Poljsko-osmanski rat, 1620-1621

Poljsko-osmanski rat, 1620-1621


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Poljsko-osmanski rat, 1620-1621

Poljsko-osmanski rat 1620.-21. Bio je prvi sukob između Poljske i Litve s Osmanskim Carstvom nakon devedeset godina. U tom su razdoblju napetosti duž granice podignute kozačkim napadima na osmansko područje, ali bez pokretanja rata. Napetost je dramatično porasla 1618-19. Godine 1618. Osman II je preuzeo vlast u Osmanskom Carstvu, sa samo 14 godina. Tražio je priliku za osvajanje vojne slave. Svoju priliku dobio je 1620. godine, kada se Gratiani, vladar Moldavije, pobunio protiv osmanske vlasti i zatražio pomoć Poljske.

Gratiani je obećao da će prikupiti vojsku od 25.000 ljudi za potporu poljsko-litvanskim. Kao odgovor, hetman Stanislas Zolkiewski poveo je vojsku od oko 8.000 ljudi južno u Moldaviju. Tamo su mu se pridružile malene moldavske snage, samo 600.

Kombiniranu vojsku napala je nešto veća osmanska vojska u blizini Cecora (ili Tutora). Prvi napad, 18. rujna (ponekad se naziva i bitka kod Jassyja), bio je odbijen, ali je došlo do borbe dok se poljsko-litvanska vojska pokušavala povući (od 29. rujna). Dana 6. listopada disciplina u poljsko-litvanskoj vojsci srušena. Vojska je uništena. Zolkiewski je ubijen, a njegova odsječena glava odnesena sultanu.

Poljaci su 1620. obnovili stanje. Mnogo veća vojska je podignuta i poslana na jug pod zapovjedništvom Hetmana Chodkiewicza. Ova je vojska imala možda 75.000 vojnika (uključujući 40.000 Kozaka), ali ju je i dalje nadmašila Osmanska vojska, kojom je sada osobno zapovijedao Osman II. Chodkiewicz je utvrdio svoj logor i pet se tjedana opirao svim osmanskim napadima. Konačno, krenuo je u protunapad koristeći poljske husare, izvojevavši manju pobjedu nad Osmanom (bitka kod Chocima).

Nakon Chocima, Osman II je pregovarao o mirovnom sporazumu. Poljaci su pristali obuzdati Kozake, Osman je obećao da će zaustaviti tatarske upade u Poljsku. Kratki rat imao je katastrofalne rezultate za oba borca. Gustav Adolf iz Švedske napao je Estoniju, iskoristivši nepostojanje poljsko-litvanske vojske na krajnjem jugu, osiguravajući kontrolu nad većim dijelom Livonije. 1622. Osman je svrgnut janjičarskom pobunom, a zamijenio ga je njegov ujak Mustafa, koji je gotovo odmah srušen u svoju korist u korist Murata IV.


Uvod [uredi | uredi izvor]

Zbog neuspjeha diplomatske misije Commonwealtha u Carigradu i kršenja Bussa ugovora s obje strane (budući da su Kozaci i Tatari nastavili s napadima preko granica), odnosi između Osmanlija i Commonwealtha brzo su se pogoršali početkom 1620. Obje su strane počele pripremali se za rat, jer nijedan od njih tada nije bio sasvim spreman za to. Osmanlije su planirale rat 1621. godine, dok je Sejm Commonwealtha uskratio većinu sredstava koja su hetmani tražili. Tajno vijeće Senata konačno je, uvjereno od predstavnika Habsburgovaca, 1620. pridonijelo snagama Commonwealtha - iako su mnogi članovi Sejma smatrali da poljske snage nisu niti dovoljne niti potpuno pripremljene. Hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski, koji je tada imao više od 70 godina (budući da politika Commonwealtha nije dopuštala mogućnost prisilnog odlaska iz vladinih ureda poput hetmanovog), predvidio je nadolazeći sukob s Osmanskim Carstvom i odlučio se sastati s osmanskim trupama na stranom tlu, Moldavija je očiti izbor. Β ]

Hetmani Zółkiewski i Koniecpolski poveli su vojsku u Țuțoru (Cecora u poljskim izvorima), komuna u okrugu Iaşi, Rumunjska), za borbu protiv Horda kana Temira (Kantymir). Vojska je brojala preko 9.000 (2.000 i#160 pješaka, ali gotovo bez kozačke konjice), a mnoge pukovnije činile su privatne snage magnata Koreckis, Zasławskis, Kazanowskis, Kalinowskis i Potockis. Vojska je ušla u Moldaviju u rujnu. Moldavski vladar, hospodar Gaspar Graziani, nominalno vazal Osmanskog Carstva, odlučio se pobuniti i podržati Commonwealth protiv Osmanlija. Graziani je ubio janjičare u Iaşiju, zatvorio izaslanike sultana Osmana  II (koji je naredio njegovo uklanjanje s vlasti i transport u Istanbul), a zatim se pripremio za bijeg, ali ga je Żółkiewski prisilio da svoje trupe priključi poljskom taboru. Međutim, mnogi moldavski bojari napustili su logor kako bi obranili svoja imanja od pljačke nediscipliniranih trupa magnata Commonwealtha, a drugi su odlučili pričekati i vidjeti kakav će ishod biti kako bi se mogli pridružiti pobjedničkoj strani. Posljedično, samo se 600-1000 pobunjeničkih moldavskih vojnika pojavilo u logoru Commonwealtha. Żółkiewski je naredio vojsci da krene prema utvrđenom logoru (koji je stajao iz prethodnih ratova) u Cecori.


Sadržaj

Bizantsko Carstvo Edit

Nakon što je 1356. godine zadao udarac oslabljenom Bizantskom Carstvu (ili 1358. - sporno zbog promjene bizantskog kalendara), (vidi Süleyman -pašu) koje mu je osiguralo Galipolje kao osnovu za operacije u Europi, Osmansko je Carstvo započelo svoje širenje na zapad prema europskom kontinentu sredinom 14. stoljeća.

Bugarsko Carstvo Edit

U drugoj polovici 14. stoljeća, Osmansko je Carstvo nastavilo napredovati na sjeveru i zapadu na Balkanu, potpuno podređujući Trakiju i veći dio Makedonije nakon bitke za Maricu 1371. Pala je Sofija 1382., a nakon nje glavni grad druge bugarske Carstvo Tarnovgrad 1393, i sjeverozapadni ostaci države nakon bitke kod Nicopolisa 1396.

Srpsko Carstvo Edit

Značajan protivnik Osmanlija, mlado srpsko carstvo, iscrpljeno je nizom kampanja, osobito u Kosovskoj bitci 1389., u kojoj su poginuli vođe obje vojske i koja je dobila središnju ulogu u srpskom folkloru kao epska bitka i kao početak kraja za srednjovjekovnu Srbiju. Veći dio Srbije pao je pod vlast Osmanlija do 1459. godine, Kraljevina Mađarska izvršila je djelomično ponovno osvajanje 1480. godine, ali je ponovno pala 1499. godine. Teritorije Srpskog Carstva podijeljene su između Osmanskog Carstva, Mletačke Republike i Kraljevine Mađarske, a preostali dio teritorije koje su bile u nekakvom vazalnom statusu prema Mađarskoj, sve do vlastitog osvajanja.

Poraz 1456. godine pod opsadom Nándorfehérvára (Beograd) zadržao je osmansko širenje u katoličku Europu 70 godina, iako je jednu godinu (1480. - 1481.) talijanska luka Otranto zauzeta, a 1493. osmanska vojska uspješno je napala Hrvatsku i Štajerska. [6]

Ratovi u Albaniji i Italiji Edit

Osmanlije su zauzele veći dio Albanije u bici kod Savre 1385. godine. Ležanska liga 1444. nakratko je obnovila jedan dio Albanije, sve dok Osmanlije nisu zauzele kompletno područje Albanije nakon zauzimanja Skadra 1479. i Drača 1501. godine.

