James Graham. Grof od Montrosea

James Graham. Grof od Montrosea


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

James Graham, sin 4. grofa od Montrosea, rođen je 1612. Nakon što se školovao na koledžu St. Salvator's College, St. Andrews, putovao je u Francusku, Italiju i Nizozemsku.

Montrose se vratio u Škotsku 1637. godine, a ubrzo nakon toga bio je jedan od četvorice plemića koji su sastavili Nacionalni savez za podršku prezbiterijanizmu. Međutim, 1639. izrazio je sumnju u Savez, a nakon što je priznao da je komunicirao s Charlesom I, njegov glavni politički protivnik, grof od Argylla, organizirao je njegovo zatočenje u dvorcu Edinburgh.

Nakon što je pušten, odlučio je podržati kralja tijekom građanskog rata. U kolovozu 1644. pobijedio je Zavjete pod vodstvom lorda Elcha kod Tippermuira. Zatim je zauzeo Aberdeen (rujan 1644.) i opljačkao selo. U Inverlochiju (veljača 1645.) njegova je vojska u borbi ubila 1.500 Campbellova. Daljnje pobjede ostvario je u Auldearnu (svibanj 1645.) i Alfordu (lipanj 1645.).

Montrosea je porazio David Leslie u Philiphaughu (rujan 1645.). Uspio je podići novu vojsku u gorju, ali je nakon predaje Karla I. pobjegao u Europu.

Montroseu je ponuđeno visoko mjesto u francuskoj vojsci, ali posvećen rojalističkoj stvari, vratio se u Škotsku s malom vojskom u travnju 1650. Tri tjedna kasnije poražen je kod Carbisdalea.

James Graham, peti grof od Montrosea, obješen je, nacrtan i raščetvoren na Mercat Crossu u Edinburghu u svibnju 1650. Njegovi udovi bili su izloženi u Glasgowu, Aberdeenu, Stirlingu i Perthu.


Pogubljenje Montrosea

Richard Cavendish opisuje pogubljenje Jamesa Grahama, markiza od Montrosea, 21. svibnja 1650.

James Graham, markiz od Montrosea, vojnik, pjesnik i jedna od najromantičnijih ličnosti u britanskoj povijesti, vodio je u ljeto kampanju nevjerojatnog sjaja kao general kapetan Royalista u Škotskoj protiv Covenantera i njegovog ogorčenog osobnog neprijatelja, markiza od Argylla, ljeti iz 1645. S malom snagom brdskih i iračkih snaga, brzo je kretao drskim krugovima oko svojih protivnika sve do rujna, kada je konačno prikovan i poražen nadmoćnim brojevima u Philiphaughu na granicama.

Montrose je pobjegao na kontinent, ali on je bio čovjek od akcije koji se uzrujao u sigurnosti progonstva, pa se 1650. vratio u gorje u borbu za Karla II. Nije uspio podići klanove u dovoljnom broju te je u travnju zarobljen i razbijen u Carbisdaleu. Nakon što je lutao po brdima s nijansom i zavapio protiv njega, toliko gladan da je sveo na to da pojede rukavice, sklonio se u dvorac Ardvreck s Neilom MacLeodom iz Assynta, no za njega i Macleoda trebalo je zaraditi znatnu nagradu predao ga vlastima. Macleod je dobio svoj novac i njegovo ime od tada smrdi u škotskim nosnicama.

Montroseovi otmičari su ga Invernessom i Dundeeom premjestili na jug, a prethodio im je glasnik koji je proglasio: "Evo dolazi James Graham, izdajica svoje zemlje". Montiran na kartonu, stigao je u Edinburgh hladnog subotnjeg poslijepodneva u svibnju, u prisutnosti ogromne gomile. Na Vratima za vodu dočekao ga je vješalac, prebacio ga u kolica za vješala i vezao za sjedalo, kako bi ga ulicama odveli u zatvor Tolbooth. Argyll je promatrao iz jedne kuće na ruti i pričalo se da su se oči dvojice muškaraca na trenutak srele dok su kola prolazila. Daleko od toga da su zarobljenika kamenovali i vrijeđali, kao što se nadalo, gomila promatrača šutjela je, a promatrači su osjetili zrak nevoljnog divljenja i suosjećanja. Kolica su do zatvora Tolbooth stigla oko sedam sati navečer. Montrose je nedjelju proveo u svojoj ćeliji, uznemiravali su je prezbiterijanski ministri, koji su u ponedjeljak obnovili napad, kada su ga odveli u parlament da čuje smrtnu presudu.

U utorak ujutro Montrose je posljednji put ustao na zemlji i pripremio se. Pažljivo raščešljavajući dugu kosu, jedan od puritanskih bogova zamjerio mu je što je u to vrijeme toliko pazio na svoj izgled. "Moja je glava i dalje moja", odgovorio je Montrose. "Večeras, kad bude tvoje, ponašaj se prema sebi kako hoćeš." U dva popodne odveden je pješice uz High Street do križa Mercat, gdje je na platformi podignuto vješalo visoko 30 stopa. Osuđeni je bio odjeven u najfiniji grimiz i čipku, s bijelim rukavicama, svilenim čarapama, cipelama s vrpcama i šeširom u ruci. Imao je trideset sedam godina i, prema jednom promatraču, više je nalikovao mladoženji nego kriminalcu. Drugi je u njemu vidio "galantnost koja je poduprla gomilu". Nije se smio obratiti gledateljima, iz straha od onoga što bi mogao reći. Vješalici je dao nešto novca, ruke su mu bile zbijene iza leđa i popeo se na ljestve. Njegove posljednje riječi objavljene su kao "Bože smiluj se ovoj napaćenoj zemlji!" Vješalici su mu potekle suze dok ga je odgurnuo.

