Mott, Lucretia - Povijest

Mott, Lucretia - Povijest

Društveni reformator lijesa

(1793-1880)

Lucretia Coffin rođena je 3. siječnja 1793. u Nantucketu u Massachusettsu. Upisala je 1806. Internatsku školu Nine Partners, akademiju Quaker u blizini Poughkeepsieja u New Yorku; i nakon dvije godine studija, počeo tamo predavati.

1811. udala se za Jamesa Motta, kolegu učitelja iz škole. Oko 1818. počela je govoriti na sastancima kvekera, s takvim žarom, da je odmah prihvaćena kao ministrica Društva prijatelja.

S velikim kvakerskim raskolom 1827., nevoljko je stala na stranu liberala Eliasa Hicksa, a nakon toga je ostala zagovornica intelektualne slobode i praktične pravednosti. 1833. sudjelovala je u osnivanju Američkog društva protiv ropstva i vodila u organiziranju Philadelphijskog društva protiv ropstva.

Iako je bila jedna od tri izvorna člana izvršnog odbora Američkog društva protiv ropstva, odbijeno joj je mjesto delegata na svjetskoj konvenciji protiv ropstva 1840. u Londonu. Ona je reagirala na ovu spolnu diskriminaciju, pridruživši se Elizabeth Cady Stanton kako bi organizirala prvu konvenciju o ženskim pravima u Seneca Falls, New York (1848).

Zatim, nakon što je 1850. usvojen Zakon o odbjeglim robovima, ona i njezin suprug otvorili su svoj dom odbjeglim robovima. A kad je počeo građanski rat, gospođa Mott je naporno radila na podršci Uniji, unatoč svom pacifizmu.

U svojim kasnijim godinama nastavila je raditi za liberalne vjerske ciljeve, umjerenost, ženska prava i mir u svijetu. Umrla je 11. studenog 1880. godine u svom domu izvan Philadelphije.


Lucretia Mott

Lucretia Coffin Mott bila je kvekerska ministrica i reformator devetnaestog stoljeća. Poznata je po svom radu na moralnoj reformi uključujući umjerenost i ukidanje. Najpoznatija je, međutim, po svom radu u Pokretu za prava žena svojih dana, a posebno po svom radu na organizaciji prve Konvencije o pravima žena u državi New York 1848. godine.

Lucretia Coffin rođena je 1793. godine na otoku Nantucket Massachusetts, a njezini su roditelji bili plemićki kvekeri. Rano je bila impresionirana aktivnom ulogom svoje majke u zajednici i crkvenoj zajednici, odnosno Društvu kako su ga nazivali kvekeri, kojem pripadaju. Kvekeri su u pravilu vjerovali u jednakost svih ljudi, bez obzira na rasu ili spol, što ih je učinilo vrlo aktivnima u moralnoj reformi, uključujući ukidanje i ženska prava. Obitelj Mott preselila se u Boston 1804. godine, a Lucretia je poslana u internat u Quakeru u Poughkeepsieju u New Yorku. Lucretia je bila dobro obrazovana i nastavila je učiti u istoj školi sa petnaest godina.

1809. preselila se u Philadelphiju sa svojom obitelji gdje se udala za Jamesa Motta, kolegu učitelja u školi Poughkeepsie koji se nedavno pridružio njezinoj očevskoj hardverskoj tvrtki. Bili su to dobar spoj, a o njihovom braku se govori kao o jednom od najsavršenijih koje je svijet ikada vidio.

1821. Lucretia je postala kvekerska ministrica, poznata po svojim intelektualnim sposobnostima, slatkoći raspoloženja i sposobnosti govora. 1827. ona i

James je promijenio svoju vjersku pripadnost Hicksite kvekerima, liberalnijoj podružnici Društva prijatelja i duboko se uključio u abolicionistički pokret. Ubrzo je postala poznata po svojim uvjerljivim govorima protiv ropstva. Poput mnogih hiksita, odbila je koristiti pamučnu tkaninu, šećer od trske i druge proizvode koje su proizvodili robovi. 1833. Lucretia je pomogla u osnivanju Američkog društva protiv ropstva i Ženskog društva protiv ropstva u Philadelphiji. Godine 1937. pomogla je u organizaciji Konvencije američkih žena protiv ropstva. Uz podršku svog supruga, Mottovi su često sklanjali odbjegle robove. Dok je bila aktivna u svojoj ulozi ministra i u cilju ukidanja, uvijek je prvo bila supruga, majka i domaćica.

Godine 1840. Lucretia je poslana s drugim ženama kao delegatkinje na Svjetsku konvenciju protiv ropstva u Londonu. Muškarci koji su bili zaduženi za sastanak, međutim, protivili su se govoru i djelovanju žena i odbili su sjediti delegatkinje. Bio je to bijes Lukrecije i drugih žena. Ovdje je, dok je sjedila u odjeljku za odvojene žene na tim sastancima, upoznala Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a njihovi razgovori na ovom sastanku često se pripisuju kao poticaji za prvu Konvenciju o pravima žena koja će se održati osam godina kasnije (Adelman, Poznate žene, str. 167).

1848. Mott i Stanton nazvali su prvu konvenciju o pravima žena u Seneca Falls, NY, gdje je živjela Elizabeth. Tu je rođen Pokret za prava žena. Nakon ove prve konvencije, Lucretia se sve više posvećivala ženskim pravima i počela se široko zalagati za to.

Lucretia Mott bila je društvena reformatorka i filantrop. Bila je to žena skromnosti i hrabrosti, nježnosti i sile, oštrog intelekta i velikog srca. Radila je tiho, ali moćno za Boga i čovječanstvo.


Sadržaj

Lucretia Coffin rođena je 3. siječnja 1793. [1] u Nantucketu, Massachusetts, drugo dijete Ane Folger i Thomasa Coffina. [2] Preko svoje majke, bila je potomka Petera Folgera [3] i Mary Morrell Folger, prvih doseljenika kolonije. [4] Njezin rođak bio je Benjamin Franklin, jedan od ustavotvorca, dok su ostali Folgerovi rođaci bili torijevci, oni koji su ostali vjerni britanskoj kruni tijekom američke revolucije. [5]

Poslana je s 13 godina u školu Nine Partners, smještenu u okrugu Dutchess u New Yorku, koju je vodilo Društvo prijatelja (kvekeri). [6] Tamo je nakon studija postala učiteljica. Njezin interes za ženska prava počeo je kada je otkrila da su učitelji u školi plaćeni znatno više od ženskog osoblja. [7] Nakon što se njezina obitelj preselila u Philadelphiju, slijedili su ona i James Mott, drugi učitelj u Nine Partners. [8]

Rani napori protiv ropstva Edit

Kao i većina kvakera, Mott je smatrao ropstvo zlom. Djelomično inspirirana ministrom Eliasom Hicksom, ona i drugi kvekeri odbili su koristiti pamučnu tkaninu, šećer od trske i drugu robu ropstva. 1821. Mott je postao kvekerski ministar. Uz potporu svog supruga, mnogo je putovala kao ministrantica, a njezine su propovijedi naglašavale unutarnje svjetlo kvekera ili prisutnost Božanskog u svakom pojedincu. Njezine propovijedi također su uključivale njezine besplatne proizvode i osjećaje protiv ropstva. 1833. njezin je suprug pomogao u osnivanju Američkog društva protiv ropstva. Do tada iskusna ministrica i abolicionistica, Lucretia Mott bila je jedina žena koja je govorila na organizacijskom sastanku u Philadelphiji. Testirala je jezik Ustava društva i pojačala podršku kada su mnogi delegati bili nesigurni. Nekoliko dana nakon zaključenja konvencije, na poticaj drugih delegata, Mott i druge bijele i crne žene osnovale su žensko društvo protiv ropstva u Philadelphiji. Integrirana od svog osnivanja, organizacija se suprotstavljala i ropstvu i rasizmu, te razvila bliske veze s Philadelphijskom crnom zajednicom. Mott je često propovijedala po crnačkim župama. Otprilike u to vrijeme Mottova šogorica Abigail Lydia Mott i šogor Lindley Murray Moore pomagali su u osnivanju Rochester Anti-Slavery Society (vidi Julia Griffiths).

