na malo hladnog mesa ili sendviča i ispijanje čaše punča. ”

Sadašnji grof od sendviča priznaje da su ljudi u Engleskoj i šire zasigurno jeli sendviče mnogo prije nego što su ih ikada nazvali sendvičima. Također ne mora nužno misliti da mu je predak bio ovisnik o kockanju, kako sugeriraju neke verzije priče.

U razgovoru za HuffPost sa imanja svoje obitelji u Mappertonu, Montagu je opisao portret četvrtog grofa od sendviča, koji visi u kući.

"Mislim da je gledajući njegovu odjeću gospodi iz tog razdoblja bilo teže ponašati se kao i mi, jer je bilo teško biti neformalan", rekao je. "Život je bio vrlo organiziran, pa čak i da samo sjedite za malim stolom u svom londonskom klubu, i dalje biste nosili različite kostime i baratali biste svitakom papira kao što je on na ovom portretu."

U tom smislu, jesti komad mesa između dvije kriške kruha bilo je pitanje lakoće i udobnosti usred formalnosti svakodnevnog života za grofa.

“Siguran sam da je njegov radni vijek bio vrlo aktivan. No, naravno, svaki je plemić tog razdoblja znao kartati i vjerojatno se kockati, a on nije bio iznimka. I uživao je u društvu drugih ljudi ”, nastavio je Montagu. “Dakle, vjerojatno bi kasnije navečer pojeo neke od ovih [sendviča]. Ali mislim da je to bila manjina tog vremena. "

Posljednjih nekoliko desetljeća Montaguova povijesna kulinarska poveznica postala je izvor obiteljskog prihoda. 2004. godine udružio se sa svojim mlađim sinom Orlandom i osnivačem Planet Hollywooda Robertom Earlom kako bi pokrenuo Earl of Sandwich, lanac brzih sendvič restorana.

Lanac ima više od 30 lokacija u SAD -u i jedno u pariškom Disneylandu. Poslužuju sendviče poput "The Original 1762", "The Earl's Club" i "The Full Montagu".

Iako Montagu brzo naglašava da nije kuhar, on ima neka mišljenja o istoimenoj hrani svoje obitelji. Pomaknite se i potražite više njegovih misli o sendvičima.

Koji je vaš omiljeni sendvič?

“Radije uživam u tradicionalnom sendviču, goveđem pečenici i malo salate poput potočarke, ali ne u jednom od ovih velikih američkih sendviča. Ja ih ne volim ", rekao je za HuffPost, dodajući da uživa i u klasičnom francuskom croque monsieuru i tipično preferira svoje sendviče na" integralnom kruhu ".

Jesu li vam sendviči omiljena hrana?

“Oni su u vrijeme ručka jer vrlo rijetko formalno jedem u vrijeme ručka. Ja sam kao i mnogi drugi ljudi koji samo trebaju nastaviti prolaziti vrijeme ručka. U ovom trenutku sjedim i mislim da bih zaista trebao otići napraviti ručak. Ali nisam baš oduševljen pravljenjem sendviča. Malo sam lijen. Najdraže bi mi bilo za vrijeme ručka uz minimalne poteškoće. ”


Naša predanost kvaliteti

Otprilike 250 godina nakon izuma sendviča, restorani Earl of Sandwich® prihvatili su tu ideju i izradili je u svježe pečeni sendvič po narudžbi, kao nitko drugi. Naš jelovnik odaje počast umjetnosti sendviča. Od naših imenjaka s potpisom poput The Original 1762® i The Full Montagu, do naših svježih salata, vjerujemo u korištenje najkvalitetnijih sastojaka u svemu što poslužujemo. Vjerujemo da su sendviči više od praktične hrane u kojima treba pažljivo izrađivati ​​i uživati ​​u njima.


Sadržaj

Opći redoslijed prvenstva među grofovima je:

Broj Titula Datum stvaranja Oružje Trenutni držač Bilješke
1. Grof od Shrewsburyja (1442) Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 22. grof od Shrewsburyja Također i grof Talbot (GB 1784) i grof od Waterforda (Ire 1446)
2. Grof od Derbija (1485) Edward Stanley, 19. grof od Derbija
3. Grof od Huntingdona (1529) William Hastings-Bass, 17. grof od Huntingdona
4. Grof od Pembroka (1551) William Herbert, 18. grof od Pembroka Također i grof od Montgomeryja (E 1605) - vidi dolje
5. Grof od Devona (1553) Charles Courtenay, 19. grof od Devona
6. Grof od Lincolna (1572) Robert Fiennes-Clinton, 19. grof od Lincolna
7. Grof od Suffolka (1603) Michael Howard, 21. grof od Suffolka Također i grof od Berkshirea (E 1626) - vidi dolje
Grof od Montgomeryja (1605) William Herbert, 15. grof od Montgomeryja Također grof od Pembroka (E 1551) - vidi gore
8. Grof od Denbigha (1622) Alexander Feilding, 12. grof od Denbigha Također i grof od Desmonda (Ire 1628)
9. Grof od Westmorlanda (1624) Anthony Fane, 16. grof od Westmorlanda
Grof od Berkshirea (1626) Michael Howard, 14. grof od Berkshirea Također i grof od Suffolka (E 1603) - vidi gore
10. Grof od Lindseyja (1626) Richard Bertie, 14. grof od Lindseyja Također grof od Abingdona (E 1682) - vidi dolje
11. Grof od Winchilseaja (1628) Daniel Finch-Hatton, 17. grof od Winchilseaja Također grof od Nottinghama (E 1681) - vidi dolje
12. Grof od sendviča (1660) John Montagu, 11. grof od sendviča
13. Grof od Essexa (1661) Paul Capell, 11. grof od Essexa
14. Grof od Carlislea (1661) George Howard, 13. grof od Carlislea
15. Grof od Shaftesburyja (1672) Nicholas Ashley-Cooper, 12. grof od Shaftesburyja
Grof od Nottinghama (1681) Daniel James Hatfield Finch-Hatton, 12. grof od Nottinghama Također i grof od Winchilseaja (1628.) - vidi gore
Grof od Abingdona (1682) Richard Henry Rupert Bertie, deveti grof od Abingdona Također i grof od Lindseyja (1626.) - vidi gore
16. Grof od Portlanda (1689) Timothy Bentinck, 12. grof od Portlanda
17. Grof od Scarbrougha (1690) Richard Lumley, 13. grof od Scarbrougha
18. Grof od Albemarla (1697) Rufus Keppel, deseti grof od Albemarla
19. Grof od Coventryja (1697) George Coventry, 13. grof od Coventryja
20. Grof od Jerseya (1697) William Child-Villiers, deseti grof od Jerseyja