Osmanlije su se suočile s najžešćim otporom Albanaca koji su se okupili oko njihovog vođe, Gjergja Kastriotija Skanderbega, sina feudalnog albanskog plemića, Gjona Kastriotija, koji se također borio protiv Osmanlija u albanskoj pobuni 1432–1436 koju je predvodio Gjergj Arianiti. Skanderbeg se uspio odbraniti od osmanskih napada više od 25 godina, što je kulminiralo opsadom Skadra 1478–79. Tvrdilo se da je otpornost Albanaca zaustavila osmansko napredovanje duž istočne strane zapadne civilizacije, spasivši talijanski poluotok od osmanskog osvajanja. U tom razdoblju postignute su mnoge albanske pobjede poput bitke za Torvioll, bitke kod Otonetë, opsade Krujë, bitke kod Pologa, bitke za Ohrid, bitke na Mokri, bitke kod Oranika 1456. i mnogih drugih bitaka, koje su kulminirale bitkom kod Albulene 1457. gdje je albanska vojska pod Skenderbegom odnijela odlučujuću pobjedu nad Osmanlijama. 1465. dogodio se Ballabanov pohod protiv Skanderbega. Njegov je cilj bio slomiti albanski otpor, ali nije bio uspješan i završio je albanskom pobjedom. Smrću Skanderbega 17. siječnja 1468. albanski je otpor počeo padati. Nakon Skanderbegove smrti, albanski otpor je vodio Lekë Dukagjini od 1468. do 1479. godine, ali nije imao isti uspjeh kao prije. Samo dvije godine nakon sloma albanskog otpora 1479. godine, sultan Mehmet II pokrenuo je talijansku kampanju, koja nije uspjela zahvaljujući kršćanskom povratku Otranta i sultanovoj smrti 1481. godine.

Osvajanje Bosne Edit

Osmansko je Carstvo prvi put stiglo u Bosnu 1388. godine, gdje su ih bosanske snage porazile u Bilećkoj bici, a zatim su bile prisiljene povući se. [7] Nakon pada Srbije 1389. bitke na Kosovu, gdje su Bosanci sudjelovali preko Vlatka Vukovića, Turci su započeli različite ofenzive protiv Kraljevine Bosne. Bosanci su se branili, ali bez velikog uspjeha. Bosanci su se snažno opirali u bosanskom kraljevskom dvorcu Jajce (opsada Jajca), gdje je posljednji bosanski kralj Stjepan Tomašević pokušao odbiti Turke. Osmanska vojska osvojila je Jajce nakon nekoliko mjeseci 1463. godine i pogubila posljednjeg kralja Bosne, čime je okončana srednjovjekovna Bosna. [8] [9] [b]

Kuća Kosača držala je Hercegovinu do 1482. godine. Osmanlijama je trebalo još četiri desetljeća da poraze mađarski garnizon na tvrđavi Jajce 1527. godine. Bihać i najzapadnija područja Bosne Osmanlije su konačno osvojile 1592. [8] [9]

Hrvatska Edit

Nakon pada Kraljevine Bosne u osmanske ruke 1463. južni i središnji dijelovi Kraljevine Hrvatske ostali su nezaštićeni, čija je obrana prepuštena hrvatskom plemstvu koje je o vlastitom trošku držalo manje postrojbe u utvrđenim pograničnim područjima. Osmanlije su u međuvremenu stigle do rijeke Neretve i, osvojivši Hercegovinu (Rama) 1482. godine, zadirale su u Hrvatsku, vješto izbjegavajući utvrđene pogranične gradove. Odlučna osmanska pobjeda u bitci na Krbavskom polju potresla je cijelu Hrvatsku. Međutim, to Hrvate nije odvratilo od upornih pokušaja obrane od napada nadmoćnijih osmanskih snaga. Nakon gotovo dvjesto godina hrvatskog otpora protiv Osmanskog Carstva, pobjeda u bitci kod Siska označila je kraj osmanske vladavine i Stogodišnji hrvatsko -osmanski rat. Vicekraljeva vojska, koja je 1595. ganjala ostatke u bijegu kod Petrinje, zapečatila je pobjedu.

Osvajanje središnjih dijelova Mađarskog kraljevstva Edit

Ugarsko kraljevstvo, koje se u to vrijeme protezalo od Hrvatske na zapadu do Transilvanije na istoku, također je bilo ozbiljno ugroženo osmanlijskim napretkom. Podrijetlo takvog pogoršanja može se pratiti do pada vladajuće dinastije Árpád i njihove naknadne zamjene s angevinskim i jagelonskim kraljevima. Nakon niza neuvjerljivih ratova tijekom 176 godina, kraljevstvo se konačno raspadalo u Mohačkoj bitci 1526. godine, nakon čega je većina ili osvojena ili dovedena pod osmanski suverenitet. (The 150 godina turske vladavine, kako ga zovu u Mađarskoj, trajao je do kraja 17. stoljeća, ali su dijelovi Ugarskog kraljevstva bili pod osmanskom vlašću od 1421. do 1718.)

Osvajanje Srbije Edit

Zbog velikih gubitaka koje su Osmanlije nanijele u bitci za Maricu 1371. godine, srpsko se carstvo raspustilo na nekoliko kneževina. U Kosovskoj bitci 1389. srpske su snage ponovno uništene. Kroz 15. i 16. stoljeće vodile su se stalne borbe između različitih srpskih kraljevstava i Osmanskog carstva. Prijelomni trenutak bio je pad Carigrada pod Turke. Godine 1459. nakon opsade pala je privremena srpska prijestolnica Smederevo. Zeta je preplavljena 1499. Beograd je bio posljednji veliki balkanski grad koji je izdržao osmanske snage. Srbi, Mađari i europski križari porazili su tursku vojsku u opsadi Beograda 1456. Nakon odbijanja osmanskih napada više od 70 godina, Beograd je konačno pao 1521. godine, zajedno s većim dijelom Ugarskog kraljevstva. Pobuna srpskog vojnog zapovjednika Jovana Nenada između 1526. i 1528. dovela je do proglašenja Drugog srpskog carstva u današnjoj srpskoj pokrajini Vojvodini, koja je bila među posljednjim srpskim teritorijima koja su se opirala Osmanlijama. Srpska despotovina pala je 1459. godine, čime je označeno dvostoljetno osmansko osvajanje srpskih kneževina.

1463–1503: Ratovi s Venecijom Edit

Ratovi s Mletačkom Republikom započeli su 1463. Povoljan mirovni ugovor potpisan je 1479. nakon dugotrajne opsade Skadra (1478–79). Godine 1480., koju sada više ne ometa mletačka flota, Osmanlije su opsjele Rodos i zauzele Otranto. [10] Rat s Venecijom nastavljen je od 1499. do 1503. Godine 1500. španjolsko -mletačka vojska pod zapovjedništvom Gonzala de Córdobe zauzela je Kefaloniju, privremeno zaustavivši osmanlijsku ofenzivu na istočnim venecijanskim teritorijima. Ofenziva je nastavljena nakon osmanske pobjede na Prevezi (1538.), borbe između osmanske flote kojom je zapovijedao Hayreddin Barbarossa i one kršćanskog saveza koji je okupio papa Pavao III.

1462–1483: Vlaški i moldavski pohodi Uredi

Godine 1462. Mehmeda II odvezao je vlaški knez Vlad III Drakula u noćnom napadu na Târgovište. Međutim, potonjeg je zatvorio ugarski kralj Matija Korvin. To je izazvalo bijes među mnogim utjecajnim mađarskim ličnostima i zapadnim štovateljima Vladinog uspjeha u bitci protiv Osmanskog Carstva (i njegovo rano prepoznavanje prijetnje koje mu je predstavljalo), uključujući i visoke članove Vatikana. Zbog toga mu je Matija dodijelio status uglednog zatvorenika. Na kraju, Drakula je oslobođen krajem 1475. i poslan je s vojskom mađarskih i srpskih vojnika da povrate Bosnu od Osmanlija. Tamo je prvi put porazio osmanske snage. Nakon ove pobjede, osmanske snage su 1476. ušle u Vlašku pod zapovjedništvom Mehmeda II. [ potrebno pojašnjenje ] Vlad je ubijen, a prema nekim izvorima njegova je glava poslana u Carigrad kako bi obeshrabrila ostale pobune. (Bosna je potpuno dodana osmanskim zemljama 1482.)

Tursko napredovanje privremeno je zaustavljeno nakon što je Moldavski Stjepan Veliki pobijedio vojske osmanskog sultana Mehmeda II u bitci kod Vasluja 1475., jednom od najvećih poraza Osmanskog Carstva do tada. Stjepan je sljedeće godine poražen kod Războienija (bitka kod Valea Albăa), ali Osmanlije su se morale povući nakon što nisu uspjele zauzeti neki značajniji dvorac (vidi opsadu citadele Neamț) jer se kuga počela širiti u osmanskoj vojsci. Stjepanova potraga za europskom pomoći protiv Turaka imala je malo uspjeha, iako je "poganu odsjekao desnu ruku", kako je to napisao u pismu.