Usred društvenog progona protivnika ukidanja i boli zbog dispepsije, Mott je nastavila raditi za abolicionističku stvar. Upravljala je kućnim proračunom kako bi gostima pružila gostoprimstvo, uključujući odbjegle robove, i donirala u dobrotvorne svrhe. Mott je hvaljen zbog svoje sposobnosti da održava svoje kućanstvo dok je doprinosila cilju. Prema riječima jednog urednika, "Ona je dokaz da je moguće da žena proširi svoju sferu, a da je ne napusti". [9] Mott i druge aktivistice također su organizirale sajmove protiv ropstva radi podizanja svijesti i prihoda, osiguravajući velik dio financiranja pokreta. [10]

Sudjelovanje žena u pokretu protiv ropstva ugrozilo je društvene norme. [ potreban je citat ] Mnogi pripadnici abolicionističkog pokreta protivili su se javnim aktivnostima žena, osobito javnom govoru. Na Općoj skupštini Kongregacijske crkve izaslanici su se složili oko pastoralnog pisma u kojem su žene bile upozorene da je izlaganje izravno prkosilo uputama svetog Pavla da žene šute u crkvi. (1. Timoteju 2:12) Drugi ljudi su se protivili tome da žene govore mješovitom mnoštvu muškaraca i žena. , koju su nazvali "promiskuitetna". Drugi nisu bili sigurni što je ispravno, budući da je sve veća popularnost sestara Grimké i drugih govornica privukla podršku za ukidanje.

Mott je prisustvovao na sve tri nacionalne konvencije američkih žena protiv ropstva (1837, 1838, 1839). Tijekom konvencije 1838. u Philadelphiji, rulja je uništila Pennsylvania Hall, novootvoreno mjesto okupljanja koje su izgradili abolicionisti. Mott i bijele i crne delegatkinje spojile su ruke kako bi kroz gomilu izašli iz zgrade. Nakon toga, rulja je ciljala njezine kuće i crnačke institucije i susjedstva u Philadelphiji. Dok je prijateljica preusmjeravala mafiju, Mott je čekala u svom salonu, spremna suočiti se s nasilnim protivnicima. [11]

Mott je bio uključen u brojne organizacije protiv ropstva, uključujući Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society, Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society (osnovano 1838), Američko udruženje slobodnih proizvođača i American Anti-Slavery Society.

Svjetska konvencija protiv ropstva Edit

U lipnju 1840. Mott je prisustvovao Općoj konvenciji protiv ropstva, poznatijoj kao Svjetska konvencija protiv ropstva, u Londonu, Engleska. Unatoč Mottovom statusu jedne od šest delegatkinja, prije početka konferencije muškarci su izglasali isključenje Amerikanki iz sudjelovanja, a od delegata se tražilo da sjede u odvojenom području. Čelnici protiv ropstva nisu željeli da se pitanje ženskih prava poveže s uzrokom okončanja ropstva u cijelom svijetu i ublaži fokus na ukidanju. [13] Osim toga, tadašnji društveni običaji poricali su punopravno sudjelovanje žena u javnom političkom životu. Nekoliko američkih muškaraca koji su prisustvovali konvenciji, uključujući Williama Lloyda Garrisona i Wendell Phillips, pobunilo se protiv isključenja žena. [14] Garrison, Nathaniel Peabody Rogers, William Adam i afroamerički aktivist Charles Lenox Remond sjedili su sa ženama u izdvojenom području.

Aktivistice Elizabeth Cady Stanton i njezin suprug Henry Brewster Stanton prisustvovali su konvenciji dok su bili na medenom mjesecu. Stanton se divio Mottu, a dvije su se žene ujedinile kao prijateljice i saveznice.

Jedan irski izvjestitelj smatrao ju je "lavicom konvencije". [15] Mott je bila među ženama uključenima u prigodnu sliku konvencije, na kojoj su bile i britanske aktivistice: Elizabeth Pease, Mary Anne Rawson, Anne Knight, Elizabeth Tredgold i Mary Clarkson, kći Thomasa Clarksona. [16] Benjamin Haydon tvorac slike namjeravao je dati Mottu istaknuto mjesto na slici. Međutim, tijekom sjednice 29. lipnja 1840. kako bi uhvatio njezinu lakoću, nije mu se svidio njezin pogled i odlučio je ne koristiti njezin portret na vidnom mjestu. [17]

Potaknut aktivnim raspravama u Engleskoj i Škotskoj, Mott se također vratio s novom energijom za borbu protiv ropstva u Sjedinjenim Državama. Nastavila je s aktivnim rasporedom javnih predavanja, s odredištima uključujući glavne sjeverne gradove New York City i Boston, kao i putovanjem kroz nekoliko tjedana u robovlasničke države, s govorima u Baltimoreu, Marylandu i drugim gradovima u Virginiji. Dogovorila se za sastanak s robovlasnicima kako bi razgovarali o moralu ropstva. U okrugu Columbia, Mott je svoje predavanje uskladila s povratkom Kongresa s božićne stanke na kojem je bilo više od 40 kongresmena. Imala je osobnu audijenciju s predsjednikom Johnom Tylerom koji je, impresioniran njezinim govorom, rekao: "Htio bih vam predati gospodina Calhouna" [18], misleći na senatora i protivnika ukidanja.

Pregled Uređivanje

Mott i Cady Stanton dobro su se upoznali na Svjetskoj konvenciji protiv ropstva. Cady Stanton kasnije se prisjetila da su prvo razgovarali o mogućnosti konvencije o ženskim pravima u Londonu.

Aktivistice za ženska prava zagovarale su niz pitanja, uključujući jednakost u braku, poput imovinskih prava žena i prava na njihovu zaradu. U to vrijeme bilo je vrlo teško dobiti razvod, a očevima je gotovo uvijek bilo odobreno skrbništvo nad djecom. Cady Stanton nastojala je olakšati dobivanje razvoda i zaštititi ženama pristup i kontrolu nad njihovom djecom. Iako se neke rane feministice nisu složile i smatrale prijedlog Cady Stanton skandaloznim, Mott je izjavila "svoju veliku vjeru u brzi instinkt Elizabeth Stanton i jasan uvid u sve što se odnosi na ženska prava". [19]

Na Mottovu teologiju utjecali su unitaristi, uključujući Theodora Parkera i Williama Elleryja Channinga, kao i rani kvekeri, uključujući Williama Penna. Mislila je da je "kraljevstvo Božje unutar čovjeka" (1749.) i bila je dio skupine vjerskih liberala koji su 1867. osnovali Slobodnu vjersku udrugu, s rabinom Isaacom Mayerom Wiseom, [20] Ralphom Waldom Emersonom i Thomasom Wentworthom Higginsonom.

1866. Mott se pridružio Stantonu, Anthonyju i Stoneu kako bi osnovao Američku udrugu za jednaka prava. Sljedeće godine organizacija je postala aktivna u Kansasu gdje su se glasovi crnaca i žena trebali odlučiti narodnim glasovanjem, a tada su Stanton i Anthony sklopili politički savez s Trainom, što je dovelo do Mottove ostavke. Kansas nije uspio proći oba referenduma.

Mott je bio osnivač i predsjednik Sjeverne udruge za pomoć i zapošljavanje siromašnih žena u Philadelphiji (osnovana 1846.).

Konvencija o vodopadima Seneca Uredi

1848. Mott i Cady Stanton organizirali su konvenciju Seneca Falls, prvu konvenciju o pravima žena, u vodopadima Seneca, New York. [21] Stantonova rezolucija da je "dužnost žena ove zemlje da si osiguraju sveto pravo na izbornu franšizu" donesena je unatoč Mottovu protivljenju. Mott je politiku smatrala korumpiranom ropstvom i moralnim kompromisima, ali je ubrzo zaključila da je "pravo žena na izbornu franšizu isto, i treba joj ustupiti, bez obzira koristi li to pravo ili ne". [22] Mott je potpisao Deklaraciju osjećaja o slapovima Seneca.

Unatoč tome što se Mott suprotstavljala izbornoj politici, njezina je slava na političku scenu dospjela čak i prije konvencije o ženskim pravima u srpnju 1848. godine. Tijekom Nacionalnog sabora Liberty stranke u lipnju 1848., 5 od 84 delegata s pravom glasa glasovalo je za Lucretiu Mott kao kandidatkinju svoje stranke za Ured potpredsjednika SAD -a. U glasovanju delegata, zauzela je 4. mjesto u polju od devet.

Tijekom sljedećih nekoliko desetljeća, pravo glasa žena postalo je fokus pokreta za ženska prava. Iako se Cady Stanton obično pripisuje vođi tog napora, događaj je inspirirao Mottovo mentorstvo Cady Stanton i njihov zajednički rad. Mottova sestra, Martha Coffin Wright, također je pomogla u organizaciji konvencije i potpisala deklaraciju.