Kao što se može vidjeti iz gornjeg popisa, drže se ljudi koji su: (1) grof od Pembrokea i Montgomeryja, (2) grof od Suffolka i Berkshirea, (3) grof od Lindseyja i Abingdona i (4) grof od Winchilsea i Nottinghama dva grofa u logoru Engleske. Stoga postoji 24 takva grofa čiji nositelj ne drži veće zasluge.

Napomena: Prioritet starijeg škotskog grofa određen je Dekretom o rangiranju iz 1606., a ne prema stažu.

Broj Titula Datum stvaranja Oružje Trenutni držač Plemstvo Bilješke
1. Grof od Crawforda (1398) Robert Lindsay, 29. grof od Crawforda [Napomene 1] [1] Škotska Također grof od Balcarresa (1651)
2. Grof od Errolla (1453) Merlin Hay, 24. grof od Errolla Škotska
3. Grof od Sutherlanda (1230 ili 1275 ili 1347) Alastair Sutherland, 25. grof od Sutherlanda Škotska
4. Grofica Mar (1114 ili 1457) Margareta od Mar, 31. grofica od Mar Škotska
5. Grof od Rothesa (1458) James Leslie, 22. grof od Rothesa Škotska
6. Grof od Mortona (1458) Stewart Douglas, 22. grof od Mortona Škotska
7. Grof od Buchana (1469) Malcolm Erskine, 17. grof od Buchana Škotska Govor u Domu lordova u HL Deb 17. lipnja 1998. vol. 590 cc1599-678
8. Grof od Eglintona (1508) Hugh Montgomerie, 19. grof od Eglintona Škotska Također i grof od Wintona (UK 1859)
9. Grof od Caithnessa (1455) Malcolm Sinclair, 20. grof od Caithnessa Škotska
10. Marlov grof i Kellie (1404 ili 1565) James Erskine, 14. grof od marta Škotska
11. Grof od Moraya (1562) John Stuart, 21. grof od Moraya Škotska
12. Grof od kuće (1605) David Douglas-Home, 15. grof od doma Škotska
13. Grof od Pertha (1605) John Eric Drummond, deveti grof od Pertha Škotska
14. Grof od Strathmora i Kinghornea (1606) Simon Bowes-Lyon, 19. grof od Strathmora i Kinghornea Škotska Također grof od Strathmora i Kinghorne (UK 1937)
15. Grof od Haddingtona (1619) George Baillie-Hamilton, 14. grof od Haddingtona Škotska
16. Grof od Gallowaya (1623) Andrew Stewart, 14. grof od Gallowaya Škotska
17. Grof od Lauderdalea (1624) Ian Maitland, 18. grof od Lauderdalea Škotska
18. Grof od Lindsaya (1633) James Lindesay-Bethune, 16. grof od Lindsaya Škotska
19. Grof od Loudouna (1633) Simon Abney-Hastings, 15. grof od Loudouna Škotska
20. Grof od Kinnoulla (1633) Charles Hay, 16. grof od Kinnoulla Škotska
21. Grof od Elgina (1633) Andrew Bruce, 11. grof od Elgina Škotska Također grof od Kincardina (1647)
22. Grof od Wemyssa (1633) James Charteris, 13. grof od Wemyssa Škotska Također i Earl of March (1697)
23. Grof od Dalhousieja (1633) [2] James Ramsay, 17. grof od Dalhousieja Škotska
24. Grof od Airlieja (1639) David Ogilvy, 13. grof od Airlieja Škotska
25. Grof od Levena (1641) Alexander Ian Leslie-Melville, 15. grof od Levena Škotska Također grof od Melvillea (1690)
26. Grof od Dysarta (1643) John Grant, 13. grof od Dysarta Škotska
27. Grof od Selkirka (1646) Trenutno odbačeno od strane James Douglas-Hamilton, barun Selkirk od Douglasa Škotska
28. Grof od Northeska (1647) Patrick Carnegy, 15. grof od Northeska Škotska
Grof od Kincardina (1647) Andrew Bruce, 15. grof od Kincardine Škotska Također grof od Elgina (1633)
Grof od Balcarresa (1651) Robert Lindsay, 12. grof od Balcarresa Škotska Također grof od Crawforda (1398)
29. Grof od Dundeeja (1660) Alexander Scrymgeour, 12. grof od Dundeeja Škotska
30. Grof od Newburga (1660)
[3]
Filippo, 11. princ Rospigliosi, 12. grof od Newburga Škotska
31. Grof od Annandalea i Hartfella (1662) Patrick Hope-Johnstone, 11. grof od Annandalea i Hartfella Škotska
32. Grof od Dundonalda (1669) Iain Cochrane, 15. grof od Dundonalda Škotska
33. Grof od Kintorea (1677) James Keith, 14. grof od Kintorea Škotska
34. Grof od Dunmora (1686) Malcolm Murray, 12. grof od Dunmora Škotska
Grof od Melvillea (1690) Alexander Ian Leslie-Melville, 14. grof od Melvillea Škotska Također grof od Levena (1641)
35. Grof od Orkneya (1696) Peter St. John, 9. grof od Orkneya Škotska
Grof ožujka (1697) James Charteris, deveti grof ožujka Škotska Također grof od Wemyssa (1633)
36. Grof od Seafielda (1701) Ian Ogilvie-Grant, 13. grof od Seafielda Škotska Hansard 1803–2005: doprinosi u parlamentu grofa od Seafielda
37. Grof od stepenica (1703) John Dalrymple, 14. grof od stepenica Škotska
38. Grof od Roseberyja (1703) Neil Primrose, sedmi grof od Roseberyja Škotska Također grof od Midlotijana (UK 1911)
39. Grof od Glasgowa (1703) Patrick Boyle, deseti grof od Glasgowa Škotska

Kao što se može vidjeti iz gornjeg popisa, muškarci koji su (1) grof od Crawforda i Balcarresa, (2) grof od Elgina i Kincardine, (3) grof od Wemyssa i grof od ožujka i (4) su grof od Levena i Melvillea svaki drži dva grofa u logoru Škotske. Dakle, postoji 43 takva grofa čiji nositelj nema veće ovlasti.