1526–1566: Osvajanje Kraljevine Ugarske Urediti

Nakon osmanske pobjede u Mohačkoj bitci 1526. godine, osvojen je samo jugozapadni dio Ugarskog kraljevstva. [11] Osmanski pohod nastavio se između 1526. i 1556. malim kampanjama i velikim ljetnim invazijama - trupe bi se vratile južno od Balkanskih planina prije zime. 1529. izveli su prvi veliki napad na austrijsku Habsburšku Monarhiju pokušavajući osvojiti grad Beč (opsada Beča). Godine 1532. još je jedan napad na Beč sa 60 000 vojnika u glavnoj vojsci zaustavila mala utvrda (800 branitelja) Kőszeg u zapadnoj Mađarskoj, vodi samoubilačku bitku. [12] Okupatorske trupe zadržane su sve dok se zima nije približila, a Habsburško Carstvo okupilo je snage od 80.000 u Beču. Osmanske trupe vratile su se kući preko Štajerske, razbacujući zemlju.

U međuvremenu je 1538. godine Osmansko carstvo napalo Moldaviju. Godine 1541., još jedan pohod na Mađarsku zauzeo je Budim i Peštu (koji danas zajedno tvore mađarsku prijestolnicu Budimpeštu) s uglavnom beskrvnim trikom: nakon što su sporazumom zaključili mirovne pregovore, trupe su noću upale na otvorena vrata Budima. U znak odmazde za neuspjeli austrijski protunapad 1542. godine, osvajanje zapadne polovice središnje Ugarske dovršeno je u kampanji 1543. koja je zauzela i najvažniju kraljevsku bivšu prijestolnicu Székesfehérvár i bivše kardinalovo sjedište Esztergoma . Međutim, vojska od 35-40.000 ljudi nije bila dovoljna da Sulejman ponovno napadne Beč. Privremeno primirje potpisano je između Habsburškog i Osmanskog carstva 1547. godine, što su Habsburgovci ubrzo zanemarili.

U velikoj, ali umjereno uspješnoj kampanji 1552., dvije vojske zauzele su istočni dio središnje Mađarske, gurnuvši granice Osmanskog Carstva na drugu (unutarnju) liniju sjevera végvárs (granični dvorci), koje je Mađarska prvotno izgradila kao obranu od očekivane druge mongolske invazije - stoga su se kasnije granice na ovoj fronti malo promijenile. Za Mađare je kampanja 1552. bila niz tragičnih gubitaka i nekih herojskih (ali pirovih) pobjeda, koje su ušle u folklor - ponajviše pad Drégely (mala utvrda koju je do posljednjeg čovjeka branilo samo 146 ljudi, [13] i opsada Egera. Potonji je bio veliki végvár s više od 2000 ljudi, bez vanjske pomoći. Suočili su se s dvije osmanske vojske, koje iznenađujuće nisu mogle zauzeti dvorac u roku od pet tjedana. (Utvrda je kasnije zauzeta 1596.) Konačno, kampanja 1556. osigurala je osmanski utjecaj na Transilvaniju (koja je jedno vrijeme bila pod kontrolom Habsburgovaca), dok nije uspjela steći nikakvo uporište na zapadnom frontu, budući da je vezana u drugoj ( nakon 1555) neuspješna opsada jugozapadnog mađarskog graničnog dvorca Szigetvár.

Osmansko Carstvo je između 1566. i 1568. godine vodilo još jedan veliki rat protiv Habsburgovaca i njihovih mađarskih teritorija. Opsada Szigetvara 1566. godine, treća opsada u kojoj je utvrda konačno zauzeta, ali je ostarjeli sultan umro, odvrativši pritom te godine za Beč.

1522–1573: Rodos, Malta i Sveta liga Edit

Osmanske snage napale su i zauzele otok Rodos 1522. godine, nakon dva prethodna neuspjela pokušaja (vidi Opsada Rodosa (1522.)). [14] Vitezovi svetog Ivana protjerani su na Maltu, koja je zauzvrat opkoljena 1565. godine.

Nakon tri mjeseca opsade, osmanska vojska nije uspjela kontrolirati sve malteške utvrde. Odgađajući Osmanlije do loših vremenskih uvjeta i dolaska sicilijanskog pojačanja, osmanski zapovjednik Kızılahmedli Mustafa -paša napustio je opsadu. Oko 22.000 do 48.000 osmanskih vojnika protiv 6.000 do 8.500 malteških vojnika, Osmanlije nisu uspjeli osvojiti Maltu, pretrpjevši više od 25.000 gubitaka [15], uključujući jednog od najvećih muslimanskih korsairskih generala tog vremena, Draguta, pa su odbijeni. Da je Malta pala, Sicilija i kopnena Italija mogle bi pasti pod prijetnjom osmanske invazije. Pobjeda Malte tijekom ovog događaja, koji je danas poznat kao Velika opsada Malte, preokrenula je situaciju i dala Europi nade i motivaciju. Također je istaknuta važnost vitezova svetog Ivana i njihova relevantna prisutnost na Malti kako bi pomogli kršćanstvu u obrani od muslimanskog osvajanja.

Osmanske pomorske pobjede ovog razdoblja bile su u bitci na Prevezi (1538) i bitci kod Đerbe (1560).

Mediteranski pohod, koji je trajao od 1570. do 1573. godine, rezultirao je osmanskim osvajanjem Cipra. U tom razdoblju protiv Osmanskog Carstva formirana je Sveta liga Venecije, Papinske države, Španjolska, vitezovi svetog Ivana na Malti i u početku Portugal. Pobjeda Lige u bitci kod Lepanta (1571.) nakratko je zaustavila osmansku prevlast na moru.

1570–1571: Osvajanje Cipra Edit

U ljeto 1570. Turci su ponovno napali, ali ovaj put s opsežnom invazijom, a ne s napadom. Oko 60.000 vojnika, uključujući konjanike i topništvo, pod zapovjedništvom Lala Mustafa -paše, iskrcalo se 2. srpnja 1570. godine u blizini Limassola i opsjedalo Nikoziju. U orgiji pobjede na dan pada grada - 9. rujna, opljačkane su sve javne zgrade i palače. Glas o superiornom osmanskom broju se proširio, a nekoliko dana kasnije Mustafa je zauzeo Kyreniju bez potrebe da ispali hitac. Famagusta se, međutim, opirao i postavio obranu koja je trajala od rujna 1570. do kolovoza 1571. godine.

Pad Famagusta označio je početak osmanskog razdoblja na Cipru. Dva mjeseca kasnije, pomorske snage Svete lige, sastavljene uglavnom od mletačkih, španjolskih i papinskih brodova pod zapovjedništvom don Ivana Austrijskog, pobijedile su osmansku flotu u bitci kod Lepanta u jednoj od odlučujućih bitaka u svjetskoj povijesti. Pobjeda nad Turcima došla je prekasno da bi pomogla Cipru, a otok je ostao pod osmanskom vlašću sljedeća tri stoljeća.

Godine 1570. Osmansko je carstvo prvo osvojilo Cipar, a Lala Mustafa -paša postao je prvi osmanski guverner Cipra, osporavajući zahtjeve Venecije. Istodobno, Papa je stvorio koaliciju između Papinske države, Malte, Španjolske, Venecije i nekoliko drugih talijanskih država, bez pravog rezultata. Godine 1573. Mlečani su otišli, uklonivši utjecaj Rimokatoličke crkve.

1593–1669: Austrija, Venecija i Vlaška Edit

    (15-godišnji rat s Austrijom, 1593–1606) završava statusom quo. kampanja protiv Osmanskog Carstva (1593-1601)
  • Rat s Venecijom 1645–1669 i osvajanje Krete (vidi Kretski rat (1645–1669)). : neuspjeli osmanski pokušaj da porazi i napadne Austriju.

1620–1621: Poljska-Litva Edit

Ratovi su se vodili oko Moldavije. Poljska vojska napredovala je u Moldaviju i poražena je u bitci kod Ţuţore. Sljedeće godine Poljaci su odbili tursku invaziju u bitki kod Kotina. Drugi sukob započeo je 1633. godine, ali je ubrzo riješen.