Tijelo je ostavljeno da visi tri sata, a zatim je posječeno i raskomadano kako bi se udovi poslali na javno izlaganje u Stirling, Aberdeen, Perth i Glasgow. Glava je odrezana i pričvršćena na šiljak na Tolboothu, gdje je ostala trunuti jedanaest godina, kada je Argyllina glava zauzela njegovo mjesto. Ostatak trupla pokopan je u kutiji na Burgh-Mooru, odakle je spašen nakon obnove Karla II. I davan mu je časni pokop u visokom Kirku Svetog Gilesa, gdje danas plemeniti spomenik obilježava grob.


Montrose & amp građanski rat

Njegovo ime možda nije toliko poznato kao ime Roberta Brucea i Williama Wallacea - ali James Graham, grof od Montrosea, bio je jedan od najvećih heroja koje je Škotska ikada proizvela.

Poput Brucea i Wallacea, Montrose je bio briljantan strateg i neustrašiv borac koji je imao dar moći nadahnuti svoje ljude do blistavih pobjeda.

Najveća razlika bila je u tome što su dva velika srednjovjekovna ratnika Škotske bili domoljubi koji su se borili isključivo za svoju zemlju, a Montrose se borio za svog kralja i rojalističku stvar Stewart monarha.

Kampanje Jamesa Grahama u ime Karla I. bile su toliko izvanredne da su dale srce rojalistima u cijeloj Britaniji koji su se borili protiv parlamentarnih snaga u građanskom ratu.

U Škotskoj su Montroseovi neprijatelji bili Zavjetnici - Škoti koji su potpisali Nacionalni pakt 1638. u pokušaju da zaštite reformiranu kalvinističku vjeru od pokušaja kralja Charlesa da Škotskoj nametne engleski i anglikanski oblik bogoslužja.

U teoriji, Montrosea je trebalo pobijediti gotovo na svakom koraku. Umjesto toga, borio se tako pametno i s takvom odlučnošću da je razbijao svoje neprijatelje i s vremena na vrijeme za kralja tražio komade Škotske.

Do početka građanskog rata u Engleskoj, Montrose je postao markiz i službeno imenovan kraljevim poručnikom u Škotskoj. Osim vlastitog lukavstva, imao je i veliku prednost u tome što je imao podršku briljantnih Alastair MacDonald iz Colonsaya, koji je podrijetlom iz Irske, a bio je poznat i kao Coll Keitach. Godine 1644., sa samo 2200 ljudi, par je zauzeo Dumfriesa od Zavjetova, a zatim su zauzeli grad Morpeth u Northumberlandu.

Montrose je osvojio još spektakularniju pobjedu kasnije te godine kada je razbio savezničku vojsku u Tibbermore blizu Pertha. I dalje je imao manje od 3000 ljudi, dok je njegov neprijatelj imao više nego dvostruko veći broj.

Većina Montroseovih trupa došla je iz gorja, a oni su otišli kući nakon što su pomogli u pobjedi u bitci kod Tibbermora. Montrose je, međutim, pritisnuo i krenuo na sjever. Kad je stigao u Aberdeen, imao je samo 1500 ljudi.

To ga, međutim, nije spriječilo u daljnjoj borbi. Ponovno je uzeo izuzetno superiornu vojsku Saveza i ponovno je pobijedio. Zauzeo je Aberdeen, gdje je uspio nabaviti pojačanje i pripremiti se za daljnju bitku.

Montrose se do sada osjećao dovoljno samopouzdano da pokuša udariti u samo srce neprijatelja. Odlučio je preuzeti Archibald Campbell, žestoko kalvinistički grof od Argylla, na svom teritoriju u planinskom uporištu Inveraray.

Činilo se da njegova taktika nije ništa ludačka. Zima se približavala, a Campbellov položaj u Inverarayu, s morem s tri strane i planinama na četvrtoj, izgledao je gotovo nepremostivo. No, kad je Argyll čuo da je Montrose na putu, uspaničio se i pobjegao niz Loch Fyne, ostavljajući stotine svojih vojnika kao lak izbor za Montroseove ljude.

Sljedeće veljače Montrose je izveo novi napad na Campbella. Izveo je odvažnu gerilsku gerilsku raciju, a MacDonalds Coll Keitacha jurio je niz padine Bena Nevisa u Inverlochyju. Još je jednom sam Argyll pobjegao, a njegovi su ljudi opet bili mačem. Konačni broj tijela bio je 1500 mrtvih, dok je samo 10 rojalista poginulo.

Slijedila je pobjeda za pobjedom. Montrose je nastavio koristiti svoje talente karizmatičnog vodstva, brzine napada i iznenađenja u borbi za uništavanje neprijatelja. Uhvatio je Dundee i pobijedio u nizu drugih okršaja sve dok Highlands zapravo nije bio njegov.

Razoružavši Campbella, Montrose je svoju pozornost usmjerio na nizine. Umarširao je u Glasgow, iako ga je u ovom trenutku Coll Keitach napustio da se vrati u gorje i na kraju u Irsku. Montroseove brdske trupe također su dezertirale. Međutim, čak je i sada uspio zauzeti Edinburgh, iako su Savezi zadržali kontrolu nad dvorcem.

S Campbellom na sigurnoj udaljenosti u Berwicku, Montrose je počeo formirati škotsku vladu u ime kralja Charlesa. Međutim, njegova je slava trebala biti kratkog vijeka. Najbolji general Covenantorsa, David Leslie, vratio se u Škotsku sa snagom od 4000 ljudi, a njegova vojska blokirala je Montroseove pokušaje povezivanja s Charlesom u Engleskoj.