  1. Earl Ferrers (1711)
  2. Grof od Dartmoutha (1711)
  3. Grof od Tankervillea (1714)
    • Peter Bennet, deseti grof od Tankervillea
  4. Grof od Aylesforda (1714)
    • Charles Finch-Knightley, 12. grof od Aylesforda
  5. Grof od Macclesfielda (1721)
    • Richard Parker, deveti grof od Macclesfielda
  6. Grof Waldegrave (1729)
  7. Grof od Harringtona (1742)
  8. Grof od Portsmoutha (1743)
  9. Grof od Warwicka (1759) i Brooke (1746)
  10. Grof od Buckinghamshirea (1746)
    • George Hobart-Hampden, deseti grof od Buckinghamshirea
  11. Grof od Guilforda (1752)
  12. Grof od Hardwickea (1754)
  13. Grof od Ilchestera (1756)
    • Robin Fox-Strangways, deseti grof od Ilchestera
  14. Grof De La Warr (1761)
  15. Grof od Radnora (1765)
  16. Grof Spencer (1765)
  17. Earl Bathurst (1772)
  18. Grof od Clarendona (1776)
  19. Grof od Mansfielda (1776) i Mansfield (1792)
    • Alexander Murray, deveti grof od Mansfielda i Mansfielda
  20. Grof Talbot (1784.) (grof od Shrewsburyja u Engleskoj Peerage i grof od Waterforda u Peregi Irske)
    • Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, sedmi grof Talbot
  21. Grof od planine Edgcumbe (1789)
  22. Grof Fortescue (1789)
    • Charles Fortescue, osmi Earl Fortescue
  23. Grof od Carnarvona (1793)
  24. Earl Cadogan (1800)
  25. Grof od Malmesburyja (1800)
    • James Harris, sedmi grof od Malmesburyja
Broj Titula Datum stvaranja Oružje Trenutni držač Plemstvo Bilješke
Grof od Waterforda 1446 Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 22. grof od Waterforda Irska Također grof od Shrewsburyja u Peerageu Engleske i Earl Talbot u Peerageu Velike Britanije
1. Grof od Corka 1620 John Boyle, 15. grof od Corka Irska Također grof od Orreryja (1660)
2. Grof od Westmeatha 1621 William Anthony Nugent, 13. grof od Westmeatha Irska
3. Grof od Meatha 1627 John Brabazon, 15. grof od Meatha Irska
Grof od Desmonda 1628 Alexander Feilding, 11. grof od Desmonda Irska Također grof od Denbigha u Engleskoj Peerage
4. Grof od Cavana 1647 Roger Lambart, 13. grof od Cavana Irska
Grof od Orreryja 1660 John Boyle, 15. grof od Orreryja Irska Također grof od Corka
5. Grof od Droghede 1661 Derry Moore, 12. grof od Droghede Irska
6. Grof od Granarda 1684 Peter Forbes, deseti grof od Granarda Irska
7. Grof od Darnleyja 1725 Ivo Bligh, 12. grof od Darnleyja Irska
8. Grof od Bessborougha 1739 Myles Ponsonby, 12. grof od Bessborougha Irska Također i grof od Bessborougha (UK 1937)
9. Grof od Carricka 1748 (Arion) Thomas Piers Hamilton Butler, 11. grof od Carricka Irska
10. Grof od Shannona 1756 Richard Boyle, deseti grof od Shannona Irska
11. Grof od Arrana 1762 Arthur Gore, deveti grof od Arrana Irska
12. Grof od Courtowna 1762 Patrick Stopford, deveti grof od Courtowna Irska
13. Grof od Mexborougha 1766 John Savile, osmi grof od Mexborougha Irska
14. Grof Winterton 1766 David Turnour, osmi grof Winterton Irska
15. Grof od Kingstona 1768 Robert King-Tenison, 12. grof od Kingstona Irska
16. Grof od Rodena 1771 Robert Jocelyn, deseti grof od Rodena Irska
17. Grof od Lisburna 1776 David Vaughan, deveti grof od Lisburna Irska
18. Grof od Clanwilliama 1776 Patrick Meade, osmi grof od Clanwilliama Irska
19. Grof od Antrima 1785 Alexander McDonnell, deveti grof od Antrima Irska
20. Grof od Longforda 1785 Thomas Pakenham, osmi grof od Longforda Irska
21. Grof od Portarlingtona 1785 George Dawson-Damer, sedmi grof od Portarlingtona Irska
22. Grof od Maya 1785 Charles Bourke, 11. grof od Maya Irska
23. Grof Annesley 1789 Michael Annesley, 12. grof Annesley Irska
24. Grof od Enniskillena 1789 Andrew Cole, sedmi grof od Enniskillena Irska
25. Grof Erne 1789 John Crichton, 7. grof Erne Irska
26. Grof od Lucana 1795 George Bingham, osmi grof od Lucana Irska
27. Grof Belmore 1797 John Lowry-Corry, osmi grof Belmore Irska
28. Stewart, dvorac Earl 1800 Arthur Stuart, 8. grofov dvorac Stewart Irska
29. Grof od Donoughmora 1800 Richard Hely-Hutchinson, osmi grof od Donoughmora Irska
30. Grof od Kaledona 1800 Nikola Aleksandar, sedmi grof od Kaledona Irska
31. Grof od Limericka 1803 Edmund Pery, sedmi grof od Limericka Irska
32. Grof od Clancartyja 1803 Rov Nicholas Le Poer, deveti grof od Clancartyja Irska
33. Grof od Gosforda 1806 Charles Acheson, sedmi grof od Gosforda Irska
34. Grof od Rossea 1806 Brendan Parsons, sedmi grof od Rossea Irska
35. Grof od Normantona 1806 James Agar, sedmi grof od Normantona Irska
36. Grof od Kilmoreya 1822 Sir Richard Needham (6. grof od Kilmoreyja) Irska
37. Grof od Listowela 1822 Francis Hare, 6. grof od Listowella Irska
38. Grof od Norburyja 1827 Richard Graham-Toler, sedmi grof od Norburyja Irska
39. Grof od Ranfurlyja 1831 Edward Knox, osmi grof od Ranfurlyja Irska