Prisutni je bio istaknuti abolicionist i aktivist za ljudska prava Frederick Douglass koji je odigrao ključnu ulogu u uvjeravanju ostalih polaznika da pristanu na rezoluciju kojom se traži pravo glasa za žene. [23]

Propovijed studentima medicine Uredi

Biološka opravdanja rase kao biološki dokazane osnove za razliku dovela su do stigme urođene, prirodno određene inferiornosti u 19. stoljeću. Godine 1849. objavljena je Mottova "Propovijed studentima medicine": [24] [25]

"Budite vjerni i razmislite koliko ste sudionici u ovom zlu, čak i u grijesima drugih ljudi. Koliko ste, dopuštenjem, isprikom ili na drugi način, zatekli svoju sankciju sustavu koji degradira i brutalizira tri milijuna naših bližnjih. "

Diskurs o ženama Uredi

1850. Mott je objavila svoj govor Govor o ženi, pamflet o ograničenjima za žene u Sjedinjenim Državama. [26]

Američko udruženje za jednaka prava Edit

Nakon građanskog rata, Mott je izabran za prvog predsjednika Američke udruge za jednaka prava, organizacije koja se zalagala za opće pravo glasa. Napustila je udrugu 1868. godine kada su se Elizabeth Cady Stanton i Susan B. Anthony udružile s kontroverznim biznismenom po imenu George Francis Train. Mott je pokušao pomiriti dvije frakcije koje su se sljedeće godine podijelile oko prioriteta prava glasa žena i glasača muškaraca crnaca. Mott je ikada mirotvorac pokušao izliječiti raskid između Stantona, Anthonyja i Lucy Stone zbog neposrednog cilja ženskog pokreta: biračko pravo za slobodnjake i sve žene ili pravo glasa za oslobođene?

Godine 1864. Mott i nekoliko drugih kvekera iz Hicksitea osnovali su Swarthmore College u blizini Philadelphije, koji ostaje jedan od vodećih slobodnih umjetničkih koledža u zemlji. [27]

Mott je bila pacifistica, a 1830-ih je prisustvovala sastancima Društva za otpor New England. Ona se protivila ratu s Meksikom. Nakon građanskog rata, Mott je povećala svoje napore u okončanju rata i nasilja, te je bila vodeći glas u Univerzalnoj mirovnoj uniji, osnovanoj 1866. [28]

10. travnja 1811. Lucretia Coffin udala se za Jamesa Motta na sastanku Pine Street u Philadelphiji. Imali su šestero djece. Njihovo drugo dijete, Thomas Mott, umrlo je u dobi od dvije godine. Sva njihova preživjela djeca postala su aktivna u pokretima protiv ropstva i drugih reformi, slijedeći puteve svojih roditelja. Njezina praunuka May Hallowell Loud postala je umjetnica.

Mott je umrla 11. studenog 1880. od upale pluća u svom domu, na cesti, u Cheltenhamu, Pennsylvania. Pokopana je u blizini najvišeg mjesta grobljana Fair Hill, kvekerskog groblja u sjevernoj Philadelphiji.

Mottova praunuka kratko je radila kao talijanski tumač za američku feministicu Betty Friedan tijekom kontroverznog govora u Rimu. [29]

Susan Jacoby piše: "Kad je Mott umrla 1880., suvremenici su je naširoko ocjenjivali. Kao najveću Amerikanku devetnaestog stoljeća." Bila je mentorica Elizabeth Cady Stanton, koja je nastavila svoj rad. [30]

Verzija Amandmana o jednakim pravima iz 1923. godine, koja se razlikuje od trenutne verzije i napisana je: "Muškarci i žene imat će jednaka prava u cijeloj Sjedinjenim Državama i na svim mjestima koja su pod njenom jurisdikcijom. Kongres će biti ovlašten primijeniti ovaj članak do odgovarajućeg zakonodavstva. ", nazvan je Lucretia Mott amandman. [31] [32]

Dio Camptowna Cheltenham Township, Pennsylvania, koji je bio mjesto Mottovog doma, Roadside, preimenovan je u La Mott njoj u čast. [33]

Marka je izdana 1948. godine u znak sjećanja na konvenciju Seneca Falls, na kojoj su bile Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Carrie Chapman Catt i Lucretia Mott.

1983. Mott je primljena u Nacionalnu žensku kuću slavnih. [34]

Motta se obilježava zajedno s Elizabeth Cady Stanton i Susan B. Anthony u Portretni spomenik, skulptura Adelaide Johnson iz 1921. na Kapitolu Sjedinjenih Država. Izvorno čuvana u kripti Kapitola SAD -a, skulptura je premještena na sadašnje mjesto i istaknutije izložena u rotondi 1997. [35]


Mott, Lucretia lijes

Uvod: Uz podršku kvekerske zajednice, suprug i obitelj Lucretia Mott uspjeli su kombinirati njezin rad u ime ženskih prava i ukidanja ropstva. Snažan zagovornik obaju pitanja, bila je uvjerena u svoja uvjerenja da oba pitanja mogu postojati zajedno.

Rane godine

Lucretia Mott (rođena Coffin) rođena je u Quaker obitelji u Nantucketu, Massachusetts. S 13 godina roditelji su je poslali u internatsku školu Nine Partners Quaker u New Yorku. Nakon mature ostala je tamo predavati. Tijekom poučavanja rano je osjetila rodnu diskriminaciju. Otkrila je da su ona i drugo žensko osoblje plaćeni znatno manje od svojih muških kolega.

Lucretia se udala za Jamesa Motta, drugog učitelja u Nine Partners, 1811. Imali su šestero djece zajedno, od kojih je petero doživjelo punoljetnost. Lucretia, njezin suprug i sva njihova živa djeca protivili su se trgovini robljem i aktivno su sudjelovali u pokretima protiv ropstva i drugim društvenim reformama. Sudjelovanje Mott i drugih žena u aktivnostima protiv ropstva nije bilo u skladu s tadašnjim društvenim normama, budući da su bile kvekerke, imala je koristi od liberalnijeg tretmana žena nego što njezine vršnjakinje nisu uživale.

Njihova zajednica nije mrštila žene koje su sudjelovale u javnosti. Zapravo, njezin ju je suprug potaknuo da u potpunosti sudjeluje u aktivnostima izvan kuće.

1821. Mott je uz podršku svog supruga postala kvekerska ministrica. Svojim propovijedima mogla je slobodno izraziti svoja osjećanja protiv ropstva, kao i vjerovanja kvekera. Mott je bila poznata po svojoj sposobnosti da govorima i prikupljanjem sredstava podupre napore pokreta protiv ropstva, a istovremeno učinkovito upravlja svojim kućanstvom.

Pomoć pri preuzimanju mjesta žena u Pokretu protiv ropstva

Kad je njezin suprug zajedno s Williamom Lloydom Garrisonom suosnivao Američko društvo protiv ropstva, Mott je ostala aktivna podupirateljica i govornica za ukidanje, a kasnije je, u partnerstvu s rasno raznolikom grupom žena, osnovala Philadelphijsko žensko društvo protiv ropstva. Rasno integrirana organizacija od samog početka, stajala je protiv rasizma i ropstva i razvila bliske veze s afroameričkom zajednicom u Philadelphiji. Mott je sudjelovala na sve tri nacionalne konvencije američkih žena protiv ropstva 1837. do 1839. unatoč činjenici da je 1838. gomila uništila mjesto okupljanja. Mafija je kasnije ciljala na njezina domaća i afroamerička naselja i institucije.

U lipnju 1840. Mott je otputovao u London u Englesku kako bi sudjelovao na Svjetskoj konvenciji protiv ropstva. Unatoč njezinu statusu u SAD -u i njezinoj dobro poznatoj predanosti cilju, muški delegati izglasali su isključenje Mott i ostalih sedam delegata iz sudjelovanja te su ih premjestili u zasebno mjesto za sjedenje. U znak protesta protiv odluke, William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips i afroamerički aktivist Charles Lenox Redmond sjedili su sa ženama u izdvojenom odjelu. Kad se Mott vratila nakon kongresa u Londonu, bila je okrepljena. Nastavila je javno predavati na sjeveru, kao i u robovlasničkim državama poput Marylanda i Virginije. Zakazavši svoje predavanje u Distriktu Columbia kako bi se uskladila s povratkom Kongresa s odmora, govorila je pred publikom, uključujući 40 kongresmena. Mott se ne samo vratio iz Londona s obnovljenom energijom za borbu protiv ropstva, već i s novim prijateljstvom s Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Dvije su žene bile povezane svojim idealima što je rezultiralo time da su 1848. organizirale konvenciju o ženskim pravima u vodopadu Seneca. Ova konvencija ima razliku kao prvi javni sastanak o ženskim pravima u Sjedinjenim Državama i izradio je The Declaration of Sentiments, dokument temeljen na Deklaraciju neovisnosti, u kojoj su razjašnjeni brojni zahtjevi ovih prvih aktivista.