Dvije strane sastale su se u Philiphaugh, u blizini Selkirka. Ovaj put iznenađujuća je bila zavjetna vojska pod Lesliejem. Borba koja je uslijedila pretvorila se u krvoproliće i kako je postalo jasno da je izgubio dan, Montrosea su morali uvjeriti da pobjegne s bojišta radi vlastite sigurnosti.

S kastriranim najvećim škotskim neprijateljem, sile Zavjeta došle su u uspon. Pod uvjetima Svečana liga i savez potpisali su s anti-rojalističkim parlamentarnim snagama u Engleskoj, već su se borili protiv Karla I. južno od granice. Kad se 1646. predao u Southwellu kod Newarka, to je bilo škotskoj vojsci.

Nakon što su neuspješno pokušali uvjeriti kralja da potpiše Pakt, Škoti su ga konačno predali Englezima u zamjenu za njihove borbene troškove. Međutim, poraženom kralju još je postojao izlaz. Jedan od glavnih arhitekata Svečane lige i zavjeta, grof od Lauderdalea, otputovao je k njemu i ponudio Charlesu potporu škotske vojske ako prevede Englesku u prezbiterijanizam na probno razdoblje od tri godine.

Kralj, s čime više nema što izgubiti, složio se. No, potez, poznat kao Zaruke, podijelili su škotske prezbiterijance i konačno se povukli kad su škotsku vojsku predvođenu vojvodom od Hamiltona i koja se borila za ovaj dogovor porazili parlamentarci pod vodstvom Olivera Cromwella u Prestonu u Lancashireu.

Za Charlesa je to bio kraj. Sudio mu je engleski parlament, proglašen krivim i odrubljen mu je glava izvan Whitehalla u siječnju 1649. Montrose, koji je do sada bio u egzilu u Bruxellesu, obećao je da će se truditi osvetiti svoju smrt.

Kralj je ostavio 18-godišnjeg sina, također Charlesa, koji je proglašen kraljem Škotske u Edinburghu nakon očevog pogubljenja. Međutim, zapravo nije mogao zauzeti prijestolje dok nije potpisao dokument od kojeg se njegov otac odbacio - Svečanu ligu i savez.

Montrose je upozorio Charlesa II da ne potpisuje dokument, rekavši da će ga umjesto toga osvojiti na prijestolju vojnim sredstvima. Kralj je potajno nastavio razgovarati s Argyllom o potpisivanju saveza, ali se složio da bi Montrose mogao krenuti u kampanju za obnovu svoje monarhije.

Montrose je započeo svoju novu vojnu ekspediciju iskrcavanjem na Orkney sa snagama od oko 500 plaćenika regrutiranih iz Njemačke i Danske. Potom je okupio lokalne regrute prije nego što je krenuo prema kopnu. No, njegov je pothvat bio katastrofa.

Kad se borio protiv škotskih snaga u Carbisdale, njegova vojska je uništena. Montrose je pobjegao s bojišta i sakrio se u divljini Sutherlanda, ali je zarobljen tek dva dana kasnije.

Nakon što je odveden u Edinburgh, izvršene su pripreme za njegovo pogubljenje. Nije bilo potrebe za suđenjem - prikladno, Zavetnici su ga još 1644. proglasili izdajnikom. Trebalo ga je objesiti, izvući i četvrtati kod križa Mercat.

Kao što je uvijek bio slučaj s pogubljenjima, okupila se rulja, ali ovaj put su umjesto plakanja plakali. Nakon što je obješen, glava mu je stavljena na šiljak u Edinburgh's Tolbooth, dok su drugi dijelovi njegova tijela poslati u Aberdeen, Glasgow, Stirling i Perth.

Ono što Montrose nije naučio prije svoje smrti bilo je to da ga je nesretni Charles II dvostruko prešao. Sklopio je dogovor s Argyllom i konačno potpisao i Nacionalni savez i Svečanu ligu i Zavjet.

Za Charlesa je to bila šuplja pobjeda. Bio je prisiljen prihvatiti vladavinu prezbiterijanaca koji mu nisu vjerovali i nisu mogli učinkovito vladati. A postojao je još jedan problem. U Engleskoj je Oliver Cromwell, Lord zaštitnik i pobjednik u građanskom ratu, imao svoje nacrte i na Škotskoj ?.


ExecutedToday.com

Na današnji dan 1650. godine u Edinburghu je obješen James Graham, grof od Montrosea.

Tragični “Great Montrose ” bio je poznat po svom taktičkom geniju na bojnom polju tijekom građanskih ratova koji su kralja Charlesa I. koštali krune i glave. Premda će Montrose umrijeti kao rojalist, prvi put je ušao na popise u ratu 1630-ih i#8217 biskupa i#8217 kao dio vojske Covenantera koja se opirala kraljevoj pokušaji da Škotskoj nametne vjersku upravu odozgo prema dolje.

No, Montrose je bio umjeren, a rat nakon biskupa našao se kao vodeći eksponent frakcije za pomirenje, ogorčeno se usprotivio poglavar Campbell klana, markiz od Argylla.

Njih dvojica postali su suprotni polovi za građanski rat koji je uslijedio u Škotskoj, odjednom lokalni rat klanova i vrtlog graničnog sukoba koji je usisao i Irsku i Englesku. Iako je Montrose, sada general-pukovnik kralja Charlesa u Škotskoj, mogao u borbi udariti rep, njegova je frakcija bila podijeljena i na kraju nadmašena od strane Covenantera. Montrose je morao pobjeći iz Škotske u egzil 1646.