Kao što se može vidjeti s gornjeg popisa, čovjek koji je grof od Waterforda također ima grofovstvo u Peerageu Engleske i grof u Peerageu Velike Britanije, čovjek koji je grof od Desmonda također ima grofovstvo u Peerage of Engleska, a čovjek koji je grof od Korka također je grof od Orreryja. Stoga u Peerageu Irske postoji 39 grofova čiji nositelji od njih imaju prednost.

  1. Grof od Rosslyna (1801)
  2. Grof od Cravena (1801)
    • Benjamin Craven, 9. grof od Cravena
  3. Grof od Onslowa (1801)
  4. Grof od Romneya (1801)
  5. Grof od Chichestera (1801)
  6. Grof od Wiltona (1801)
  7. Grof od Limericka (Irska)Grof od Clancartyja (Irska)
  8. Grof od Powisa (1804)
  9. Grof Nelson (1805)
  10. Grof od Gosforda (Irska)Grof od Rossea (Irska)Grof od Normantona (Irska)
  11. Earl Grey (1806)
  12. Grof od Lonsdalea (1807)
  13. Grof od Harrowbyja (1809.)
  14. Grof od Harewooda (1812)
  15. Grof od Minta (1813)
  16. Kolica s grofom (1814)
  17. Grof od Verulama (1815)
  18. Grof svetih Germana (1815)
    • Albert Eliot, 11. grof od Sv. Germana
  19. Grof od Morleyja (1815)
    • Mark Parker, sedmi grof od Morleyja
  20. Grof od Bradforda (1815)
  21. Grof od Eldona (1821)
    • John Scott, 6. grof od Eldona
  22. Earl Howe (1821)
  23. Grof od Stradbrokea (1821)
  24. Grofov hram Stowe (1822)
    • Hram Grenville-Gore-Langton, osmi grofov hram Stowe
    Grof od Kilmoreyja (Irska)Grof od Listowella (Irska)Grof od Norburyja (Irska)
  25. Grof Cawdor (1827)
  26. Grof od Ranfurlyja (Irska)
  27. Grof od Lichfielda (1831)
  28. Grof od Durhama (1833)
  29. Grof Granville (1833)
    • Fergus Leveson-Gower, 6. grof Granville
  30. Grof od Effinghama (1837)
    • David Howard, sedmi grof od Effinghama
  31. Grof od Duciea (1837)
  32. Grof od Yarborougha (1837)
  33. Grof od Leicestera (1837)
  34. Grof od Gainsborougha (1841)
    • Anthony Noel, 6. grof od Gainsborougha
  35. Grof od Strafforda (1847)
    • William Byng, deveti grof od Strafforda
  36. Grof od Cottenhama (1850)
    • Mark Pepys, deveti grof od Cottenhama
  37. Earl Cowley (1857)
  38. Grof od Dudleya (1860)
  39. Grof Russell (1861)
  40. Grof od Cromartiea (1861)
  41. Grof od Kimberleyja (1866)
  42. Grof od Wharncliffea (1876)
    • Richard Montagu-Stuart-Wortley, peti grof od Wharncliffea
  43. Earl Cairns (1878)
  44. Grof od Lyttona (1880)
  45. Grof od Selbornea (1882)
    • William Palmer, peti grof od Selbornea
  46. Grof od Iddesleigh -a (1885)
    • John Northcote, peti grof od Iddesleigh -a
  47. Grof od Cranbrooka (1892)
  48. Grof od Cromera (1901)
    • Evelyn Baring, četvrti grof od Cromera
  49. Grof od Plymoutha (1905)
    • Ivor Edward Drugi Windsor-Clive, 4. grof od Plymoutha
  50. Grof od Liverpoola (1905.)
  51. Earl Saint Aldwyn (1915)
    • Plaža Michael Hicks, 3. grof Saint Aldwyn
  52. Earl Beatty (1919)
  53. Earl Haig (1919)
    • Alexander Haig, 3. grof Haig
  54. Grof od Iveagha (1919)
  55. Grof od Balfoura (1922)
    • Roderick Balfour, peti grof od Balfoura
  56. Grof od Oxforda i Asquitha (1925)
  57. Grof Jellicoe (1925)
    • Patrick Jellicoe, 3. grof Jellicoe
  58. Grof od Inchcapea (1929)
  59. Earl Peel (1929) [4]
  60. Grof Baldwin od Bewdleyja (1937)
  61. Grof od Halifaxa (1944)
  62. Grof od Gowriea (1945)
  63. Grof Lloyd George iz Dwyfora (1945)
    • David Lloyd George, 4. grof Lloyd George iz Dwyfora
  64. Earl Mountbatten iz Burme (1947)
  65. Tuniski grof Aleksandar (1952)
  66. Grof od Swintona (1955.)
    • Mark Cunliffe-Lister, četvrti grof od Swintona
  67. Earl Attlee (1955.)
  68. Grof od Wooltona (1956)
  69. Grof od Snowdona (1961.) [5]
  70. Grof od Stocktona (1984)
  71. Grof od Wessexa (1999.) i Forfar (2019.) [6]