Organizacijsko sudjelovanje

Mott je izabrana za prvu predsjednicu Američke udruge za jednaka prava, koja se zalagala za opće pravo glasa, ali je dala ostavku kada su Elizabeth Cady Stanton i Susan B. Anthony organizaciju povele u kontroverznom smjeru. Osim toga, Mott je bio uključen u druge organizacije čiji je fokus bio borba protiv ropstva, kao što su Američko udruženje slobodnih proizvođača, Pensilvansko društvo protiv ropstva, Žensko društvo protiv ropstva u Philadelphiji i Američko društvo protiv ropstva. Mott, pacifist, također je prisustvovao sastancima New England Society for Non Resistance Society. Nakon građanskog rata, postala je još posvećenija antiratnim aktivnostima i bila je otvorena članica Univerzalne mirovne unije. Također je bila osnivačica i predsjednica Sjeverne udruge za pomoć i zapošljavanje siromašnih žena u Philadelphiji.

Lucretia Mott bila je zagovornica ženskih prava i borbe protiv ropstva u svojim sedamdesetima. Umrla je od upale pluća u studenom 1880. Nju i druge sufragiste memorizirala je Adelaide Johnson u skulpturi koja se nalazi u američkom Kapitolu.

Za daljnje čitanje:

Primjeri pisama Lucretia Mott Pisma Elizabeth Cady Stanton i drugi podaci o njenom životu mogu se pronaći na projektu Lucretia Coffin Mott ovdje:


Posljednje godine i smrt

Zadržavajući svoju predanost pravima žena i apossa, Mott je također zadržala punu rutinu majke i domaćice, a nakon građanskog rata nastavila je raditi na zagovaranju prava Afroamerikanaca. Pomogla je u osnivanju koledža Swarthmore 1864., nastavila pohađati konvencije o pravima žena i apossa, a kad se pokret podijelio u dvije frakcije 1869., pokušala ih je spojiti.

Mott je umro 11. studenog 1880. godine u Chelton Hillsu (danas dio Philadelphije), Pennsylvania.


Snaga glasa, razmišljanja o Lucretia Mott (1793-1880)

Portret Lukrecije Mott, Williama Henryja Furnessa Jr., oko. ranih 1850 -ih. Povijesna knjižnica prijatelja koledža Swarthmore.

Ona je najbolje čuvana tajna u američkoj povijesti, pa čak i na Nantucketu, gdje je rođena 1793. Upoznao sam njezin pogled kao student druge godine na Swarthmore Collegeu, spokojnom trgu u Philadelphiji. Uhitio me njezin portret iz salona. Morao sam znati tko je ta žena. Pokazalo se da je Lucretia Coffin Mott osnivačica fakulteta i glavna osoba u emancipaciji robova i ljudskim pravima. Pa zašto je ona za mene bila misterija, glavna studentica povijesti?

Prvo, neka vas ne zavara njezin slatki izgled. Ovaj prijatelj - ili kveker - bio je sila. Njezino djevojaštvo u Nantucketu u cvjetajućoj kvekerskoj zajednici oblikovalo ju je poput gline u keramiku.

U kasnijem životu kao vodeći prijatelj Philadelphije u "Quaker Cityju", Mott je bila prvakinja za jednakost, poznata po snazi ​​svog glasa. U svoje vrijeme dosegla je desetke tisuća ljudi, putujući po Americi koja je podijeljena na "Kuću". Svjedočila je sve većoj rijeci bijesa između sjevera i juga. Na dan kad se rodila, George Washington bio je predsjednik, a nadživjela je Lincolna.

Lucretia i njezin suprug, James Mott, bili su članovi osnivači Američkog društva protiv ropstva 1833. Mottsi su bili domaćini inauguracijskog društvenog događaja. Reveći južnjački robovlasnik, Andrew Jackson, bio je predsjednik. Mali radikalni skup bio je početak nečeg velikog. Za nenasilni otpor ropstvu trebalo bi vremena: trideset godina. No, nenasilne radnje polako su promijenile mišljenje javnosti.

Među najpoznatijim ženama u antebellum Americi, Mott je doslovno prekinula šutnju na javnom trgu. Glas je bio njezin dar za stvaranje društvenih promjena. Govorila je nadahnuto, spontano, bez nota. Otkrio sam da je velik dio njezine rječitosti izgubljen za povijest.

Ideja žene javne govornice bila je šok, ali nije trebala biti. Važno je napomenuti: njezini talenti njegovani su unutar zidina njezine vjere. Žene kvekerke govorile su slobodno, dok se duh kretao u bogoslužju, baš kao i muškarci.

To je tajni umak Mottovog izuzetnog uspjeha kao javnog govornika: njezin kvekerski identitet formiran u Nantucketu. Otočani općenito njeguju neovisnost uma i mišljenja.

Mott, uskraćen za audijenciju na američkom Kapitolu 1843., održao je propovijed protiv ropstva u Unitarijanskoj crkvi u Washingtonu, DC, pred ušutkanim stanovnicima i zakonodavcima. Te je povijesne noći imala pedeset godina, a pozvao ju je John Quincy Adams, strogi bivši predsjednik. Pet godina kasnije, Mott je bila glavni govornik na prvoj američkoj konvenciji o ženskim pravima u Seneca Falls -u, New York, 1848. Frederick Douglass je također bio prisutan na ovom značajnom događaju za žene.

Mott je u središtu pozornosti na raskrižju dva velika pokreta za ljudska prava u devetnaestom stoljeću. Za nju su to bili brat i sestra, nerazdvojni.
Ono što je Mott započeo 1848. godine, potpuno moderna vođa, Alice Paul, završila je pobjedom "Glasovi za žene" 1920. Zanimljivo je da je Paul također bio kveker, a ona je diplomirala na Swarthmoreu. Mott joj je bio vodeće svjetlo inspiracije.

Brončana bista skulptura Lucretia Coffin Mott,
autorice Victoria Guerina
NHA kupnja. 2020.7.1.

Doista, Mott je pramajka svih nas, dajući Amerikankama bogato izgubljeno nasljedstvo, koje se sada nalazi poput stakla. Šetnja kroz njezin život baca svjetlo na pravednu viziju i hrabrost da ustane i progovori. Ove osobine čine razliku za one koji se aktivno opiru ugnjetavanju.

Ponovno, Mottova nenasilna vjera obavijestila je njezin otvoreni govor na javnom trgu. Društvo prijatelja je rano prihvatilo nenasilni otpor. U Engleskoj 1650 -ih, kvekerci su se odbili pridružiti kraljevoj vojsci i bili su zatvoreni jer nisu nosili oružje. Oni ne bi gurnuli šešir pred autoritet. Obožavali su u oštrim egalitarističkim kućama za sastanke. Naglasak na znanosti i "unutarnjem svjetlu" obilježio je protestantsku sektu. Engleskom je kralju bilo drago poslati neistomišljenike u Novi svijet na čelu s Williamom Pennom.

Nantucket je postao luka u kojoj su kvekeri mogli živjeti na sigurnoj udaljenosti od neprijateljskog puritanskog Bostona, gdje su neki kvekeri, uključujući i ženu, obješeni 1660. Mary Dyer pjevala je na putu do vješala.

Moja potraga otkrila je da je Lucretia Coffin rođena u pješčanom Nantucketu, mnogo kilometara od Cape Coda. Njezina obitelj potekla je iz jedne od osnivačkih bijelih obitelji koja je stoljeće ranije naselila vjetrovit otok. Do rođenja Lukrecije kovčezi su imali snažan osjećaj pripadnosti Nantucketu i njegovoj glavnoj religiji, Prijateljima.

1790 -ih stvari su se gledale prema izlasku sunca u američko doba. Svijetla rana republika puna nade lansirana je u Philadelphiji. Lucretia je rođena u svijetu koji se tek stvara. Pobjeda nad britanskom mornaricom nije bila vjerojatna, što je prvoj generaciji Amerikanaca dalo osjećaj providnosti. Na njima bi bilo da Deklaracija neovisnosti i Ustav žive i dišu.

Kao djevojčica, Lucretia je bila svjesna ropstva čitajući britanskog pjesnika Williama Cowpera. U pomorskom društvu shvatila je ljudsku bijedu robovskih brodova preko Srednjeg prolaza. Američko kopno bilo je daleko u maglovitoj udaljenosti, ali je znala da je ropstvo nedovršeni posao, tragična mana mlade nacije. Osjetila je to sa žestokom žurbom.