Pogubljenje Karla I. otvorilo je vrata Montroseovim preuranjenim prekidima, u jednom od onih klasičnih poslova dvojbe. Prognani Charles II, koji je sada naslijedio tu tvrdnju, nazvao je Montrose svojim poručnikom u Škotskoj i poslao svoje obiteljske dugogodišnje paladine natrag na domaće tlo kako bi pokušao prikupiti vojsku. Ali čak i dok je to činio, pregovarao je s Argyll's Covenanters, koji su vidjeli šansu da ispune svoje političke i vjerske ciljeve igrajući se sa starim neprijateljem.

Dakle, kad je Montrose sletio 1650., našao je malu podršku i bio je preplavljen u bitci za Carbisdale. Nakon nekoliko dana lutanja, potražio je utočište kod bivšeg prijatelja za kojeg nije znao da je sada i na strani vlade, te je odmah uhićen i predan neprijateljima na pogubljenje i posthumno poniženje: glava mu je bila podignuta na štuka na vrhu Edinburškog Tolbootha i njegova četiri udova prikovana za vrata Stirlinga, Glasgowa, Pertha i Aberdeena.

Nakon završetka protektorata Cromwella i stvarne obnove Karla II., Ti su razbacani ostaci prikupljeni i sa strahopoštovanjem sahranjeni u katedrali sv. Gilesa. Današnji vojvode od Montrosea njegovi su izravni potomci.

James Graham, grof od Montrosea i njegovo pogubljenje imaju još veću čast kao stihovski počast legendarnog strašnog pjesnika Williama McGonagalla. (I sam Montrose se znao okušati u poeziji.)

Pogubljenje Jamesa Grahama, markiza od Montrosea Povijesna pjesma

‘To je bilo 1650. godine, a 21. svibnja,
Grad Edinburgh doveden je u stanje zaprepaštenja
Uz buku bubnjeva i truba, koja se pojavila u eteru,
Da je sjajan zvuk privukao pozornost Montrosea.

Tko je pitao kapetana straže o uzroku toga,
Tada mu je policajac rekao, kako je on smatrao najpogodnijim,
Da bi ga Parlament u strahu od pokušaja pokušaja mogao spasiti,
Vojnici su pozvani na oružje i to je izazvalo užas.

Moram li, rekao je Montrose, nastaviti s takvim terorom?
Kad se ovi dobri ljudi spremaju da mi se krv prolije,
Ali neka gledaju u sebe, jer nakon što ja umrem,
Njihova opaka savjest neprestano će biti u strahu.

Nakon što je obilno doručkovao, otvorio je zahod,
Što je u najvećoj nevolji rijetko zaboravljao.
I dok se češljao,
Posjetio ga je Registar službenika, koji ga je natjerao da zagleda,

Kad mu je rekao da ne bi trebao biti tako poseban s glavom,
Za nekoliko sati bio bi mrtav
Ali Montrose je odgovorio: "Dok mi je glava moja, odjenut ću je prema svojoj volji,
A sutra, kad postane tvoje, postupaj s njim kako hoćeš.

Čekali su ga gradski suci,
Ali, avaj! za njega nisu imali sažaljenja.
Bio je nastanjen u vrhunskom ogrtaču, ukrašen zlatnom i srebrnom čipkom
A prije sata pogubljenja oko mjesta je bila ogromna skupina ljudi.

Iz zatvora, gologlavi, u kolima, prevezli su ga uz Watergate
Do mjesta pogubljenja u High Streetu, gdje je čekalo oko trideset tisuća ljudi,
Neki plaču i uzdišu, najjadniji prizor za vidjeti,
Svi strpljivo čekaju da vide krvnika kako objesi Montrosea, čovjeka visokog stupnja.

Oko mjesta pogubljenja svi su bili duboko pogođeni,
No Montrose, plemeniti junak, nije izgledao ni najmanje razočaran
A kad je bio na skeli, kaže njegov biograf Wishart,
Tako veliki zrak i veličanstvo, što je natjeralo ljude na početak.

Kako se bližio kobni sat kad je morao oprostiti svijet,
Rekao je krvniku da požuri i brzo prođe,
Ali krvnik se mračno nasmiješio, ali nije rekao ni riječ,
Zatim je oko vrata zavezao knjigu Montroseovih ratova#8217s.

Zatim je rekao krvniku da će ga se neprijatelji ubuduće sjećati,
I bio je jednako zadovoljan kao da ga je njegovo veličanstvo proglasilo vitezom podvezice
Zatim je zatražio da mu se dozvoli da pokrije glavu,
No, odbijeno mu je dopuštenje, ali se nije osjećao straha.

Zatim je zatražio dopuštenje da zadrži ogrtač,
Ali također je odbijen, što je bio najteži udar
Zatim je rekao magistratima, ako bi mogli izmisliti još mučenja za njega,
Izdržao bi ih sve zbog onoga što je pretrpio, i mislio da to nije grijeh.

Kad ste s velikom čvrstoćom stigli na vrh ljestvice,
Njegov herojski izgled jako je zadivio promatrače,
Tada je Montrose upitao krvnika koliko dugo će mu tijelo visjeti,
Tri sata je bio odgovor, ali Montrose nije bio ni najmanje uvrijeđen.

Zatim je krvniku poklonio tri ili četiri zlatnika,
Kome je slobodno oprostio, neka mu je čast,
I rekao mu da ga odbaci čim podigne ruke,
Dok je krvnik gledao kobni signal, i u čudu stoji.

I kad je plemeniti domoljub podigao ruke, krvnik je počeo plakati,
Zatim je brzo povukao uže s gibeta na visini,
I oko vrata Montrose je vrlo nježno učvrstio uže,
I u trenu je veliki Montrose lansiran u vječnost.