Prividni nasljednici Edit

Peerage of England Edit

1. James Chetwynd-Talbot, vikont Ingestre, najstariji sin grofa od Shrewsburyja i Waterforda

2. Edward Stanley, Lord Stanley, najstariji sin grofa od Derbyja

3. Reginald Herbert, Lord Herbert, najstariji sin grofa od Pembroka i Montgomeryja

4. Jack Courtenay, Lord Courtenay, najstariji sin grofa od Devona

5. Alexander Howard, vikont Andover, najstariji sin grofa od Suffolka i Berkshirea

6. Peregrine Feilding, vikont Feilding, najstariji sin grofa od Denbigha i Desmonda

7. Henry Bertie, Lord Norreys, najstariji sin grofa od Lindseyja i Abingdona

8. Tobias Finch-Hatton, vikont Maidstone, najstariji sin grofa od Winchilseaja i Nottinghama

9. Luke Montagu, vikont Hinchingbrooke, najstariji sin grofa od sendviča

10. Anthony Ashley-Cooper, Lord Ashley, najstariji sin grofa od Shaftesburyja

11. William Bentinck, vikont Woodstock, najstariji sin grofa od Portlanda

12. Augustus Keppel, vikont Bury, najstariji sin grofa od Albemarla

13. George Child-Villiers, vikont Villiers, najstariji sin grofa od Jerseyja

Peerage of Scotland Edit

14. Anthony Lindsay, Lord Balniel, najstariji sin grofa od Crawforda i Balcarresa

15. Harry Hay, Lord Hay, najstariji sin grofa od Errolla

16. Alexander Charles Robert Sutherland, Lord Strathnaver, najstariji sin grofa od Sutherlanda

17. John Douglas, Lord Aberdour, najstariji sin grofa od Mortona

18. Harry Erskine, Lord Cardross, najstariji sin grofa od Buchana

19. Rhuridh Montgomerie, Lord Montgomerie, najstariji sin grofa od Eglintona i Wintona

20. Alexander Sinclair, Lord Berriedale, najstariji sin grofa od Caithnessa

21. Jack Stuart, Lord Doune, najstariji sin grofa od Moraya

22. Michael Douglas-Home, Lord Dunglass, najstariji sin grofa od Homea

23. James Drummond, vikont Strathallana, najstariji sin grofa od Pertha

24. Alexander Patrick Stewart, Lord Darlies, najstariji sin grofa od Gallowaya

25. John Maitland, vikont Maitland, najstariji sin grofa od Lauderdalea

26. William Lindesay-Bethume, vikont Garnock, najstariji sin grofa od Lindsaya

27. William Hay, vikont Dupplin, najstariji sin grofa od Kinnoulla

28. Charles Bruce, Lord Bruce, najstariji sin grofa od Elgina i Kincardine

29. Richard Charteris, Lord Elcho, najstariji sin grofa od Wemyssa i Marta

30. Simon Ramsay, Lord Ramsay, najstariji sin grofa od Dalhousieja

31. Davis Ogilvy, Lord Ogilvy, najstariji sin grofa od Airlieja

32. James Grant iz Rothiemurchusa, lord Huntingtower, najstariji sin grofa od Dysarta

33. John Douglas-Hamilton, Lord Daer, najstariji sin grofa od Selkirka

34. Henry Scrymgeour-Wedderburn, Lord Scrymgeour, najstariji sin grofa od Dundeeja

35. David Hope-Johnstone, Lord Johnstone, eldest son of the Earl of Annandale and Hartfell

36. Archibald Cochrane, Lord Cochrane, eldest son of the Earl of Dundonald

37. Tristan Keith, Lord Inverurie, eldest son of the Earl of Kintore

38. Oliver St John, Viscount Kirkwall, eldest son of the Earl of Orkney

39. James Studley, Viscount Reidhaven, eldest son of the Earl of Seafield

40. John Dalrymple, Viscount Dalrymple, eldest son of the Earl of Stair

41. Harry Primrose, Lord Dalmeny, eldest son of the Earl of Rosebery and Midlothian

42. David Boyle, Viscount of Kelburn, eldest son of the Earl of Glasgow

Peerage of Great Britain Edit

44. William Shirley, Viscount Tamworth, eldest son of the Earl Ferrers

45. James Finch-Knightley, Lord Guernsey, eldest son of the Earl of Aylesford

46. Edward Waldegrave, Viscount Chewton, eldest son of the Earl Waldegrave

47. William Stanhope, Viscount Petersham, eldest son of the Earl of Harrington

48. Oliver Wallop, Viscount Lymington, eldest son of the Earl of Portsmouth

49. Charles Greville, Lord Brooke, eldest son of the Earl of Warwick

50. Frederick North, Lord North, eldest son of the Earl of Guilford

51. Philip Yorke, Viscount Royston, eldest son of the Earl of Hardwick

52. Simon Fox-Strangways, Lord Stavordale, eldest son of the Earl of Ilchester

54. Jacob Pleydell-Bouverie, Viscount Folkstone, eldest son of the Earl of Radnor

56. Benjamin Bathurst, Lord Apsley, eldest son of the Earl Bathurst

57. Edward Villiers, Lord Hyde, eldest son of the Earl of Clarendon

58. William Murray, Viscount Stormont, eldest son of the Earl of Mansfield and Mansfield

59. William Herbert, Lord Porchester, eldest son of the Earl of Carnarvon

60. George Cadogan, Viscount Chelsea, eldest son of the Earl Cadogan

61. James Harris, Viscount FitzHarris, eldest son of the Earl of Malmesbury

Peerage of Ireland Edit

62. Jonathan Boyle, Viscount Dungarvan, eldest son of the Earl of Cork and Orrery

63. Sean Nugent, Lord Delvin, eldest son of the Earl of Westmeath

64. Anthony Brabazon, Lord Ardee, eldest son of the Earl of Meath

65. Benjamin Moore, Viscount Moore, eldest son of the Earl of Drogheda

66. Jonathan Forbes, Viscount Forbes, eldest son of the Earl of Granard

67. Ivo Bligh, Lord Clifton, eldest son of the Earl of Darnley

68. Frederick Ponsonby, Viscount Duncannon, eldest son of the Earl of Bessborough

69. James Stopford, Viscount Stopford, eldest son of the Earl of Courtown

70. John Savile, Viscount Pollington, eldest son of the Earl of Mexborough

71. Charles King-Tenison, Viscount Kingsborough, eldest son of the Earl of Kingston

72. Shane Jocelyn, Viscount Jocelyn, eldest son of the Earl of Roden

73. John Meade, Lord Gillford, eldest son of the Earl of Clanwilliam

74. Randal McDonnell, Viscount Dunluce, eldest son of the Earl of Antrim

75. Edward Pakenham, Lord Silchester, eldest son of the Earl of Longford

76. Charles Dawson-Damer, Viscount Carlow, eldest son of the Earl of Portarlington

77. Richard Bourke, Lord Naas, eldest son of the Earl of Mayo

78. Michael Annesley, Viscount Glerawly, eldest son of the Earl Annesley

79. John Lowry-Corry, Viscount Corry, eldest son of the Earl Belmore

80. Andrew Stuart, Viscount Stuart, eldest son of the Earl Castle Stewart

81. John Hely-Hutchinson, Viscount Suirdale, eldest son of the Earl of Donoughmore

82. Frederick Alexander, Viscount Alexander, eldest son of the Earl of Caledon

Peerage of the United Kingdom (also includes heirs apparent for Irish peerages created after 1800) Edit

83. Jamie St Clair-Erskine, Lord Loughborough, eldest son of the Earl of Rosslyn

84. David Marsham, Viscount Marsham, eldest son of the Earl of Romney

85. Julian Grosvenor, Viscount Grey de Wilton, eldest son of the Earl of Wilton

86. Felix Pery, Viscount Glentworth, eldest son of the Earl of Limerick

87. Jonathan Herbert, Viscount Clive, eldest son of the Earl of Powis

88. Thomas Nelson, Viscount Merton, eldest son of the Earl Nelson

89. Lawrence Parsons, Lord Oxmantown, eldest son of the Earl of Rosse (Peerage of Ireland)

90. Arthur Agar, Viscount Somerton, eldest son of the Earl of Normanton (Peerage of Ireland)

91. Alexander Grey, Viscount Howick, eldest son of the Earl Grey

92. Dudley Ryder, Viscount Sandon, eldest son of the Earl of Harrowby

93. Alexander Lascelles, Viscount Lascelles, eldest son of the Earl of Harewood

94. Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, Viscount Melgund, eldest son of the Earl of Minto