Lukrecijin otac, Thomas, kapetan mora, godinama je plovio i jednom se smatralo da se izgubio. Onog dana kad je preplanuli muškarac prošao Glavnom ulicom, rijetki su prepoznali kapetana Coffina. Lucretia je rekla da mu je povratak bio jedan od najsretnijih dana u životu. Dok su mnogi otočki muškarci i dječaci lovili kitove sperme na putovanjima, žene su vodile otočke domove i neke od njegovih tvrtki. Učinili su mnogo, brinući se o djeci, životinjama i poslu. Žene iz Nantucket Quakera bile su čvrste i samostalne.

Lucretia, najbolja majčina pomoćnica, lutala je do tržnice i dolje do pristaništa, donoseći kućnu robu za obitelj. Lucretia Coffin znala je o nautičkim govorima i otočkim jelima, poput pudinga od kupina, koje je ponijela sa sobom do kraja života.

Predak Lukrecije, Mary Coffin Starbuck, njegovala je vjeru prijatelja na otoku. Među radikalnim postupcima bile su žene koje su govorile na sastancima za bogoslužje, kako je gore navedeno. Ovo je bilo sumnjivo i subverzivno, osobito puritancima u koloniji Massachusetts Bay. Growing up in this tradition, Lucretia buttressed her strong speaking voice, later to be heard in the out-side world. Flowering in her own Society of Friends, Lucretia first became recognized for her rare distinc-tion as a speaker.

The Coffin family lived on Fair Street by School Street. The Nantucket Friends believed in equal education for girls and boys, a practice much less common on the mainland, and Lucretia attended the coeducational school during her island years. Later, her family sent her to the Quakers Nine Partners Boarding School in Duchess County, New York.
In keeping with their belief in a spark or light in everyone, the Society of Friends was the first religion to wholly embrace opposition to human enslavement, a full century before Lucretia was born. This gives glimmers of what made the young Lucretia unusual in her conviction as a young woman when she was ready to face the wider world.

Lucretia Coffin married James Mott, whom she met when they were teachers at the same Quaker boarding school she had attended in Duchess County. She was eighteen. The couple moved to Philadelphia, the Quaker City, where James became a cotton merchant. Lucretia persuaded him to change to wool, since cotton was a product of slavery. The two were devoted, and James always went with Lucretia when she appeared public-ly. They had five children, but their rosy boy Tommy died young at three. His last words were, “I love thee, Mother.”

The Motts became lifelong Philadelphians, pillars of the city, yet in the radical wing. They were not proper Main Line Friends. A visitor to their home might see the first feminist tract, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, by the Enlightenment thinker Mary Wollstonecraft. Lucretia thought the manifesto made perfect sense. Their dining room could seat fifty guests. It was a lighthouse for abolitionists and Black men and women fleeing slavery.

By the 1830s, the Jacksonian era, fault lines were drawn in a burning “sectional divide” over slavery. This chapter was also the decade that mobs came to towns. One midnight mob almost burned down the Mott house after destroying a new assembly hall for abolitionists.

Mott’s speaking voice is lost to us. She was not so much a writer. But her radiant influence lives through a patchwork quilt of her letters, diaries, speeches, and the living witness of other great speakers, men such as Douglass, Emerson, and Adams.
Her voice started low and gathered strength, rising like a river with thoughts pouring upon her like a summer flood, one witness marveled.

For all comers, the Philadelphia Quaker lady had a strik-ing gaze and an unforgettable voice. Way ahead of her time, Mott is a testament to the power of determined peaceful progress.

From the Summer 2020 issue of Historic Nantucket, read here.

The Nantucket Historical Association preserves and interprets the history of Nantucket through its programs, collections, and properties, in order to promote the island’s significance and foster an appreciation of it among all audiences.


Sadržaj

The doctor and architect William Thornton was the winner of the contest to design the Capitol in 1793. Thornton had first conceived the idea of a central rotunda. However, due to lack of funds or resources, oft-interrupted construction, and the British attack on Washington during the War of 1812, work on the rotunda did not begin until 1818. The rotunda was completed in 1824 under Architect of the Capitol Charles Bulfinch, as part of a series of new buildings and projects in preparation for the final visit of Marquis de Lafayette in 1824. The rotunda was designed in the neoclassical style and was intended to evoke the design of the Pantheon.

The sandstone rotunda walls rise 48 feet (15 m) above the floor everything above this—the Capitol dome–was designed in 1854 by Thomas U. Walter, the fourth Architect of the Capitol. Walter had also designed the Capitol's north and south extensions. Work on the dome began in 1856, and in 1859, Walter redesigned the rotunda to consist of an inner and outer dome, with a canopy suspended between them that would be visible through an oculus at the top of the inner dome. In 1862, Walter asked painter Constantino Brumidi to design "a picture 65 feet (20 m) in diameter, painted in fresco, on the concave canopy over the eye of the New Dome of the U.S. Capitol". At this time, Brumidi may have added a watercolor canopy design over Walter's tentative 1859 sketch. The dome was being finished in the middle of the American Civil War and was constructed from fireproof cast iron. During the Civil War, the rotunda was used as a military hospital for Union soldiers. The dome was finally completed in 1866.

The crypt Edit

Originally the crypt had an open ceiling into the rotunda. Visitors can still see the holes in the stone circle that marked the rim of the open space in the rotunda floor. Underneath the floor of the crypt lies a tomb that was the intended burial place for George Washington but after a lengthy battle with his estate and the state of Virginia the plans for him to be buried in the crypt were abandoned. [1]

Renovation Edit

In January 2013, the Architect of the Capitol announced a four-year, $10 million project to repair and conserve the Capitol Dome's exterior and the Capitol rotunda. The proposal required the stripping of lead paint from the interior of the dome, repair to the ironwork, repainting of the interior of the dome, rehabilitation of the interstitial space between the dome and rotunda, and installation of new lighting in the interstitial space and the rotunda. The dome and rotunda, which were last conserved in 1960, were showing significant signs of rust and disrepair. There was a danger that decorative ironwork could have fallen from the rotunda to the space below, and that weather-related problems could damage the artwork in the rotunda. Without immediate repair, safety netting was installed, temporarily blocking the rotunda's artwork from view. [2]

Eight niches in the rotunda hold large, framed historical paintings. All are oil-on-canvas and measure 12 by 18 feet (3.7 by 5.5 metres). Four of these are scenes from the American Revolution, painted by John Trumbull, who was commissioned by Congress to do the work in 1817. These are Deklaracija o neovisnosti, Surrender of General Burgoyne, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, i General George Washington Resigning His Commission. These were placed between 1819 and 1824. Between 1840 and 1855, four more paintings were added. These depicted the exploration and colonization of America and were all done by different artists. These paintings are Landing of Columbus by John Vanderlyn, Discovery of the Mississippi by William Henry Powell, Baptism of Pocahontas by John Gadsby Chapman, and Embarkation of the Pilgrims by Robert Walter Weir.

The battle was a key victory for the Americans, prevented the division of New England, and secured French military assistance to the Americans.

Apotheosis of Washington Uredi

The Apotheosis of Washington is a large fresco by Greek-Italian Constantino Brumidi, visible through the oculus of the dome of the rotunda. The fresco depicts George Washington sitting exalted amongst the heavens. It is suspended 180 feet (55 m) above the rotunda floor and covers an area of 4,664 square feet (433.3 m 2 ).

Frieze of American History Uredi

The Frieze of American History is painted to appear as a carved stone bas-relief frieze but is actually a trompe-l'œil fresco cycle depicting 19 scenes from American history. The "frieze" occupies a band immediately below the 36 windows. Brumidi designed the frieze and prepared a sketch in 1859 but did not begin painting until 1878. Brumidi painted seven and a half scenes. While working on William Penn and the Indians, Brumidi fell off the scaffolding and held on to a rail for 15 minutes until he was rescued. He died a few months later in 1880. After Brumidi's death, Filippo Costaggini was commissioned to complete the eight and a half remaining scenes in Brumidi's sketches. He finished in 1889 and left a 31-foot (9 m) gap due to an error in Brumidi's original design. In 1951, Allyn Cox completed the frieze.