Tada su gledatelji izrazili svoje neodobravanje općim stenjanjem,
I svi su se tiho razišli i otisnuli se kući
I njegovi najljući neprijatelji koji su tog dana vidjeli njegovu smrt,
Srca su im bila ispunjena tugom i užasom.

Tako je u trideset osmoj godini umro James Graham, markiz od Montrosea,
Koje su njegovi ogorčeni neprijatelji doveli u prerani grob
Zapovjednik koji je stekao veliku vojničku slavu
U kratkom vremenu, koje se ne može izjednačiti u priči.


Povijest obitelji Graham

Postupanje i mučenje prema tim pobožnim religioznim ljudima, koji su se ustrajno pridržavali načela prezbiterijanske vjere, [2] engleske crkve, pod lažnim ogrtačem religije, samo po sebi ispunilo bi svezak mnogo veći od onog koji je predviđen na ovim stranicama, a referenca se samo prikazuje kako bi se pokazao strog i nepokolebljiv karakter naroda koji je bio tjeran od stupa do stupa, a pretrpio je gotovo neizdržive teškoće i degradacije, umjesto da odstupi od načela za koje su vjerovali da je učenje Bibliju, kao i da imaju odobrenje njihove savjesti. Tako su prije više od dva stoljeća naši preci ostavili lijepe domove u svojoj rodnoj zemlji i posljednji put tražili na zelenim kosim mačevima Grampian Hillsa i zauvijek se oprostili od grobova svojih očeva i majki te ostavili iza sebe sve što im je bilo blizu i drago, čak i kao njihova ljupka Škotska, i krenulo je na njihov pohod prema Smaragdnom otoku, uzalud se nadajući da će progoni i kušnje koji su dosad činili život užasnim prestati i biti slobodni ispoljavaju svoju vjeru [,] što je dugo bila želja njihove savjesti. [3] Ali nažalost! za ljudska očekivanja. Njihov je boravak samo neko vrijeme, sve dok im široka i privlačna zemlja preko Atlantika još jednom nije zabranila da preuzmu njihovu marš liniju i zasade svoje domove u Novom svijetu, gdje bi mogli slobodno štovati Boga prema diktatima svojih vlastitu savjest, neometana od strane crkve ili države. Među brojnim obiteljima koje su tako emigrirale iz Škotske u Irsku, a kasnije iz Irske u Ameriku, mogli bismo spomenuti sljedeća imena: Forbesses, Stuarts, Hamiltons, Montgomerys, Alexanders, Grahams, Shaws, Moores, Lewises, Pattons, Mathews, Prestons, Baxtons , Lyles, Grigsbys, Crawfords, Comminses, Browns, Wallaces, Wilsons, Caruthers, Campbells, McClungs, McCues, McKees, McCowns, Lockridges, Boyds, Barclays, McDonals i Baileys, opisani kao, “knights and gentlemen of Scotland, čiji prosperitet drži do danas. ” Bili su to irski prezbiterijanci, koji su se, budući da su bili škotski vađenci, nazivali škotsko-irskim.

[4] Ta su imena danas poznate kućne riječi imena naše zemlje i samo su ponavljanje, i istog linijskog podrijetla njihovih plemenitih predaka, koji su prije više od dva stoljeća uvijek čvrsto stajali uz Magna Charta škotskih prava i okupili su se pod svojim hrabrim zastavama, okićeni vjerom vlastite vjeroispovijesti, poznatim zlatnim slovima, “Za Kristovu Krunu i Savez,##148 čekali su bez straha, tiraniju svojih neprijatelja .

Kao što smo rekli, njihov boravak u Irskoj bio je samo privremen, za veliki dio onih koji su tamo emigrirali. Naravno, mnogi koje je ometalo siromaštvo i drugi uzroci bez sumnje učinili su to svojim stalnim domom.

Olakšanje koje su tražili našli su, ali privremeno, u svojim novim kućama u Irskoj. Pod vladavinom tiranskih kraljeva, njihova patnja i kazna bili su podnošljivi samo zbog njihovih suprotnosti s njihovim prijašnjim patnjama. Desetine i porezi koji su se zahtijevali od njihovih uništenih posjeda za uzdržavanje crkve, a ne po njihovom vlastitom izboru [5], bili suzdržani [5] od iznošenja vlastitog mišljenja koji žive u tuđoj zemlji koja živi među neprijateljima njihove vjere, a sve to zajedno činilo ih je nesretnim i nemirnim narodom. U želji za novim domovima, tihi šapat došao je preko oceana da je Mayflower, godinama prije, iskrcao druge, progonjen poput njih, sigurno s druge strane plave vode. To im je dalo nadu. “Zato što si nas, o, Bože, dokazao i iskušao nas kao što se srebro iskušavalo, uveo si nas u mrežu, nanio si nevolje na naša bedra, natjerao si ljude da nam jašu, prošli smo kroz vatru i vodu ali iako nas je izveo na bogato mjesto. ” Skupljajući ono malo svjetovnih dobara koje su posjedovali, što je bilo vrlo oskudno, a često i ništa, osim njihove Biblije. Krenuli su u Novi svijet, sletjeli na obale Delewarea, [sic], a mnogi su se odmarali jednu sezonu u zemlji Pennsylvaniji.

William Penn, koji je ranije bio podanik engleskog kralja i bio svjedok progona [6] vlastite crkve (iako je i sam bio miljenik kralja Jamesa), bilo je prirodno da bi ti ljudi trebali tražiti u Novi svijet, oni koji su u starom svijetu bili progonjeni zbog savjesti.