1657–1683 Zaključak ratova s ​​Habsburgovcima Uredi

Transilvanija, istočni dio bivšeg Ugarskog kraljevstva, stekla je polunezavisnost 1526. godine, plaćajući danak Osmanskom Carstvu. Godine 1657. Transilvanija se osjećala dovoljno snažnom da napadne Tatare na istok (tada vazale Carstva), a kasnije i samo Osmansko carstvo, koje je stalo u obranu Tatara. Rat je trajao do 1662. godine, a završio je porazom Mađara. Zapadni dio Ugarskog kraljevstva (Partium) je pripojen i stavljen pod izravnu osmansku kontrolu. Istodobno je došlo do još jedne kampanje protiv Austrije između 1663. i 1664. Unatoč tome što je u bitci za Saint Gotthard 1. kolovoza 1664. poražen od strane Raimonda Montecuccolija, Osmanlije su osigurale priznanje svog osvajanja Novog Zámkyja u miru Vasvára s Austrijom. , označavajući najveći teritorijalni opseg osmanske vladavine u bivšem ugarskom kraljevstvu. [16]

1672–1676: Poljska-Litva Edit

Poljsko -osmanski rat (1672–1676) završio je Ugovorom iz Żurawna, u kojem je Poljsko -Litavska Zajednica prepustila kontrolu nad većinom svojih ukrajinskih teritorija carstvu.

1683–1699: Veliki turski rat - gubitak Ugarske i Moreje Edit

Veliki turski rat započeo je 1683., s velikom invazijskom silom od 140 000 ljudi [17] koja je krenula prema Beču, uz podršku protestantskih mađarskih plemića koji su se pobunili protiv vladavine Habsburga. Kako bi se zaustavila invazija, osnovana je još jedna Sveta liga, sastavljena od Austrije i Poljske (osobito u bitci za Beč), Mlečana i Ruskog Carstva, Otomansko je Carstvo dva mjeseca opsjedalo Beč. Bitka je označila prvi put da su Poljsko -litvanski Commonwealth i Sveto Rimsko Carstvo vojno surađivali protiv Osmanlija, a često se smatra i prekretnicom u povijesti, nakon koje su "Osmanski Turci prestali biti prijetnja kršćanskom svijetu" ". [18] [c] U ratu koji je trajao do 1699. godine Osmanlije su izgubile gotovo cijelu Mađarsku od cara Svetog Rima Leopolda I. [18]

Nakon pobjede u Bečkoj bitci, Sveta liga je preuzela prednost i ponovno osvojila Mađarsku (Budim i Pešta su ponovno zauzeti 1686. godine, bivši pod zapovjedništvom preobraćenika švicarskog porijekla na islam). U isto vrijeme Mlečani su pokrenuli ekspediciju u Grčku koja je osvojila Peloponez. Tijekom napada Venecije 1687. na grad Atenu (koju su osvojili Osmanlije), Osmanlije su pretvorile drevni Partenon u skladište streljiva. Venecijanski minobacač pogodio je Partenon, detonirajući osmanski barut uskladišten unutra, djelomično ga uništivši. [19] [20]

Rat je završio Karlovitskim ugovorom 1699. Princ Eugen Savojski prvi se istaknuo 1683. i ostao najvažniji austrijski zapovjednik do 1718. [21] [22]

18. stoljeće Edit

Drugi rusko-turski rat dogodio se 1710.-1711. Kod Pruta. Potaknuo ga je Švedski Karlo XII nakon poraza u bitki kod Poltave, kako bi povezao Rusiju s Osmanskim carstvom i stekao malo prostora za disanje u sve neuspješnijem Sjevernom ratu. Rusi su teško pretučeni, ali nisu uništeni, a nakon potpisivanja Prutskog ugovora Osmansko je Carstvo raskinuto, dopuštajući Rusiji da preusmjeri svoju energiju na poraz Švedske.

Osmansko-mletački rat započeo je 1714. Preklapao se s Austro-turskim ratom (1716–1718), u kojem je Austrija osvojila preostala područja bivšeg Ugarskog kraljevstva, završivši Ugovorom iz Passarowitza 1718. godine.

Još jedan rat s Rusijom započeo je 1735. Austrijanci su se pridružili 1737. rat je završio 1739. Beogradskim ugovorom (s Austrijom) i Niškim ugovorom (s Rusijom).

Četvrti rusko-turski rat počeo je 1768., a završio 1774. ugovorom iz Küçük Kaynarce.

Još jedan rat s Rusijom započeo je 1787. godine, a istodobni rat s Austrijom je uslijedio 1788. godine. Austrijski rat završio je Ugovorom iz Sistove iz 1791. godine, a ruski rat završio je u skladu s Ugovorom iz Jasrya iz 1792. godine.

Invazija Francuske Napoleona I. na Egipat i Siriju dogodila se 1798–99, ali je završila zbog britanske intervencije.

Napoleonovo zauzimanje Malte na putu za Egipat rezultiralo je neobičnim savezništvom Rusije i Osmanlija što je rezultiralo zajedničkom pomorskom ekspedicijom na Jonsko otočje. Njihovo uspješno zauzimanje ovih otoka dovelo je do uspostave Septinsular Republike.

19. stoljeće Edit

Prvi srpski ustanak dogodio se 1804. godine, nakon čega je uslijedio Drugi srpski ustanak 1815. Srbija je u potpunosti oslobođena do 1867. godine. Službeno priznata neovisnost uslijedila je 1878. godine.

Šesti rusko-turski rat počeo je 1806. i završio u svibnju 1812., samo 13 dana prije Napoleonove invazije na Rusiju.

Grčki rat za neovisnost, koji se odvijao od 1821. do 1832., u koji su od 1827. intervenirale velike sile, uključujući Rusiju (sedmi rusko-turski rat, 1828.-1829.), Postigao neovisnost Grčke, Adrianopoljskim ugovorom okončan je rat.

Pad Osmanskog Carstva uključivao je sljedeće sukobe.

Bosanske pobune 1831–1836, 1836–1837, 1841.

Albanske pobune 1820–1822, 1830–1835, 1847.

Rat s Crnom Gorom 1852–1853.

Osam rusko-turskih rata 1853–1856, Krimski rat, u kojem su se Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo i Francuska pridružile ratu na strani Osmanskog Carstva. Okončan Pariškim ugovorom.

Drugi rat s Crnom Gorom 1858–1859.

Rat s Crnom Gorom, Bosnom i Srbijom 1862.

Deveti i posljednji rusko-turski rat počeo je 1877., iste godine kada su se Osmanlije povukle s Carigradske konferencije. Rumunjska je tada proglasila neovisnost i ratovala s Turskom, pridružili su joj se i Srbi i Bugari i na kraju Rusi (vidi također Povijest Rusije (1855–92)). Austrija je okupirala Bosnu 1878. Rusi i Osmanlije potpisali su Sanstefanski ugovor početkom 1878. Nakon vijećanja na Berlinskom kongresu, na kojem su sudjelovale sve velike sile tog vremena, Berlinskim ugovorom (1878) priznato je nekoliko teritorijalne promjene.

Istočna Rumelija dobila je određenu autonomiju 1878., ali se potom pobunila i pridružila se Bugarskoj 1885. Tesala je ustupljena Grčkoj 1881., no nakon što je Grčka napala Osmansko carstvo kako bi pomogla Drugom kretskom ustanku 1897., Grčka je poražena u Tesaliji.


Rast i stagnacija (1453–1683) [uredi | uredi izvor]

Poraz 1456. godine pod opsadom Nándorfehérvára (Beograd) zadržao je osmansko širenje u katoličku Europu 70 godina, iako je jednu godinu (1480. - 1481.) talijanska luka Otranto zauzeta, a 1493. osmanska vojska uspješno je napala Hrvatsku i Štajerska. Ώ ]

Ratovi u Albaniji [uredi | uredi izvor]

Istovremene kampanje

Osmanlije su zauzele veći dio Albanije u bitci kod Savre 1385. godine. Ležanska liga 1444. nakratko je obnovila jedan dio Albanije, sve dok Osmanlije nisu zauzele kompletno područje Albanije nakon zauzimanja Skadra 1479. i Drača 1501. godine.