Except for the last three panels named by Allyn Cox, the scenes have no particular titles and many variant titles have been given. The names given here are the names used by the Architect of the Capitol, which uses the names that Brumidi used most frequently in his letters and that were used in Edward Clark and by newspaper articles. The 19 panels are:

From the Statuary Hall Collection Edit

Among the group of eleven statues currently encircling the rotunda against the wall at floor level are six from the National Statuary Hall Collection:

  • George Washington, in bronze, from Virginia, by Jean Antoine Houdon (copy cast in 1934).
  • Andrew Jackson in bronze, from Tennessee, by Belle Kinney Sholz and Leopold F. Sholz, in 1928.
  • James Garfield in marble, from Ohio, by Charles Niehaus in 1886.
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower in bronze, from Kansas, by Jim Brothers in 2003.
  • Ronald Reagan in bronze, from California, by Chas Fagan in 2009.
  • Gerald Ford in bronze, from Michigan, by J. Brett Grill in 2011. [13]

These six statues representing the presidents will remain in the rotunda indefinitely or until an act of Congress.

George Washington Edit

A statue of George Washington – a copy after French neo-classical sculptor Jean-Antoine Houdon's 1790 full-length marble in the Virginia State Capitol – holds a prominent place. William James Hubard created a plaster copy after Houdon, that stood in the Rotunda from the late-1850s to 1934. It is now in the Smithsonian American Art Museum. [14] The present bronze copy replaced Hubard's plaster copy in 1934. [15]

James Garfield Edit

James Garfield was the last American president to be born in a log cabin. Sculptor Niehaus returned to America in 1881 and by virtue of being a native Ohioan was commissioned to sculpt a monument to the recently assassinated President James Garfield, who was also from Ohio.

Bust of Martin Luther King, Jr. Edit

The bust of his head and shoulders is 36 inches (91 cm) high and stands on a pyramidal Belgian black marble base that is 66 inches (168 cm) high. Because the bust would be such an important and visible work of art, the Joint Committee on the Library decided to have a national competition to select a sculptor.

On December 21, 1982, the Congress passed House Concurrent Resolution 153, which directed the procurement of a marble bust "to serve to memorialize King's contributions on such matters as the historic legislation of the 1960s affecting civil rights and the right to vote". Senator Charles Mathias, Jr., chairman of the Joint Committee on the Library, the congressional committee overseeing the procurement, said at the unveiling that "Martin Luther King takes his rightful place among the heroes of this nation."

John Woodrow Wilson, the artist was awarded a $50,000 commission to cast the model in bronze. The bust was unveiled in the Rotunda on January 16, 1986, the fifty-seventh anniversary of King's birth, by Mrs. King, accompanied by their four children and King's sister. [16]

Women's suffrage Edit

This group portrait monument is known formally as the Portrait Monument to Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony, pioneers of the women's suffrage movement in the United States. Their efforts, and the work of later suffrage activists like Alice Paul, eventually led to the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920. The work was sculpted by Adelaide Johnson (1859–1955) from a 16,000-pound (7,300 kg) block of marble in Carrara, Italy. The portraits are copies of the individual busts she carved for the Court of Honor of the Woman's Building at the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. The detailed busts are surrounded by rough-hewn marble at the top of the sculpture. This part of the statue, according to some, is left unfinished representing the unfinished work of women's rights. Contrary to a popular story, the intention was not that it be completed upon the ascension of the first female President — the rough-hewn section is too small to carry a proportional bust. The monument was presented to the Capitol as a gift from the women of the United States by the National Woman's Party and was accepted on behalf of Congress by the Joint Committee on the Library on February 10, 1921. The unveiling ceremony was held in the Rotunda on February 15, 1921, the 101st anniversary of the birth of Susan B. Anthony, and was attended by representatives of over 70 women's organizations. Shortly after its unveiling, however, the statue was moved into the Capitol Crypt. It remained on display there for 75 years, until HCR 216 ordered it moved to the Rotunda. The statue was placed in its current location, in the Rotunda, in May 1997. [17]


Lucretia Mott

Lucretia Mott as sculpted by Lloyd Lillie. The bronze statue is in the lobby of the park visitor center.

One of eight children born to Quaker parents on the island of Nantucket, Massachusetts, Lucretia Coffin Mott (1793-1880) dedicated her life to the goal of human equality. As a child Mott attended Nine Partners, a Quaker boarding school located in New York, where she learned of the horrors of slavery from her readings and from visiting lecturers such as Elias Hicks, a well-known Quaker abolitionist. She also saw that women and men were not treated equally, even among the Quakers, when she discovered that female teachers at Nine Partners earned less than males. At a young age Lucretia Coffin Mott became determined to put an end to such social injustices.

In 1833 Mott, along with Mary Ann M’Clintock and nearly 30 other female abolitionists, organized the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society. She later served as a delegate from that organization to the 1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention in London. It was there that she first met Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who was attending the convention with her husband Henry, a delegate from New York. Mott and Stanton were indignant at the fact that women were excluded from participating in the convention simply because of their gender, and that indignation would result in a discussion about holding a woman’s rights convention. Stanton later recalled this conversation in the History of Woman Suffrage:

As Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton wended their way arm in arm down Great Queen Street that night, reviewing the exciting scenes of the day, they agreed to hold a woman’s rights convention on their return to America, as the men to whom they had just listened had manifested their great need of some education on that question. Thus a missionary work for the emancipation of woman…was then and there inaugurated.

Eight years later, on July 19 and 20, 1848, Mott, Stanton, Mary Ann M’Clintock, Martha Coffin Wright, and Jane Hunt acted on this idea when they organized the First Woman’s Rights Convention.

Throughout her life Mott remained active in both the abolition and women’s rights movements. She continued to speak out against slavery, and in 1866 she became the first president of the American Equal Rights Association, an organization formed to achieve equality for African Americans and women.


Lucretia Mott

Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton met at the World’s Anti-Slavery Convention in London, where the two discussed the need for a convention about women’s rights. Mott and Stanton then became the primary organizers of the Women’s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, New York in July 1848 – the first women’s rights meeting ever held in the United States.

Childhood and Early Years
Lucretia Coffin was born on January 3, 1793, to Quaker parents in the seaport town of Nantucket, Massachusetts. She was the second child of seven by Thomas Coffin and Anna Folger Coffin. In 1804, the Coffins moved to Boston, where Thomas was an international trader with warehouses and wharves. He bought a new brick house on Round Lane for $5600.

When she was 13, the Coffins sent Lucretia to the Nine Partners Quaker Boarding School in Dutchess County, New York, where she excelled. After graduating in 1808 she served as an assistant teacher at Nine Partners until 1810, without salary other than room and board and free tuition for her sister Eliza. Her interest in women’s rights began when she discovered that male teachers at the school were paid three times as much as the female staff.

There she met James Mott, a paid teacher at Nine Partners, son of Adam and Anne Mott. He was about 20 and was as reserved and quiet as Lucretia was vivacious and talkative. He was the tallest boy at the school and Lucretia was fairly short.

Thomas Coffin had sold his business in Boston and entered the cut nail manufacturing business with a relative at French Creek near Philadelphia. During that time he moved the family from Boston to Philadelphia, a city that was to be Lucretia’s home for the rest of her life.

Home and Family
James Mott also moved from New York to Philadelphia, perhaps to be near Lucretia, and was given a position in Thomas Coffin’s firm as a commission merchant. James and Lucretia were given parental consent to marry in the early spring of 1811. They were married at Pine Street Meeting House in Philadelphia on April 10, 1811. Between 1812 and 1828 Mott bore six children, five of whom lived to adulthood.

Following the War of 1812, the Coffins and Motts shared in the economic depression that followed the war and lived in a state of financial instability for several years. This caused Thomas to move temporarily to Ohio after his cut-nail business was sold to pay debts.

James and Lucretia went to New York where they helped Richard Mott at his cotton mill at Mamaroneck. This was not profitable so James and Lucretia moved to New York city where he worked as a bank clerk. Finally they moved back to Philadelphia. There in March 1817, Lucretia, now the mother of two small children, got a job as teacher at the Select School for girls. The birth of her third child, Maria, in 1818 brought her teaching career to a close.

Lucretia’s father died in 1815 of typhus and Anne Coffin (Lucretia’s mother) opened a store in Philadelphia which became successful. By 1824 she had given this up and was running a boarding house. James Mott engaged in cotton and wool wholesale trade (he later focused only on wool trading as a protest against the slavery-dependent cotton industry in the South). During the 1820s, Mott’s business prospered, allowing them to move into a home of their own.

Throughout their long marriage James Mott encouraged his wife in her many activities outside the home. The Quaker tradition enabled women to take public positions on a variety of social problems. She began to speak at Quaker meetings in 1818, and in 1821 she was recognized as a Quaker minister.

During the 1820s a rift formed between the stricter, more conservative Quakers and the tolerant, less orthodox followers of Elias Hicks (known as the Hicksites). In 1827 James and Lucretia followed the Hicksite branch which espoused free interpretation of the Bible and reliance on inward, as opposed to historic Christian, guidance.