Među onima koji su tražili svježe olakšanje i nove domove usred neutabanih šuma Amerike, malo ih je stajalo uzvišenije ili zauzimalo položaje uzvišenije od Grahamovih. Tijekom te krvave, izdajničke i uvijek pamtljive borbe u Engleskoj, Irskoj i Škotskoj, u kojoj je kralj James svrgnut s prijestolja, a William, Price of Orange, prezbiterijanac, postao je njegov nasljednik u vrijeme kada nijedan čovjek nije mogao ostati neutralan, ali , svi moraju izjaviti, bilo za časnu, utemeljenu englesku crkvu, papistiku kralja Jakova, bilo za vjeru za koju su vjerovali da se uči u Svetom pismu. Prema nalogu vlastite savjesti, Grahamovi su zauzeli istaknute položaje s obje strane.

Jedan Richard Graham, poznat kao vikont Preston, obnašao je dužnost državnog tajnika [7] Škotske, pod kraljem Jamesom, oko 1685. godine, a povijest nam govori da je bio jedan od [tajnih] vijeća, i najpouzdaniji savjetnici kralja kojega su se često pridržavali njegovi planovi i preporuke, a ne oni samog kralja. Kao čelnik Donjeg doma, savjetovao je kralja Jamesa da ponovno sastavi domove parlamenta, kako bi osigurao mirno rješavanje razlika između crkve i države. Također je proglašen lordom poručnikom za oba okruga Cumberland i Westmoreland, što je položaj vrlo rijedak i izvanredan za jednog čovjeka.

Tijekom odsutnosti kralja Jakova s ​​prijestolja, koji je zbog straha od protivnika pobjegao u Salisbury, Richard Graham i četvorica suradnika imenovani su odborom, poznatim kao Vijeće petorice, koji će obavljati poslove prijestolja do onoliko vremena koliko bi se moglo smatrati svrsishodnim za povratak kralja.

Položaji visoke časti i povjerenja, koje je zauzimao i zauzimao ovaj jedan čovjek, bili su mnogi, pa bi ih sve detaljno uvježbali [8] zahtijevalo više prostora nego što je naša svrha ovdje u ovoj kratkoj skici, dovoljno je reći da čini se da je bio vođa svoje stranke i u građanskim i u vojnim poslovima, ministar pri sudovima stranih zemalja, poštovan, u njega se vjerovalo i kojeg su se pridržavali, a mogli bismo dodati, poslušali su ga kraljevi kojega se Donji dom bojao i cijenio u najvećem poštovanju običnih ljudi. Iako je bio istinit i odan kralju Jakovu, u smislu patriotizma, ne čini se da je bio progonitelj onih koji su se razlikovali od kraljevih vjerskih pogleda.

James Graham, iz Claverhousea, vikont Dundeeja, također je bio zapažen lik u toj bogatoj borbi, pa iako se njegov progon onih koji su se razlikovali od vjerskih uvjerenja kralja Jamesa mora uvijek osuditi, tješimo se činjenicom da je on izvršavao naređenja i naredbe svog Učitelja. Da je njegova vjernost kralju ikad bila istinita tijekom života, pa čak i u času smrti, potpuno je potkrijepljeno [9] u njegovu posljednjem izlaganju, nakon što je proveo život ispunjen događajima u kraljevoj stvari.

Nakon što je kralj James napustio prijestolje, a William i Mary bili trijumfalno okrunjeni, a Jakovljeve vojske napuštene i rasute, general Graham je sa svojom nesalomljivom voljom i uvijek vrijednom energijom, nadajući se protiv nade, prikupio zajedno, npr. mogao je od preostale fragmentarne vojske svog odbjeglog gospodara popraviti se u Škotskoj visoravni, gdje je uspio u interesu pokojnog kralja zainteresirati škotske poglavice tih brdskih klanova. Udaljenost ovih polu-barbara od aktivne scene rata, zajedno s njihovom nesklonošću informiranju o prirodi sukoba, ubrzo ih je vodila kroz tečnost Grahamova govora da zastupa njegovu stvar. Tražeći i zadobivši simpatije svih glavnih poglavara različitih klanova, okupio ih je zajedno i održano je vijeće za odlučivanje o načinu ratovanja. Odvojeni fragmenat vojske kojim je [10] do sada zapovijedao Graham, očaran bivšim porazima, protestirao je protiv bitke s onima koji su zagovarali stvar kralja Williama. Dok su vođe planinskih klanova tražili hitan napad, rekavši da su njihovi ljudi spremni i željni sukoba.

Na generala Grahama utjecao je savjet gorštaka koji ih je uvjeravao da će ih odvesti do pobjede da će i sam krenuti ispred svoje vojske na to, usprotivili su se njegovi podređeni časnici rekavši da je on previše vrijedan vođa da bi razotkrio svoju osobu ispred bitke i pozvao ga da ostane u pozadini i diktira kretanje svoje vojske u nadolazećem sukobu. Na to je Graham odgovorio: “Vaši su ljudi navikli vidjeti svog vođu u kombiju bitke, i tamo ću biti viđen danas, ali nakon današnje odluke bit ću pažljiviji prema svojoj osobi i ne izlagati se u akciji kao što je dosad bio moj običaj. ” Nakon te izjave, njegovoj vojsci je naređeno da krene naprijed, a on sam prednjači. [11]