Osmanlije su se suočile s najžešćim otporom Albanaca koji su se okupili oko njihovog vođe, Georgea Castriota, sina feudalnog plemića, i uspjeli se braniti od osmanskih napada više od 25 godina, što je kulminiralo opsadom Skadra 1478.-79. Tvrdilo se da je otpornost Albanaca zaustavila osmansko napredovanje duž istočne strane zapadne civilizacije, spasivši talijanski poluotok od osmanskog osvajanja. Sultan Mehmet II umro je 1481. godine, samo dvije godine nakon sloma albanskog otpora i godinu dana nakon što je započeo talijansku kampanju.

Osvajanje Bosne [uredi | uredi izvor]

Osmansko carstvo je prvi put stiglo u Bosnu 1388. godine, gdje su ih bosanske snage porazile u bitci za Bileću, a zatim su bile prisiljene povući se. ΐ ] Nakon pada Srbije 1389. bitke na Kosovu, u kojoj su Bosanci sudjelovali preko Vlatka Vukovića, Turci su započeli razne ofenzive protiv Kraljevine Bosne. Bosanci su se branili, ali bez velikog uspjeha. Bosanci su se snažno opirali u bosanskom kraljevskom dvorcu Jajce, gdje je posljednji bosanski kralj Stjepan Tomašević pokušao odbiti Turke. Osmanska vojska ga je osvojila nakon nekoliko mjeseci opsade Jajca, 1463. godine, i pogubila posljednjeg kralja Bosne, čime je okončana srednjovjekovna Bosna.

Kuća Kosača držala je Hercegovinu do 1482. godine.

Hrvatska [uredi | uredi izvor]

Hrvatski kapetan Petar Kružić vodio je obranu tvrđave Klis od turske invazije i opsade koja je trajala više od dva i pol desetljeća. Tijekom ove obrane formirana je elitna hrvatska vojna frakcija Uskoci.

Nakon pada Kraljevine Bosne u osmanske ruke 1463. južni i središnji dijelovi Kraljevine Hrvatske ostali su nezaštićeni, čija je obrana prepuštena hrvatskom plemstvu koje je o vlastitom trošku držalo manje postrojbe u utvrđenim pograničnim područjima. Osmanlije su u međuvremenu stigli do rijeke Neretve i osvojivši Hercegovinu (Rama) 1482. godine, upali su u Hrvatsku, vješto izbjegavajući utvrđene pogranične gradove. Odlučna osmanska pobjeda u bitci na Krbavskom polju potresla je cijelu Hrvatsku. Međutim, to Hrvate nije odvratilo od upornih pokušaja obrane od napada nadmoćnijih osmanskih snaga. Nakon gotovo dvjesto godina hrvatskog otpora protiv Osmanskog Carstva, pobjeda u bitci kod Siska označila je kraj osmanske vladavine i Stogodišnji hrvatsko-osmanski rat. Vicekraljevska vojska, koja je 1595. ganjala ostatke u bijegu kod Petrinje, zapečatila je pobjedu.

Osvajanje središnjih dijelova Mađarskog kraljevstva [uredi | uredi izvor]


Ugarsko kraljevstvo, koje se u to vrijeme protezalo od Hrvatske na zapadu do Transilvanije na istoku, također je bilo ozbiljno ugroženo osmanlijskim napretkom. The origins of such a deterioration can be traced back to the fall of the Árpád ruling dynasty and their subsequent replacement with the Angevin and Jagiellonian kings. After a series of inconclusive wars over the course of 176 years, the kingdom finally crumbled in the Battle of Mohács of 1526, after which most of it was either conquered or brought under Ottoman suzerainty. (The 150-year Turkish Occupation, as it is called in Hungary, lasted until the late 17th century but parts of the Hungarian Kingdom were under Ottoman rule from 1421 and until 1718.)

Conquest of Serbia/ Vojvodina rebellion [ edit | uredi izvor]

As a result of heavy losses inflicted by the Ottomans in the Battle of Maritsa in 1371, the Serbian Empire had dissolved into several principalities. In the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, Serbian forces were again annihilated. Throughout the 15th and 16th centuries, constant struggles took place between various Serbian kingdoms on the one hand, and the Ottoman Empire on the other. The turning point was the fall of Constantinople to the Turks. In 1459 following the siege, the "temporary" Serbian capital of Smederevo fell. Montenegro was overrun by 1499. Belgrade was the last major Balkan city to endure Ottoman forces. Serbs, Hungarians and European crusaders defeated the Turkish army in the Siege of Belgrade in 1456. After repelling Ottoman attacks for over 70 years, Belgrade finally fell in 1521, along with the greater part of the Kingdom of Hungary. Vojvodina rebellion between 1526/28 saw the proclamation of Second Serbian Empire in Vojvodina, which was among last Serbian territories to resist the Ottomans. The Serbian Despotate fell in 1540, thus marking the two-century-long Ottoman conquest of Serbian principalities.

Ottoman advances resulted in some of the captive Christians being carried deep into Turkish territory.

1463–1503: Wars with Venice [ edit | uredi izvor]

The wars with the Republic of Venice began in 1463, until a favorable peace treaty was signed in 1479 after the lengthy siege of Shkodra (1478–79). In 1480, now no longer hampered by the Venetian fleet, the Ottomans besieged Rhodes and captured Otranto. Α] War with Venice resumed from 1499 to 1503. In 1500, a Spanish-Venetian army commanded by Gonzalo de Córdoba took Kefalonia, temporarily stopping the Ottoman offensive on eastern Venetian territories. Which is resumed after the Ottoman victory of Preveza, fought between an Ottoman fleet and that of a Christian alliance assembled by Pope Paul III in 1538.

1462–1483: Wallachian and Moldavian campaigns [ edit | uredi izvor]

In 1462, Mehmed II was driven back by Wallachian prince Vlad III Dracula at The Night Attack. However, the latter was imprisoned by Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus. This caused outrage among many influential Hungarian figures and Western admirers of Vlad's success in the battle against the Ottoman Empire (and his early recognition of the threat it posed), including high-ranking members of the Vatican. Because of this, Matthias granted him the status of distinguished prisoner. Eventually, Dracula was freed in late 1475 and was sent with an army of Hungarian and Serbian soldiers to recover Bosnia from the Ottomans. He defeated Ottoman Forces and he gained his first victory against the Ottoman Empire. Upon this victory, Ottoman Forces entered Wallachia in 1476 under the command of Mehmed II. [ Clarification needed ]

Ottoman soldiers in the territory of present-day Hungary

The Turkish advance was temporarily halted after Stephen the Great of Moldavia defeated the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II's armies at the Battle of Vaslui in 1475, which was one of the greatest defeats of the Ottoman empire until that time. Stephen was defeated at Războieni (Battle of Valea Albă) the next year, but the Ottomans had to retreat after they failed to take any significant castle (see siege of Cetatea Neamţului) as a plague started to spread in the Ottoman army. Stephen's search for European assistance against the Turks met with little success, even though he had "cut off the pagan's right hand" - as he put it in a letter.

In 1482, Bosnia was completely added to Ottoman Lands.

1526–1566: Attack on Hungarian Kingdom [ edit | uredi izvor]

After the Mohács, only the southwestern part of the Hungarian Kingdom was actually conquered, Β] but the Ottoman campaign continued with small campaigns and major summer invasions (troops returned south of the Balkan Mountains before winter) through the land between 1526 and 1556. In 1529, they mounted their first major attack on the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (with up to 300,000 troops in earlier accounts, 100,000 according to newer research), attempting to conquer the city of Vienna (Siege of Vienna). In 1532, another attack on Vienna with 60,000 troops in the main army was held up by the small fort (800 defenders) of Kőszeg in western Hungary, fighting a suicidal battle. Γ] The invading troops were held up until winter was close and the Habsburg Empire had assembled a force of 80,000 at Vienna. The Ottoman troops returned home through Styria, laying waste to the country.

In the meantime, in 1538, the Ottoman Empire invaded Moldavia. In 1541, another campaign in Hungary took Buda and Pest (which today together form the Hungarian capital Budapest) with a largely bloodless trick: after concluding peace talks with an agreement, troops stormed the open gates of Buda in the night. In retaliation for a failed Austrian counter-attack in 1542, the conquest of the western half of central Hungary was finished in the 1543 campaign that took both the most important royal ex-capital, Székesfehérvár, and the ex-seat of the cardinal, Esztergom. However, the army of 35–40,000 men was not enough for Suleiman to mount another attack on Vienna. A temporary truce was signed between the Habsburg and Ottoman Empires in 1547, which was soon disregarded by the Habsburgs.