As her children grew, Lucretia had more time to read and study the Bible, serious religious works and Mary Wollstonecraft’s Vindication of the Rights of Women, which she kept on the center table of her home for 40 years and could recite passages from memory. During the Quaker schism of 1827 the Motts united with the Hicksite faction, meeting temporarily at Carpenter’s Hall.

Abolitionist Activities
Like many Quakers, the Motts considered slavery an evil to be opposed. They refused to use cotton cloth, cane sugar and other slavery-produced goods. Lucretia began to speak publicly for the abolition cause, often traveling from her home in Philadelphia. Her sermons combined anti-slavery themes with broad calls for moral reform.

Lucretia first entertained William Lloyd Garrison at her home in 1830, during which he enlisted the Motts in the efforts to emancipate the slaves. A lifelong friendship stemmed from their initial meeting. Mott and her husband became deeply involved in the national abolitionist circle.

In December 1833, Garrison called a meeting to expand the New England Anti-Slavery Society. James Mott was a delegate at the Convention, but it was Lucretia who made a lasting impression on attendees. She tested the language of the Constitution and bolstered support when many delegates were precarious.

Days after the conclusion of the Convention, at the urging of other delegates, Mott founded the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society, which included both European American and African American members. Among other early members were Sarah Pugh, Mary Grew, Esther Moore, Sydney Ann Lewis and Lydia White.

Black women also joined including Sarah Mapps Douglass, Hattie Purvis, the Forten sisters and Lucretia’s daughters Anna Mott Hopper and Maria Mott Davis. The extensive participation of Blacks tightly bound the actions of the Society to the Philadelphia Black community. Lucretia often preached at Black parishes.

Lucretia Mott was quickly becoming the most widely known female abolitionist in America. Amidst social persecution by abolition opponents, Mott continued her work. She was praised for her ability to maintain her household while contributing to the cause. In the words of one editor, “She is proof that it is possible for a woman to widen her sphere without deserting it.”

Women’s political participation threatened social norms. Many involved in the abolitionist movement opposed public activities by women, which were infrequent in those years. Other people opposed women who preached to mixed crowds of men and women, whom they called promiscuous. None of this stopped Mott. She was one of the leaders in the Anti-Slavery Coalitions for American Women’s assembly held in New York on May 9-12, 1837.

Mob violence against abolitionists was common in Boston, New York and Philadelphia beginning in 1834. In 1838 funds were raised to build Pennsylvania Hall in Philadelphia to be the local abolitionist headquarters. This building was set on fire by a mob soon after its construction while a meeting was being held (Lucretia a speaker) and burned to the ground.

The rioters particularly objected to two things that were fairly novel in these meetings: mixing of the races on terms of equality and the prominence of women in both speaking at and running the meeting. The abolitionist movement was in some ways the beginning of the women’s rights movement in America.

In September 1839 Lucretia was a founding member of the Non-Resistant Society which was made up of abolitionists pledging not to return violence with violence, a concept contributed by William Lloyd Garrison. This was one of the first political organizations to accept men and women on equal terms in America.

Lucretia Mott was a delegate to the World Anti-Slavery Convention held June 12-17, 1840, in London. However, before the conference began the men voted to exclude women from participating. Lucretia and the other women delegates were refused seats, despite the protests of American men attending the convention. Women delegates were required to sit in a segregated area out of sight of the men. William Lloyd Garrison and several other men chose to sit with the excluded women.

During that meeting Lucretia met Elizabeth Cady Stanton, wife of American delegate Henry Stanton, who were on their honeymoon. Stanton was incensed that the women were barred from participation, and she and Lucretia quickly became friends.

Encouraged by active debates she attended in England and Scotland, Lucretia returned with new energy for the cause in the United States. She continued an active lecture schedule, with destinations including the major Northern cities of New York and Boston. For several weeks she traveled to slave-owning states, and gave speeches in Baltimore and Virginia.

She met with slave owners to discuss the morality of slavery. In the District of Columbia, Mott timed her lecture to coincide with the return of Congress from Christmas recess more than 40 Congressmen attended. She had a personal audience with President John Tyler who, impressed with her speech said, “I would like to hand Mr. Calhoun [a senator and abolition opponent] over to you.”

In 1844 Anne Coffin died in Lucretia’s home of influenza. During that same time Lucretia was also stricken with serious health problems: chronic dyspepsia, encephalitis and the same influenza that killed her mother her weight dropped to 92 pounds. For the next two years she was less active in public life.

A steady stream of callers appeared at their home, including Sojourner Truth, Sarah Douglass, Abby Kimber and Sarah Pugh as well as numerous relatives and friends. Out of town visitors included William Lloyd Garrison, Samuel May, John Quincy Adams, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Charles Dickens.

During the 1840s Lucretia was a founder of the Association for the Relief and Employment of Poor Women, a self-help group which made and sold garments, carpets and quilts. James Mott was able to retire from business, financially secure. Lucretia was now regarded as one of the leading radical reformers in America.

In her first major speech at the American Anti-Slavery Society in New York in 1848, Lucretia called for the immediate abolition of slavery. Hicksite Friends like Lucretia were attacked frequently by the Orthodox Friends over their beliefs and often felt called upon to defend them. She was a frequent speaker at local and yearly meetings.

During the 1850s debate in antislavery circles now centered on maintaining the Union of north and south versus the evils of slavery. Lucretia attempted to prevent the fragmenting of the movement by this tension. The Motts assisted runaway slaves who fled from Maryland and Delaware into Philadelphia throughout the 1850s. Their home at 338 Arch Street was a stop on the Underground Railroad.

Women’s Rights Activities
Mott’s commitment to freeing blacks deepened her awareness of the constraints society placed on women. Lucretia Mott, Martha Wright (Lucretia’s sister) and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were the main organizers of the first Women’s Rights Convention, which was held July 19-20, 1848, at Seneca Falls, New York – Stanton’s hometown. This was the first public women’s rights meeting in the United States.

James Mott chaired this convention and Lucretia gave the opening address. Stanton read the Declaration of Sentiments which is based on the Declaration of Independence. Resolutions listed on the document included efforts to secure better education, demolish the barriers to women in industry, the clergy and the professions of law and medicine, nullify laws restricting women’s property rights and support of woman’s suffrage. All of the resolutions in the declaration except the one demanding the vote passed unanimously.

Lucretia Mott also gave the closing remarks at the convention. She had been one of those reluctant to propose the right to vote for women and was also reluctant to have a woman as head of the organization, probably for practical reasons as she certainly believed women should vote. Since Lucretia was the best known of the early women’s rights advocates she now became the whipping-girl of editorialists who opposed her.

In 1850, James and Lucretia Mott were involved in the founding of the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, the first medical school in the world to provide medical education exclusively for women. In 1850, Lucretia wrote Discourse on Woman, a book about restrictions on women in the United States, and became more widely known as a result.

In 1857, Lucretia and her family left Philadelphia and moved to Roadside in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, near her daughter and son-in-law. A primary reason for moving was Lucretia’s poor health. She still went to Philadelphia to attend meetings and she spent a lot of time reading. On April 10, 1861 – Lucretia and James celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary the day before the fall of Fort Sumter.

Lucretia Mott upheld her pacifist Quaker beliefs during the Civil War, but many Quakers chose to fight, including members of her own family. Her son in law’s near-by property was leased by the Union Army as a training ground for African American soldiers it was called Camp William Penn. Lucretia assisted them in their preparations until they left to fight in the South.

During the war, she raised money and clothes for those freed from slavery. After President Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation was passed in 1863, abolitionists were seen as heroes, and Lucretia was universally admired. The 13th amendment to the Constitution in 1865 officially freed the slaves, and she began to advocate giving Black Americans the right to vote.

After the Civil War, Lucretia joined with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony and Lucy Stone to establish the American Equal Rights Association. In 1866 she attended the Equal Rights Convention in New York where Stanton was elected its first President but declined so that Lucretia could be President. After her term was over in 1870, the organization split in two and Lucretia was unable to reunite them – on one side was Stanton and Susan B. Anthony and on the other was Lucy Stone, Mary Livermore and Julia Ward Howe.

James Mott died on April 26, 1868, while visiting his daughter Martha in Brooklyn. Despite her grief over the loss of her greatest supporter, Lucretia carried on the struggle for equal rights for all people. She joined the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA), formed in 1869.

On the centennial of American independence, leaders of the NWSA renewed their call for women’s equality with their 1876 Declaration and Protest of the Women of the United States. The document called for impeachment of United States leaders on the grounds that they taxed women without representation and denied women trial by a jury of her peers.