Ubrzo je neprijatelj bio dočekan i vođena je bitka kod Killikrankieja. Rano u zarukama Graham je pogođen, podigavši ​​ruku iznad glave i stojeći uspravno u uzengijama, dajući zapovijed, štit ili oklop podignut iznad pojasa, izlažući njegovu osobu, kada je lopta stupila na snagu, pao je s konja i jedan od njegovih podređenih časnika prišao mu je, upitao ga jesu li njegove ozljede smrtonosne, a Graham je odgovorio: "#Kako ide uzrok kralja?" vaše gospodstvo? ” Graham je odgovorio: "Nije važno za mene, pa je cilj kralja siguran."##148 To su bile njegove posljednje riječi. Iako je poginuo na terenu, njegova je vojska odnijela veliku pobjedu, a bitka kod Killikrankieja ušla je u povijest, kao jedan od najupečatljivijih događaja tog vremena. Povijest nam predaje druga imena Grahamovih, koji su manje -više bili zapaženi u svoje vrijeme i vrijeme, od kojih bismo mogli spomenuti, Malcolma Grahama, koji je posljednji, ali nipošto najmanje važan, stajao je visoko u društvu i bio je [12 ] kralja Jakova II. zlatnim lancem vezao za Ellen Douglass, djevojku koju je toliko volio, obeščašćujući tako tvoje odano ime.

Okovi i upravnik za Greame (Graham)
Njegov zlatni lanac kralj nije nanizao
Veze o vratu koji je Malcolm prebacio,
Zatim nježno povukao svjetlucavu traku,
I položila kopču na Elleninu ruku.

SCOTT ’S GOSPOĐA SA JEZERA. Iz gornjeg odabira primijetit će se da je ime napisano Greame. Ne možemo utvrditi je li autor za ovu pogrešnu oznaku koristio svoju pjesničku dozvolu ili su Škoti ponekad tako napisali ime, ne možemo utvrditi.

U ranom doseljavanju ove zemlje, kada su ljudi obraćali malo pažnje na pravopis imena, ime se često pisalo Grimes. Čini se, međutim, da nije bilo autoriteta za ovo iskrivljavanje imena.

The only excuse that might be offered for this misapplication of the name is that the names of the early settlers were scarcely, if ever, seen in print and but seldom in writing, but were handed [13] orally from one to another, thus giving plenty of opportunity for misunderstandings. We can recall many names, which in our youth were pronounced differently from what they now are. To illustrate, the name Stevenson was called “Stinson” the name Withrow was called “Watherow” Stodghill was called “Stargeon” and so on. We even find in this day a few of the old-styled fathers and mothers who do not like to discontinue the old-fashioned way of expressing these names.

The Graham name in all English history and in the history of our country, as well as in all the legal writings pertaining to the family, from the earliest settlement in America down to the present time, is spelled as we now have it — Graham.

The people of Scotland of the same family tree were known as clans and these clans seem to have been bound together by very strong and endearing ties.

Such were the adhesion of these family clans that they kept themselves almost entirely aloof [14] from other clans marriage and intermarriage by members of one clan to another was scarcely admissible. If a member of one clan provoked or insulted a member of another clan, the insult was resented by the clan whose member had been insulted thus we find arose many of the clan feuds, with which Scottish history so much abounds.

Each clan had its official head chief or leader, whose duty it was to dictate to his people such a course as seemed to him most wise and discreet or that happened to please the whims of his own fancies. In military affairs this leader or chief was expected to occupy the most dangerous positions and to perform the most daring of the exploits in the heat of battle. He must either win a victory, in which he performed some noble part, or die in defeat.

The Graham clan was a very large and influential one, and, perhaps, at the time of its greatest power, had for its official head James Graham, the Earl of Montrose, who laid down his life for love to his king.

[15] It is claimed in Scottish history that the Graham family dates back for a thousand years, and has been conspicuous in the annal of their country, “from hovel to the palace, in arts, in eloquence and in song”. “It was a daring man by the name of Graham that first broke through the walls of Agricola which the Roman general had built between the firths of the Clyde and Forth to keep off the incursions of the Northern Britons, and the ruins of which, still visible, are called to this day the ruins of Graham’s Dyke”.

From Scotland to Virginia

The first immigration of the Grahams to this country, of which we have any account, occurred about the year 1720 to 1730, the exact date of which cannot now be known.

It is, however, a matter of history that one Michael Graham settled in Paxtong Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, about the date referred to and that he was a direct descendant of the Earl of Montrose, who was beheaded. The descendants of Michael Graham afterwards settled in the Valley of Virginia and became noted [16] for their scholarly attainments, as well as their religious zeal.

Of these, however, we may speak further on. It is known that at or near the same period of the coming of Michael to this country other members of the same family, kith and kin, also settled in this country, among whom were John Graham (the writer’s great grandfather), who settled for a time, it is believed, in Pennsylvania and later moved to the Great Calf Pasture River in Augusta county, Virginia. It is to be regretted that we cannot give the exact date of the settlement on the Calf Pasture River, but conclude that not earlier than the year 1740, nor later than 1745.

We find that he purchased a tract of six hundred and ninety-six acres of land in the year 1746, from John Lewis and James Patton. It will be remembered that John Lewis was the first settler in Augusta county, or rather in the territory which afterwards became Augusta, having planted his home in the then remote wilderness in the [17] year 1732, at Belle Fontaine Springs near Staunton. He was the father of General Andrew Lewis who commanded in the famous battle of Point Pleasant in 1774. John Graham (whom we will call senior) reared a family of four sons and five daughters on the banks of the Calf Pasture and died there about the year 1771, born about the year 1700. His oldest son’s name was Lanty (Lancelot). The names of the other three were John, James and Robert. His daughters’ names were Jane, Elizabeth, Anne, Rebecca and Florence, who was the writer’s grandmother on his mother’s side, she having married James Graham (her cousin).


The Grahams: These Are Your People

…prayed a 17th century laird whose land was bordered by all four. And indeed, the pride of the Grahams was famous throughout Scotland for they were a close knit race deeply loyal to kith and kin. They also took pride in their unswerving devotion to their monarch even when this was sometimes rewarded with scant thanks. And lastly, they took pride in following their personal conscience, whatever the consequences.