The Ottoman campaign in Hungary in 1566, Crimean Tatars as vanguard

In the major but moderately successful campaign of 1552, two armies took the eastern part of central Hungary, pushing the borders of the Ottoman Empire to the second (inner) line of northern végvárs (border castles), which Hungary originally built as defence against an expected second Mongol invasion—hence, afterwards, borders on this front changed little. For Hungarians, the 1552 campaign was a series of tragic losses and some heroic (but pyrrhic) victories, which entered folklore—most notably the fall of Drégely (a small fort defended to the last man by just 146 men Δ] ), and the Siege of Eger. The latter was a major végvár with more than 2,000 men, without outside help. They faced two Ottoman armies (150,000 troops by earlier accounts, 60-75,000 men according to newer research), which were surprisingly unable to take the castle within five weeks. (The fort was later taken in 1596.) Finally, the 1556 campaign secured Ottoman influence over Transylvania (which had fallen under Habsburg control for a time), while failing to gain any ground on the western front, being tied down in the second (after 1555) unsuccessful siege of the southwestern Hungarian border castle of Szigetvár.

The Ottoman Empire conducted another major war against the Habsburgs and their Hungarian territories between 1566 and 1568. The 1566 Battle of Szigetvar, the third siege in which the fort was finally taken, but the aged Sultan died, deterring that year's push for Vienna.

1522–1573: Rhodes, Malta and the Holy League [ edit | uredi izvor]

Ottoman forces invaded and captured the island of Rhodes in 1522, after two previous failed attempts (see Siege of Rhodes). Ε] The Knights of Rhodes were banished to Malta, which was in turn besieged in 1565.

After a siege of three months, the Ottoman army failed to control all of the Maltese forts. Delaying the Ottomans until bad weather conditions and the arrival of Sicilian reinforcements, made Ottoman commander Kızılahmedli Mustafa Pasha quit the siege. Around 22000 to 48000 Ottoman forces against 6000 to 8500 Maltese forces, the Ottomans failed to conquer Malta, sustaining about 10000 losses, including one of the greatest Muslim corsair generals of the time, Dragut, and were repulsed. Had Malta fallen, Sicily and mainland Italy could have fallen under the threat of an Ottoman invasion. The victory of Malta during this event, which is nowadays known as the Great Siege of Malta, turned the tide and gave Europe hopes and motivation. It also marked the importance of the Knights of Saint John and their relevant presence in Malta to aid Christendom in its defence against the Muslim conquest.

The Ottoman naval victories of this period were in the Battle of Preveza (1538) and the Battle of Djerba (1560).

Battle of Lepanto on 7 October 1571

The Mediterranean campaign, which lasted from 1570 to 1573, resulted in the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus. A Holy League of Venice, the Papal States, Spain, the Knights of Saint John in Malta and initially Portugal was formed against the Ottoman Empire during this period. The League's victory in the Battle of Lepanto (1571) briefly ended Ottoman predominance at sea.

1570–1571: Conquest of Cyprus [ edit | uredi izvor]

In the summer of 1570, the Turks struck again, but this time with a full-scale invasion rather than a raid. About 60,000 troops, including cavalry and artillery, under the command of Lala Mustafa Pasha landed unopposed near Limassol on July 2, 1570, and laid siege to Nicosia. In an orgy of victory on the day that the city fell—September 9, every public building and palace was looted. Word of the superior Ottoman numbers spread, and a few days later Mustafa took Kyrenia without having to fire a shot. Famagusta, however, resisted and put up a defense that lasted from September 1570 until August 1571.

The fall of Famagusta marked the beginning of the Ottoman period in Cyprus. Two months later, the naval forces of the Holy League, composed mainly of Venetian, Spanish, and Papal ships under the command of Don John of Austria, defeated the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in one of the decisive battles of world history. The victory over the Turks, however, came too late to help Cyprus, and the island remained under Ottoman rule for the next three centuries.

In 1570, the Ottoman Empire first conquered Cyprus, and Lala Mustafa Pasha became the first Ottoman governor of Cyprus, challenging the claims of Venice. Simultaneously, the Pope formed a coalition between the Papal States, Malta, Spain, Venice and several other Italian states, with no real result. In 1573 the Venetians left, removing the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.

1593–1669: Austria, Venice and Wallachia [ edit | uredi izvor]

Turkish Empire, drawn by Hondius, just at the end of the Long War, 1606

    (15-Year War with Austria, 1593–1606) ends with status quo.
  • War with Venice 1645–1669 and the conquest of Crete (see Cretan War (1645–1669)). campaign against the Ottoman Empire (1593–1601)

1620-1621: Poland [ edit | uredi izvor]

Was fought over Moldavia. The Polish army advanced into Moldavia and was defeated in the Battle of Ţuţora. The Next year, the Poles repelled the Turkish invasion in the Battle of Khotyn. Another conflict started in 1633 but was soon settled.

1657–1683 Conclusion of Wars with Habsburgs [ edit | uredi izvor]

In 1657, Transylvania, the Eastern part of the former Hungarian Kingdom that after 1526 gained semi-independence while paying tribute to the Ottoman Empire, felt strong enough to attack the Tatars (then the Empire's vassals) to the East, and later the Ottoman Empire itself, that came to the Tatars' defence. The war lasted until 1662, ending in defeat for the Hungarians. The Western part of the Hungarian Kingdom (Partium) was annexed and placed under direct Ottoman control, marking the greatest territorial extent of Ottoman rule in the former Hungarian Kingdom. At the same time, there was another campaign against Austria between 1663 and 1664. However, the Turks were defeated in the Battle of Saint Gotthard on 1 August 1664 by Raimondo Montecuccoli, forcing them to enter the Peace of Vasvár with Austria, which held until 1683. Ζ]

Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683

1672–1676: Poland [ edit | uredi izvor]

A year after Poland beat back a Tatar invasion, war with Poland 1672–1676, Jan Sobieski distinguishes himself and becomes the King of Poland.

1683–1699: Great Turkish War – Loss of Hungary and the Morea [ edit | uredi izvor]

The Great Turkish War started in 1683, with a grand invasion force of 140,000 men Η] marching on Vienna, supported by Protestant Hungarian noblemen rebelling against Habsburg rule. To stop the invasion, another Holy League was formed, composed of Austria and Poland (notably in the Battle of Vienna), Venetians and the Russian Empire. After winning the Battle of Vienna, the Holy League gained the upper hand, and conducted the re-conquest of Hungary (Buda and Pest were retaken in 1686, the former under the command of a Swiss-born convert to Islam). At the same time, the Venetians launched an expedition into Greece, which conquered the Peloponnese. During the 1687 Venetian attack on the city of Athens (conquered by the Ottomans), the Ottomans turned the ancient Parthenon into an ammunitions storehouse. A Venetian mortar hit the Parthenon, detonating the Ottoman gunpowder stored inside and partially destroying it. ⎖]

The war ended with the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. Prince Eugene of Savoy first distinguished himself in 1683 and remained the most important Austrian commander until 1718. ⎗] ⎘]


First Religion War

There were of series of eight religious wars that ran for a total of thirty-six years in France (FPEB, 2008). These gruesome wars have split france into multiple of regions. As in the reformation, the wars were between the Catholics and the Protestants. One is fighting for religious control, which are the Catholics. While the other, Protestants are fighting for their religion acceptance. In my opinion, the first war that broke out, which started all eight wars in France is very important to cover. The reason why the first war is very important is because it showed and demonstrated how Catholics truly thought about Protestants and how they should be treated.

The first war began in 1562, with the Duke Francois de Guise massacring hundreds of Protestants on the first of March (FPEB). Duke Francois massacred innocent civilians while they were attending worship (FPEB). When the massacred happened, news spread rapidly in France. When word got to Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Conde, he was enranged with fury. He, himself a Protestant, gathered an army of Protestants and fought in Orleans (FPEB). Within one month, Louis de Bourdon and his Protestants gatherers captured Orleans with a victory on the second of April (Kingdom). However, when word got around that Louis de Bourbon and his troops of Protestants won and captured Orleans, war began to break loose all over the nation (Kingdom). Both Catholics and Protestants were starting to torture one another. Both Catholics and Protestants committed acts of savage and violence (Kingdom). The break out also also led for three superiors battle against one another Baron des Adrets in the Dauphine and in Provence, who are Protestants fighting against Blaise de Montluc in Guyenne who is Catholic (Kingdom).