95. Alan Cathcart, Lord Greenock, eldest son of the Earl of Cathcart

96. James Grimston, Viscount Grimston, eldest son of the Earl of Verulam

97. Alexander Bridgeman, Viscount Newport, eldest son of the Earl of Bradford

98. John Scott, Viscount Encombe, eldest son of the Earl of Eldon

99. Thomas Curzon, Viscount Curzon, eldest son of the Earl Howe

100. Robert Rous, Viscount Dunwich, eldest son of the Earl of Stradbroke

101. Robert Needham, Viscount Newry and Mourne, eldest son of the Earl of Kilmorey (Peerage of Ireland)

102. James Campbell, Viscount Emlyn, eldest son of the Earl Cawdor

103. Adam Knox, Viscount Northland, eldest son of the Earl of Ranfurly (Peerage of Ireland)

104. Thomas Anson, Viscount Anson, eldest son of the Earl of Lichfield

105. Frederick Lambton, Viscount Lambton, eldest son of the Earl of Durham

106. Granville Leveson-Gower, Lord Leveson, eldest son of the Earl Granville

107. Edward Howard, Lord Howard of Effingham, eldest son of the Earl of Effingham

108. James Moreton, Lord Moreton, eldest son of the Earl of Ducie

109. George Pelham, Lord Worsley, eldest son of the Earl of Yarborough

110. Edward Coke, Viscount Coke, eldest son of the Earl of Leicester

111. Henry Noel, Viscount Campden, eldest son of the Earl of Gainsborough

112. Samuel Byng, Viscount Enfield, eldest son of the Earl of Strafford

113. Henry Wellesley, Viscount Dangan, eldest son of the Earl Cowley

114. Colin Mackenzie, Viscount Tarbat, eldest son of the Earl of Cromartie

115. David Wodehouse, Lord Wodehouse, eldest son of the Earl of Kimberley

116. Reed Montagu-Stuart-Wortley, Viscount Carlton, eldest son of the Earl of Wharncliffe

117. Hugh Cairns, Viscount Garmoyle, eldest son of the Earl Cairns

118. Philip Lytton, Viscount Knebworth, eldest son of the Earl of Lytton

119. Alexander Palmer, Viscount Wolmer, eldest son of the Earl of Selborne

120. Thomas Northcote, Viscount St Cyres, eldest son of the Earl of Iddesleigh

121. John Gathorne-Hardy, Lord Medway, eldest son of the Earl of Cranbrook

122. Alexander Baring, Viscount Errington, eldest son of the Earl of Cromer

123. Robert Other Ivor Windsor-Clive, Viscount Windsor, eldest son of the Earl of Plymouth

124. Luke Foljambe, Viscount Hawkesbury, eldest son of the Earl of Liverpool

125. Sean Beatty, Viscount Borodale, eldest son of the Earl Beatty

126. Arthur Guinness, Viscount Elveden, eldest son of the Earl of Iveagh

127. Mark Asquith, Viscount Asquith, eldest son of the Earl of Oxford and Asquith

128. Fergus Mackay, Viscount Glenapp, eldest son of the Earl of Inchcape

129. Ashton Peel, Viscount Clanfield, eldest son of the Earl Peel

130. Benedict Bewdley, Viscount Corvedale, eldest son of the Earl Baldwin of Bewdley

131. James Wood, Lord Irwin, eldest son of the Earl of Halifax

132. Brer Ruthven, Viscount Ruthven of Canberra, eldest son of the Earl of Gowrie

133. William Lloyd George, Viscount Gwynedd, eldest son of the Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor

134. Nicholas Knatchbull, Lord Brabourne, eldest son of the Earl Mountbatten of Burma

135. William Cunliffe-Lister, Lord Masham, eldest son of the Earl of Swinton

136. Charles Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley, eldest son of the Earl of Snowdon

137. Daniel Macmillan, Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden, eldest son of the Earl of Stockton

138. James Mountbatten-Windsor, Viscount Severn, eldest son of the Earl of Wessex


6 Fun Facts about the Sandwich

November 3 rd is National Sandwich Day and we can’t think of anything else we would rather celebrate. When it comes to lunch, you simply can’t beat a sandwich. What other menu option do we have that is easy enough to make that most kids can make their own, portable enough to take just about anywhere, and flexible enough to enable everyone to have exactly what they want? It is easy to see why the sandwich is so synonymous with lunch! Get in the spirit for National Sandwich Day with these fun facts and ready-to-make recipes featuring the sandwich.

1. Ever wonder where the sandwich got its name?

It is named after the man credited with creating the first sandwich, John Montagu, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. Legend has it that he was unwilling to free up both hands during a 24 hour gambling event in order to eat. Instead, he asked his servant to put the meat from his meal between two slices of bread so he could hold it in one hand and continue gambling. Ease, convenience, and portability right from the start!

2. Do you know what the most popular sandwich in America is?

If you guessed peanut butter and jelly, you would be close since on average, we each will have eaten about 1,500 PB&Js by the time we graduate from high school. The most popular sandwich is the plain, ordinary ham sandwich followed by second place finisher the BLT.

3. How many sandwiches do Americans eat every day?