Lucretia continued to work for voting rights for African Americans and equal rights for women, giving at least 40 speeches between 1870 and 1880. In July 1876 she presided at the National Woman Suffrage Association in Philadelphia. The peace movement was also a prime concern during her last ten years. In 1878 Lucretia delivered her last public address in Rochester, New York, where women’s rights advocates celebrated the 30th anniversary of the Seneca Falls Convention. Her last public appearance was in April 1880 at the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting.

Lucretia Coffin Mott died of pneumonia on November 11, 1880, at her home in Roadside at age 87. She was buried in the Quaker Fairhill Burial Ground in North Philadelphia.

Image: Memorial of Women’s Rights Leaders
This portrait monument features portrait busts of the leaders of the woman suffrage movement (left to right): Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony and Lucretia Mott. The uncarved portion behind the busts represents all past, present and future women leaders. It was presented to Congress by the National Woman’s Party as a gift to the nation on February, 15, 1921, and placed in the Rotunda Hall of the United States Capitol. After one day the statue was moved to the basement. Finally, after 76 years, the monument was returned to Rotunda Hall over Mother’s Day weekend, May 10-12, 1997.

Though women did not win the right to vote until 1920, forty years after Lucretia Mott’s death, she lived to see fulfillment of several demands set forth in the Declaration of Sentiments. By 1880, for example, most states granted a woman the right to hold property independent of her husband and several state and private colleges admitted women, including co-ed Swarthmore College, which Lucretia Mott helped to establish.


Mott Manuscripts

The bulk of the collection consists of material which was assembled at the time of the publication of Life and Letters by Anna Davis Hallowell in 1884. It includes original correspondence of Lucretia Mott and her husband, James M. Mott, with family and other reformers of their day, including Susan B. Anthony, Mary Grew, Nathaniel Barney, Charles C. Burleigh, Robert Collyer, George Combe, Anna Davis, Edward M Davis, Maria Mott Davis, Joseph A. and Ruth Dugdale., Mary Earle Hussey , William Henry Furness, William Lloyd Garrison, Sarah Josepha Hale, Mary Hallowell, Phebe A Hanaford, Oliver Johnson, George and Martha Lord, Benson John Lossing, Charles Marriott, Harriet Martineau, Samuel J. May, James Miller McKim, John Stuart Mill, ElizabethNeedles, Elizabeth Pease Nichol, Emma Parker, Wendell Phillips, William J. Potter, Ann Preston, Martha Schofield, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Thomas B Stevenson, Lucy Stone, Theodore Tilton, Richard D. and Emily Webb, Ruth D.Webb, Samuel and Amos Willets, and Elizur Wright. It also contains sermons, essays, and antislavery documents, and the diary of Lucretia Mott's trip to England to attend the World's Antislavery Convention of 1840.

Datumi

Limitations on Accessing the Collection

Access to the collection is restricted except by permission of the Director or Curator many of the letters have been published elsewhere or transcribed.

Explore Digitized Content

Note that the bulk of the collection has been digitized and is available in our Digital Library. Explore this collection online.

Copyright and Rights Information

Friends Historical Library believes all of the items in this collection to be in the Public Domain in the United States, and is not aware of any restrictions on their use. However, the user is responsible for making a final determination of copyright status before reproducing. See http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/NoC-US/1.0/ .

Biographical / Historical

Lucretia Mott was a prominent Philadelphia Quaker minister and a leader in reform movements, especially antislavery, education, peace, and women's rights. She was born in 1793 in Nantucket, Mass., the daughter of Thomas and Anna Coffin, and educated at Nine Partners Boarding School in Dutchess Co., N.Y. In 1811, she married James Mott and they settled in Philadelphia, Pa.

The Motts were active Hicksite Quakers, and Lucretia served as clerk of Philadelphia Yearly Meeting and traveled in the ministry. James Mott was a founder of the American Slavery Society in 1833, and Lucretia was a founder of the Philadelphia Female Antislavery Society. In 1840, they went to England to attend the first World's Antislavery Convention, and in London Lucretia became friends with Elizabeth Cady Stanton. In 1848, she and Stanton announced a conference on women's rights to be held at Seneca Falls, N.Y. Mott and her husband were active in the founding of Swarthmore College, a coeducational institution incorporated in 1864, and supported the founding of the nation's first medical school for women, Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania, and the School of Design for Women, now Moore College of Art. Lucretia Mott died in 1880 in Philadelphia, Pa.

Opseg

Jezik

Dodatni opis

Pregled

Lucretia Mott was a prominent Philadelphia Quaker minister and a leader in reform movements, especially antislavery, education, peace, and women's rights. She was born in 1793 in Nantucket, Mass., the daughter of Thomas and Anna Coffin, and educated at Nine Partners Boarding School in Dutchess Co., N.Y. In 1811, she married James Mott and they settled in Philadelphia, Pa. The Motts were active Hicksite Quakers, and Lucretia served as clerk of Philadelphia Yearly Meeting and traveled in the ministry. James Mott died in 1869, and Lucretia died in 1880. The bulk of the collection consists of material which was assembled at the time of the publication of Life and Letters by Anna Davis Hallowell in 1884. It includes original correspondence of Lucretia Mott and her husband, James M. Mott, with family and other reformers of their day. Also contains sermons, essays, and antislavery documents, and the diary of Lucretia Mott's trip to England to attend the World's Antislavery Convention of 1840.

Uređenje

The collection is organized in five series. The series are:

  1. Ser.1 Correspondence, 1831-1880
  2. Ser.2 Diary and Other Papers
  3. Ser.3 Notes and Drafts for Life and Letters
  4. Ser.4 Newspaper Clippings and Other Secondary References
  5. Ser.5 Margaret McHenry Research Notes

Correspondence in Series 1 is arranged chronologically.

Custodial History

The majority of original manuscripts in this collection were assembled by Lucretia Mott's family after her death in 1880 members of the family solicited letters and personal reminiscences of Lucretia from her friends and colleagues. The collection was used by Anna Davis Hallowell, daughter of Edward M. and Maria Mott Davis, in her edited version of James and Lucretia Mott: Life and Letters (1884). In the preface, dated 2mo 29 1884, Mrs. Hallowell gave a short history of the effort, including the fact that originally the family thought to divide the work into several periods, each to be written by a different person when they decided not to employ a professional writer for the task, the work devolved upon her. She credited Thomas C. Cornell, a Mott cousin whose initial essay is part of this collection, with the writing of the first chapter.

Lucretia Mott Churchill was the daughter of Anna Davis Hallowell. Her granddaughter, Barbara J. Grinberg, is the daughter of Lucretia Churchill Jordan.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

The first part of this collection came to Friends Historical Library in 1945 as a gift of the scrapbook of newspaper clippings from Lucretia Mott Churchill a year later she donated a large collection of original Lucretia Mott letters and a journal, followed by another deposit in 1947.

In 1985 and 1988, her granddaughter, Barbara J. Grinberg, gave additional manuscripts found among the papers of her mother and grandmother.

Before 1960, other items had been added to this collection at Friends Historical Library. Margaret McHenry's research notes and partial manuscript of a life of Lucretia Mott were added at her death in 1950, and Otelia Cromwell donated photocopies of Mott letters located in other collections that she used in her own book, Lucretia Mott (1958). Other donors include: Marietta Hicks, the grandchildren of Joseph A. & Ruth Dugdale (1928), Lucy Davis (1943), Mrs. McAllister (1971) separate purchases were made in 1938 and 1980. Lucretia Mott correspondence, was transferred in 2016 from Charles Smith Ogden's autograph collection, the gift of Marie Ogden Francke (1948).

Obrada informacija

When the donation of photocopies of Mott material from Otelia Cromwell was received by Friends Historical Library, they were added to Churchill's earlier gift, and the Mott Manuscripts were organized and described as an artifical collection, focusing on the correspondence and writings of Lucretia Mott. In 2002, in the process of preparing the finding aid for encoding, a re-examination of the collection--particularly in light of the later donations of Grinberg in the 1980s--it became clear that the bulk of the collection as it stood had the same provenance, viz. as the collection gathered to support the publicaiton of Life and Letters in 1884. Even though the Cromwell photocopies and McHenry reearch notes have been retained as part of this collection, folder identification will enable the researcher to distinguish these parts of the collection.

In 2016, Lucretia Mott correspondence in the Charles Smith Ogden Papers, RG5/108, were transferred to MSS 0035. According to her cover letter to her friend Sarah Corbit, Lucretia forwarded letters to be added to Ogden's autograph collection.


Gledaj video: Lucretia Mott, Daguerreotype Portrait