As the war continued, during the battle of Dreux, “that opposed the troops of Conde and those of the High Constable of Montmorency, the royal troops had the advantage” (Major). In the battle of Orleans was a very important battle that determines who is going to win the war. As the war in Orleans continues to show signs of breakage, Duke de Guise sieged the land. (Major). The Protestants lost the capture of Orleans. Furious with their their loss, Poltron de Mere, one of the Amboise conspirators assassinated the Duke (Major). In the nineteenth of March “the Amboise Edict of pacification was negotiated by Conde and the High Constable of Montmorency” which ended the one year war and the first religious war.

Fondation Pasteur Eugene Bersier. The Eight Wars of Religion (1562-1598). Musee Virtuel Du Protestantisme Francais. 2008.Web. Febuary 2, 2014. <http://www.museeprotestant.org/Pages/Notices.php?scatid=3&noticeid=886&lev=1&Lget=EN>.

Kingdom, Robert M. Geneva and the Coming of the Wars of Religion in France, 1555-1563 . Renaissance News, Vol. 10, No. 3 (Autumn, 1957) The Univeristy of Chicago Press. pp. 152-154.

Major, Russell. J. Nobel Income, Inflation, and the Wars of Religion in France. The American Historical Review, Vol. 86, No. 1 (Feb., 1981). Oxford University Press. pp. 21-48.


Challenge/What If: Thirty Years’ War, Great Polish Deluge, and Great Turkish War All Happened At Once

Well, in the scenario I proposed the invasion is made mostly by the Crimeans allied with the rebellious Cossacks. You can add some Ottoman help but for the significant difference elsewhere the main Ottoman force has to go to Austria, preferably not concentrating on taking Vienna.

As for Russia and Sweden, I’m not sure that GA would be able to implement an earlier Deluge schema because Swedish advantage at the field was not yet big enough. Tsardom’s chances of accomplishing successful fighting on the later scale were not good: while the Poles were stronger than in 1650s, Tsardom’s military system was much weaker in pretty much each and every aspect. In 1654 Smolensk capitulated within two months and it was just one of the going on operations. In 1632-34 capture of Smolensk was the main goal of a war, it lasted more than a year and ultimately ended with a catastrophe (in 1632-34 Russia could field under 24,000 while the PLC deployed 30-35,000 in 1654 Russia invaded with 70,000 not counting allied Cossacks).

So, short of some substantial differences from OTL, the Deluge is unlikely.

Alexmilman

TickTock The Witch's Dead

Well, in the scenario I proposed the invasion is made mostly by the Crimeans allied with the rebellious Cossacks. You can add some Ottoman help but for the significant difference elsewhere the main Ottoman force has to go to Austria, preferably not concentrating on taking Vienna.

As for Russia and Sweden, I’m not sure that GA would be able to implement an earlier Deluge schema because Swedish advantage at the field was not yet big enough. Tsardom’s chances of accomplishing successful fighting on the later scale were not good: while the Poles were stronger than in 1650s, Tsardom’s military system was much weaker in pretty much each and every aspect. In 1654 Smolensk capitulated within two months and it was just one of the going on operations. In 1632-34 capture of Smolensk was the main goal of a war, it lasted more than a year and ultimately ended with a catastrophe (in 1632-34 Russia could field under 24,000 while the PLC deployed 30-35,000 in 1654 Russia invaded with 70,000 not counting allied Cossacks).

So, short of some substantial differences from OTL, the Deluge is unlikely.

Gloss

I am not so sure about that. In the Netherlands there was a saying in these days: Rather Turkish than Popish. They prefered to be ruled by the Turks than by Catholics. Personaly I think the protestants would let the Austrians and others fight, while they strngthen their position and kick the Catholics out.

This is of course assuming the Catholics would see the Ottomans as the major threat. There is a chance they see protestants as the bigger one.

Alexmilman

Thirty Years' War - Wikipedia

Pompejus

Da i ne. I don't think they would have liked being ruled by the Ottomans, but I don't think they cared if the Ottomans conquered Vienna, nor they would not have cared if they would be ruled by either the Ottomans or (in the case of the Netherlands) the Spanish. Actualy I would go so far as to say they would have prefered the Ottomans over the Spanish, since the Ottomans generaly allowed protestants to be protestants, while the Spanish did not.

Basicly I believe the protestants would not prefer catholicism over islam. Or prefer a catholic overlord over an Ottoman overlord. Although in both cases freedom over both catholicism and islam would be preferable.

TickTock The Witch's Dead

Thirty Years' War - Wikipedia

JanWellem

Da i ne. I don't think they would have liked being ruled by the Ottomans, but I don't think they cared if the Ottomans conquered Vienna, nor they would not have cared if they would be ruled by either the Ottomans or (in the case of the Netherlands) the Spanish. Actualy I would go so far as to say they would have prefered the Ottomans over the Spanish, since the Ottomans generaly allowed protestants to be protestants, while the Spanish did not.

Basicly I believe the protestants would not prefer catholicism over islam. Or prefer a catholic overlord over an Ottoman overlord. Although in both cases freedom over both catholicism and islam would be preferable.

Alexmilman

The Ottomans could be successful at Chocim: if you want to be close to Deluge scenario, Sagaidachni (who decides “to play Khmelnitsky”) with the Cossacks turns against the Poles and their position becomes a death trap. The Ottomans are capturing Podolia and the PLC is losing Left Bank Ukraine to the Cossacks. Tsardom uses an opportunity to grab some territory as well and GA occupies Courland and Warmia. Would this satisfy you?

TickTock The Witch's Dead

The Ottomans could be successful at Chocim: if you want to be close to Deluge scenario, Sagaidachni (who decides “to play Khmelnitsky”) with the Cossacks turns against the Poles and their position becomes a death trap. The Ottomans are capturing Podolia and the PLC is losing Left Bank Ukraine to the Cossacks. Tsardom uses an opportunity to grab some territory as well and GA occupies Courland and Warmia. Would this satisfy you?

And then the Hasbburgs intervene for the PLC because the Ottomans expanding is bad news bears for them. And then the Protestants rebel during this time. And everything goes to hell.

Alexmilman

And then the Hasbburgs intervene for the PLC because the Ottomans expanding is bad news bears for them. And then the Protestants rebel during this time. And everything goes to hell.

The Hapsburgs did intervene against the Swedes but the Poles refused to pay von Arnim and his troops so .

TickTock The Witch's Dead

The Hapsburgs did intervene against the Swedes but the Poles refused to pay von Arnim and his troops so .

Alexmilman

The Hapsburgs may not mind but the troops sent to the PLC definitely would, as in OTL. Not that the Hapsburgs had too many extra troops available at the time of Chosim (1621).

BTW, I still can’t figure out whom do you want to screw up in your scenario and at which time.

The Austrian Hapsburgs had been saved on the initial stage of the 30YW because the Ottomans went against the PLC in 1620-21. On that stage the Austrian Hapsburgs did not have lacking the troops to spare but even the troops to defend themselves: to win at White Mountain they needed help from both Catholic League and Spain. Creation of the Hapsburg army was started by Wallenstein only in 1625. Hapsburg help to the PLC happened years later, in 1629.

Can you formulate your time table clearly?

TickTock The Witch's Dead

The Hapsburgs may not mind but the troops sent to the PLC definitely would, as in OTL. Not that the Hapsburgs had too many extra troops available at the time of Chosim (1621).

BTW, I still can’t figure out whom do you want to screw up in your scenario and at which time.

The Austrian Hapsburgs had been saved on the initial stage of the 30YW because the Ottomans went against the PLC in 1620-21. On that stage the Austrian Hapsburgs did not have lacking the troops to spare but even the troops to defend themselves: to win at White Mountain they needed help from both Catholic League and Spain. Creation of the Hapsburg army was started by Wallenstein only in 1625. Hapsburg help to the PLC happened years later, in 1629.

Can you formulate your time table clearly?

My POD would be that the Ottomans beat the Safavids earlier around the early 1600s. So with the Safavids knocked out for a while, the Ottomans are able to focus on the PLC. The Habsburgs launch their crusade in response and Russia and Sweden also invade for territory.