It might seem strange, but Americans eat more than 300 million sandwiches each and every day. This is an amazing statistic since there are slightly more than 300 million Americans and not everyone eats a sandwich everyday!

4. What sandwich helped keep Americans fed during the Great Depression?

With the price of peanut butter today, you may not believe it, but the PB&J offered a lot of nutrition for a low cost. This was due in part to two crucial advances in food delivery, the development of the process for making peanut butter and the adoption of the process for pre-slicing and packaging bread. These two advances made the necessary ingredients readily available at a reasonable cost just in time to help feed the families struggling through the depression.

5. Why do we call sandwiches served on oblong rolls subs?

You might think it is because the rolls themselves are shaped kind of like submarines but that is not where the name comes from. Legend has it that during World War II, a deli in New London, Connecticut got an order for 500 hero sandwiches from a local Navy submarine base. As a result, the employees of the deli started referring to the hero as a “sub”. The name stuck and in most parts of the country you are more likely to see subs on the menu than heros.

6. What world records are related to sandwiches?

There are several world records tracked by Guinness related to the sandwich. The most expensive sandwich ever sold was a grilled toast sandwich that seemed to have an image of the Virgin Mary on the toasted bread which sold for $28,000 in 2004. The longest sandwich, created in Italy in 2004 was 2081 ft. The largest sandwich ever made weighed 5,440 lbs. The year, the record for the most sandwiches being made simultaneously was set in New York City by Subway restaurants who had 254 people making sandwiches at the same time.

Making up your family’s favorite sandwiches is a great way to celebrate National Sandwich Day. Don’t have a favorite sandwich? Try one of ours!


The History Of American White Bread Is Anything But Bland

From a scapegoat for the "sapping" of the "white race," to a symbol of modern engineering, to a target of the counterculture movement: White bread's been a social lightning rod time and again. iStockphoto sakrij natpis

From a scapegoat for the "sapping" of the "white race," to a symbol of modern engineering, to a target of the counterculture movement: White bread's been a social lightning rod time and again.

Editor's note: Today is National Sandwich Day. To mark the occasion, we bring you this story from our archives. It was originally published in 2012.

White bread, like vanilla, is one of those foods that have become a metaphor for blandness. But it wasn't always that way.

Aaron Bobrow-Strain, an associate professor of food politics at Whitman College, tells Weekend Edition's Rachel Martin that white bread was a deeply contentious food — from the early 1900s ideas of "racial purity" up to the countercultural revolution of the 1960s. He documents that cultural legacy in his book, White Bread: A Social History of the Store-Bought Loaf.

White bread first became a social lightning rod with the Pure Foods movement of the late 1800s. Bobrow-Strain says well-meaning reformers were concerned about a host of legitimate food safety issues, and their activism led directly to many of today's food safety laws.

A Social History Of The Store-Bought Loaf

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But food purity ideals bled into the social realm in the form of what Bobrow-Strain calls "healthism" — the idea that "perfect bodily health was an outward manifestation of inward genetic fitness."

One proponent of healthism was Bernarr Macfadden, whom Bobrow-Strain calls "the original strong man food guru in a leopard-skin tunic." Macfadden believed that "white bread was sapping the vitality of the white race, threatening white racial superiority," Bobrow-Strain says.

In the 1920s, white bread became a symbol of industrialization and modernity, as companies like Tip Top and Wonder Bread brought factory automation to bread-making. The invention of sliced bread, allegedly in Chillicothe, Mo., in 1928, was "really the culmination of a long process in which bread was engineered and designed to look like a streamlined wonder, like an edible piece of modern art," Bobrow-Strain says.

At the same time, the '20s and '30s saw a backlash against white bread, and a revival of Macfadden's idea that whole wheat bread was imbued with moral as well as dietary fiber. And another wave of criticism came in the 1960s.

The counterculture movement "took up white bread as an emblem of everything that was wrong with America. It was plastic, corporate, stale," Bobrow-Strain says. Eating handmade, whole wheat bread became "an edible act of rebellion, a way of challenging The Man."

These days, of course, artisanal breads are a common sight at supermarkets. "We see bread going from a kind of manifestation of grass-roots food activism to being a high-end, niche product," Bobrow-Strain says.