And basically the Habsburgs are active long enough for the Protestant rebellions to occur, and the Ottomans invade the Habsburg possessions, causing the conflict to drag on longer. In response Spain and other Catholic nations (batting France) fight the Ottomans and Protestants. And that’s my vision in how everything in Europe goes to hell.

Alexmilman

My POD would be that the Ottomans beat the Safavids earlier around the early 1600s. So with the Safavids knocked out for a while, the Ottomans are able to focus on the PLC. The Habsburgs launch their crusade in response and Russia and Sweden also invade for territory.

And basically the Habsburgs are active long enough for the Protestant rebellions to occur, and the Ottomans invade the Habsburg possessions, causing the conflict to drag on longer. In response Spain and other Catholic nations (batting France) fight the Ottomans and Protestants. And that’s my vision in how everything in Europe goes to hell.

Intention to create an even greater bloody mess than in OTL is, of course, laudable ( ) but there can be scheduling problems .

1. Russia can't start war prior to the 1630s and even this is on the optimistic side (unless the events are borrowed from the books series "Adventures of John, the Duke of Mecklenburg" ) and even then scope of its operations more or less limited to the retaking of Smolensk and adjacent region. It simply does not have enough time and money after the ToT. Earlier time table excludes them from your TL. Which means that if you insist on Russian participation :
1.1. Swedish-Polish Wars had been prolonged by few years (in OTL ended in 1629) delaying Swedish ability to enter the 30YW.
1.2. The Ottomans have to delay their invasion of the PLC by at least a decade (in OTL happened in 1620).

2. If #1 is abandoned and the Ottomans are invading the PLC on schedule (a greater success is realistic), then there is no Hapsburg crusade. The Austrian Hapsburgs do not have army and money and nobody in the HRE gives a damn about the Ottoman invasion of Poland. Things in Germany are happening on OTL schedule and the only meaningful thing you can do is to eliminate Wallenstein as a "strategic factor" leaving the Austrian Hapsburgs to deal with the HRE mess without their own army and depending mostly upon the Catholic League and what the Spanish Hapsburgs can spare them from their war with the Dutch. The Danes are most probably defeated anyway but the mess is greater.

Basically, you can reasonably easy screw either Austrian Hapsburgs or the PLC but screwing both simultaneously is problematic.

TickTock The Witch's Dead

Intention to create an even greater bloody mess than in OTL is, of course, laudable ( ) but there can be scheduling problems .

1. Russia can't start war prior to the 1630s and even this is on the optimistic side (unless the events are borrowed from the books series "Adventures of John, the Duke of Mecklenburg" ) and even then scope of its operations more or less limited to the retaking of Smolensk and adjacent region. It simply does not have enough time and money after the ToT. Earlier time table excludes them from your TL. Which means that if you insist on Russian participation :
1.1. Swedish-Polish Wars had been prolonged by few years (in OTL ended in 1629) delaying Swedish ability to enter the 30YW.
1.2. The Ottomans have to delay their invasion of the PLC by at least a decade (in OTL happened in 1620).

2. If #1 is abandoned and the Ottomans are invading the PLC on schedule (a greater success is realistic), then there is no Hapsburg crusade. The Austrian Hapsburgs do not have army and money and nobody in the HRE gives a damn about the Ottoman invasion of Poland. Things in Germany are happening on OTL schedule and the only meaningful thing you can do is to eliminate Wallenstein as a "strategic factor" leaving the Austrian Hapsburgs to deal with the HRE mess without their own army and depending mostly upon the Catholic League and what the Spanish Hapsburgs can spare them from their war with the Dutch. The Danes are most probably defeated anyway but the mess is greater.

Basically, you can reasonably easy screw either Austrian Hapsburgs or the PLC but screwing both simultaneously is problematic.


Sadržaj

Abaza Mehmed Paşa, a former Abkhazian slave, was a major Ottoman official who was appointed Beylerbey of the Ottoman Greater Silistria Province in 1632 , which included parts of what is now Bulgaria , Romania and the Ukraine . After the death of the Polish King Sigismund III. Wasa , the Russian Tsar Michael I broke the armistice of Deulino and started a war against Poland-Lithuania, the Russo-Polish War 1632–1634 . At the request of the tsar, Abaza mobilized Turkish troops from Silistria, which he reinforced with further vassals of the Sublime Porte , the Moldovans , Wallachians and the horde of Nogai Tatars from the Jedisan and Budschak . At that time, Sultan Murad IV did not want to risk an open war of the Ottoman Empire against Poland-Lithuania , as he saw threats more in the Asian half of his empire. It is possible that some members of the Sublime Porte authorized the Beylerbey's action, but there is no evidence of this.


Polish-Ottoman War, 1620-1621 - History

Bohemia, as previously written, did not want Ferdinand as their next king. They wanted the Protestant, Calvinist Frederick V of Palatine. However, Matthias, the Emperor overlooked this, and made plans for Ferdinand’s accession to the throne both in Bohemia and the Holy Roman Empire. Upon Matthias’ death in 1619, Ferdinand was to be coroneted King and Emperor. Bohemia, already in open revolt made plans to secure allies against the ensuing Catholic invasion. Ferdinand, also began to secure allies, as he was not yet in the position to fight. These two actions made what could or should have been a short war involving only a few regions, into a large war involving most of Europe, and even European Colonial Empires.

Bohemia sought admission into the Protestant Union coincidentally led by Frederick V, their choice to be King. Bohemian leaders sent messages promising the throne in exchange for assistance. However, problems soon surfaced, as other Bohemian leaders promised the same throne to the Duke of Savoy and the Prince of Transylvania. Catholic Austrians intercepted the lying letters, and publicized them extensively, thus destroying early Bohemian support. The remaining Bohemian allies were consolidated into an army under Count Jindrich Thurn.

Count Thurn moved quickly. He invaded into Catholic controlled lands, and laid siege to Vienna in 1619. Thurn was under the impression that chaos was the order in Vienna, so he did not use siege technology against Vienna. While Vienna was under siege, allies in the east took to the offensive. Bethlen Gabor, the Transylvanian Prince and the Ottoman Turk Emperor Osman II created an alliance, which was to bring a large force into Catholic Poland. The Polish-Ottoman region of the War exploded in 1620. The Ottoman Turks were victorious, effectively taking Polish support away from the Holy Roman Empire in 1620, yet it was too late. Bohemian armies were defeated at the Battle of White Mountain a few months after Ottoman successes. The Ottomans returned home not being a major factor during the latter phases of the war.

Count Thurn, still outside of Vienna, was now threatened. He lost communication and supply lines, as Catholic armies were victorious at Sablat. The siege was broken, and the Bohemians needed to regroup, which they did under Thurn and Count Mansfield. With reorganization, the Bohemians allied themselves with Upper and Lower Austria, who were also in revolt. This alliance effectively deposed Ferdinand as King of Bohemia in 1619. These occurrences brought the Spanish Habsburgs into the war beginning in 1621.

First, Spain sent Ambrosio Spinola to Vienna with an army. Spain also convinced the once Bohemian ally, Protestant Saxony to fight on the Catholic side. In return, Saxony was to be awarded Lusatia, one of the rebelling Bohemian regions. With forces in place, the Spanish led army invaded successfully throughout northern and western Bohemia. Spanish forces quelled the rebellion in Upper Austria, as Ferdinand’s army ended conflict in Lower Austria. Their rear now protected, both armies met and moved further into Bohemia. Frederick V’s army was pinned down at the aforementioned, decisive Battle of White Mountain. Bohemian forces were defeated, with many, such as Thurn and Mansfield, fleeing to fight another day. Frederick was outlawed in the Holy Roman Empire, and all of his land holdings were distributed to Catholic nobility. Indefatigable, Frederick survived outside of the Holy Roman Empire, raising support in Scandinavia and the Low Countries for the Protestant cause.

Remaining Protestant support fled toward The Netherlands. Count Mansfield and Duke Christian of Brunswick could not remain together as an effective military force. Mansfield was paid off by the Dutch to remain in East Friesland. Duke Christian returned to fight in Saxony, where the Catholic military genius, Count Tilly soundly destroyed Christian’s army at Stadtholn. With this news, King James I of England, also father-in-law to Frederick V, convinced Frederick to forget his involvement in the war. Protestants were defeated, and Catholics were posturing, thus frightening other non-belligerent nations by 1625.


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