The Salt

Earl Of Sandwich Blended Frappes Long Before Starbucks

Food reformers could learn a thing or two from these decades-long bread battles. Bobrow-Strain says focusing on individual food choices creates divisive in-groups and out-groups, defined by who makes the supposedly "right" food choices. And activists often overlook the root causes of problems in the food system.

Like, for instance, the economy. It's hard to pay twice as much for artisanal bread when you're strapped for cash.

And some foods are just better with white bread, he says, whether it's a simple grilled cheese or something fancier.

"I made a sandwich that had garlicky braised kale with Manchego cheese, a fried egg, and I did it on grilled Wonder Bread," Bobrow-Strain says. "It was fabulous."


Durham University’s Castle Theatre Company presents one of Shakespeare’s most charming comedies: All’s Well at Ends Well. A fairy-tale story of true love finding a way, featuring colourful characters and a hilarious sub-plot, this is the tale of a heroine who tries to secure her own happy ending.

Low-born Helena is madly in love with the noble Count Bertram, but he won’t take a second look at her. When she saves the King of France’s life, he oers Helena anything she desires in return – she asks for Bertram’s hand in marriage. Horrified, Bertram flees to fight in the war, and refuses to love Helena until she can take the ring from his finger. Meanwhile, Bertram’s boastful friend Parolles is tricked by his fellow soldiers, who have had enough of his behaviour. Can Helena fulfil Bertram’s demands and persuade him to love her after all?

For over three decades, Castle Theatre Company has taken its annual summer Shakespeare tour around the south of England and the USA, performing classic comedies on the lawns of stately homes, gardens and abbeys. Renowned for its high standard of performance, Castle Theatre Company promises fantastic entertainment for audiences of all ages. Bring a picnic and enjoy an afternoon of riotous Shakespearean fun!


Who Invented the Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich?

The Earl of Sandwich is credited with inventing the sandwich because he wanted to eat his meal with one hand during a 24-hour gambling event and instructed his servant to put his meat between two slices of bread. But what many may not know, is how an American classic sandwich&mdashthe iconic peanut butter and jelly sandwich&mdashcame to be. If the Earl of Sandwich invented the sandwich, who invented the PB&J?

The story begins with the three essentials parts of the PB&J&mdashpeanut butter, jelly and bread. First, let&rsquos start with the bread, which is, of course, an ancient food that has been around for tens of thousands of years.

The significance of the bread component in the PB&J sandwich is the invention of pre-sliced bread in the early 1900s. Otto Frederick Rohwedder invented a bread slicer but bakers were not interested because they thought no one would want their bread pre-sliced. Rohwedder kept refining his invention and changing things until it was ready to use in bakeries. He advertised the machine as &ldquothe greatest step forward in baking since bread was wrapped.&rdquo Later, the slogan evolved into &ldquothe greatest thing since sliced bread.&rdquo

Sliced bread proliferated. Soon people were looking for spreads to use with this newfound wonder food.

Next, let&rsquos look at jelly which is another food that has been around for a long time. In the case of the quintessential American PB&J sandwich, the most important person in this part of the story is a man named Paul Welch. In 1917, Welch secured a patent for pureeing grapes and turning them into jelly. He developed and advertised Grapelade (rhymes with marmalade) from Concord grapes&mdashthis was popular with America&rsquos troops in WWI. When soldiers came home after the war, it was popular to spread Grapelade on bread.

Finally, there&rsquos the peanut butter. Contrary to popular belief, peanut butter was not invented by Dr. George Washington Carver. But he is crediting with advancing the peanut crop in the South in the early 1900s and published his &ldquo300 Uses for Peanuts,&rdquo which included a peanut paste.

The forerunner of the peanut butter we know today was first brought to light sometime during the 1880s when a St. Louis physician, Dr. Ambrose Straub, made a peanut paste for geriatric patients who had trouble swallowing, or had bad teeth. Around the same time, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (same as the cereal) was the first to patent a process for manufacturing peanut butter. Peanut butter was first introduced at the 1893 Chicago World Fair. In 1904 Dr. Straub got a food company to develop the peanut spread and they took it to the St. Louis World Fair where it became so popular, grocery stores began ordering it.

Around the same time, peanut butter appeared in upscale tea rooms in New York City and was considered a delicacy. On the menu of Vanity Fair Tea Room was peanut butter with watercress. Other tea rooms featured peanut butter and pimento sandwich and peanut butter on toast triangles with soda crackers.

In 1901, the first peanut butter and jelly sandwich recipe appeared in the Boston Cooking School Magazine of Culinary Science and Domestic Economics written by Julia Davis Chandler. She said to use currant or crab-apple jelly and called the combination delicious and as far as she knew, original.

Still, the peanut butter and jelly sandwich was an exclusive food, and its popularity among the masses was yet to come. As Grapelade and pre-sliced bread became popular, another breakthrough happened with peanut butter&mdashcommercial brands found a way to create creamier peanut butter that didn&rsquot stick to the roof of the mouth so easily. And during the Great Depression of the 1930s, families discovered peanut butter provided a satisfying, high protein, less expensive meal.

But the major event that took the peanut butter and jelly sandwich over the top in popularity was WWII.

Peanut butter and jelly were on the U.S. Military ration menus in World War II. Peanut butter was a high-protein, shelf-stable ingredient and easily portable on long marches. Grapelade had already accompanied soldiers in the first world war and added a sweetness to the sandwich. With pre-sliced bread so easy to use, the natural inclination was to combine these three items, and before long the good ol&rsquo PB&J was a part of the American soldier&rsquos life.

When soldiers came home from the war, peanut butter and jelly sales soared. Kids loved it because it tastes great, parents loved how easy it was to make and how kids could make it themselves with pre-sliced bread. Many families and college students on a budget relied on PB&J.

So, the story of the peanut butter and jelly sandwich is the story of three essential ingredients all of which have been around for a long time, joining together to give us America&rsquos favorite and enduring sandwich.


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