Tradition says the first Graham was a Caledonian chief called Graym who attacked and burst through the mighty Antoine Wall which divided Scotland in two, and drove the Roman legions back to Hadrian’s Wall on the English border. More likely, the chiefs spring from an Anglo-Norman family who originally came to England with William Osvajač in 1066, and are recorded in his Doomsday Book as holding the lands of Graegham or Grey Home.

David I, king of Scots, was brought up in England and given a Norman education. He married a Norman heiress and through her acquired vast estates in England. Thus when he succeeded to the Scottish throne in 1124 he brought with him many of his Anglo-Norman friends to help create order in what was then a very primitive and savage land. He granted them large estates in the Lowlands and without exception these barons then intermarried into the local Celtic aristocracy. Within a generation or two they had become totally integrated with the older race and were soon exclusively Scottish.

William de Graham, the first recorded of that name, was granted land around Dalkieth and Abercorn in Midlothian and appears as a witness on David I’s charter of 1128 founding the Abbey of Holyroodhouse. His descendant, Sir David Graham, acquired the lands of Dundaff in Strathcarron in 1237, and built a castle there. This was probably a wooden fortification on a motte or artificial earth mound in the Norman style. The remains of the later stone castle can still be seen. Sir John de Graham of Dundaff bio William Wallace’s right hand man and close friend in the first struggle for Scottish independence in the late 13th century. The contemporary poet Blind Harry calls him ‘’Schir Jhone the Grayme’’ and records his brave death at the battle of Falkirk in 1298 when the small, ragged Scottish army was crushed beneath the hooves of the heavy armoured cavalry of the English army of Edward I.. Sir John’s gravestone and effigy can be seen today at Falkirk Old Church and bear the inscription ‘”Here lyes Sir John the Grame, baith wight and wise, Ane of the chiefs who rescewit Scotland thrise, Ane better knight not to the world was led, Nor was gude Graham of truth and hardiment”.

Although principally a Lowland and Border clan the Grahams never forgot the Highlanders who had fought for them. The 3rd Duke of Montrose, kada Marquis of Montrose and a Member of Parliament, was responsible in 1782 for the repeal of the law forbidding the wearing of Highland dress. Mugdock was the principal seat of the Graham chiefs until 1680 when they acquired the lands of the Buchanans and moved to Old Buchanan House near Drymen. In 1707 James Graham, 4th Marquess, was created the 1st Duke of Montrose by Queen Anne. He is perhaps better known for being firstly the partner, and then the foe, of the Highland folk-hero Rob Roy McGregor.

The Grahams had become the largest landowners in Stirlingshire by Victorian times and in 1857 built the huge Gothic Buchanan Castle on the foundations of a much older fortification. This became the residence of the Dukes of Montrose until the beginning of the Second World War when it was requisitioned as a military hospital. Here was kept Rudolf Hess, Hitler’s deputy, after he made his mysterious flight to Scotland in 1940. The roof was removed after the war and the castle is now a ruin. James Angus Graham, b. 1907, was the 7th Duke of Montrose and was also Earl of Kincardine Viscount Dunduff, Lord Graham Aberuthven Mugdock and Fintry. He became a farmer in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and was a cabinet minister in the Rhodesian Government of Ian Smith. He moved to South Africa and later returned to Scotland before his death in 1992. His son, James, the 8th Duke of Montrose lives on the ancestral estates, at Auchmar near Loch Lomond. The name of Graham is an honourable one not only in Scottish history but also in more modern times. For example, it was the 6th Duke of Montrose who invented the aircraft carrier during the First World War. Others of note include the evangelist Billy Graham Kenneth Graeme who wrote the classic “Wind in the Willows: Admiral Sir Cunningham Graham of the last war and many others too numerous to mention.

The “pride of the Grahams” is perhaps best summed up in the famous verse by James Graham, the Great Montrose,

He either fears his fate too much,
Or his deserts are small,
Who dare not put it to the touch,
To win or lose it all.

Sir John’s elder brother, Sir Patrick Graham, had fallen two years before at the battle of Dunbar in 1296 while carrying the royal banner of the King of Scots. Their father, Sir David Graham, had married into the ancient Celtic Earldom of Strathern and acquired land around Kincardine in south Perthshire. He was also the first to acquire land around Loch Lomond on the verge of the Highlands, still held today by the present Duke of Montrose. Sir Patrick’s son, also Sir David, supported the cause of Robert de Brus, another Anglo-Norman-Scot whose mother was a Celtic countess and he descended from the younger son of David I. When de Brus or Bruce became King Robert I, and independence was achieved, he granted Sir David land around Montrose in Angus in exchange for Graham lands near the River Clyde. The hero king built a fortified house for himself at the latter where he died in 1329. A branch of the Graham – the Cunningham – Grahams – continued to live nearby until recent years.

The Grahams continued a steady rise. They had acquired land at Mugdock to the north of Glasgow and began to build a huge castle here from about 1370. This became the principal seat of the chiefs until the beginning of the 18th century. In 1445 Sir Patrick was created Lord Graham and in 1460 gave his land around Loch Lomond to the chief of the Buchanans in exchange for some land around Mugdock. These lands were regained later when the bankrupt Buchanan chief was forced to sell his ancestral estates to the Grahams in 1682.

An unfortunate episode began in 1413 after the then chief’s half brother, Patrick Graham, was murdered by the Drummonds. He had been created Earl Palatine of the royal Earldom of Strathearn after marrying the grand-daughter of Robert III, and had acquired the vastly rich estates. He had left his infant son in the care of his younger brother, Sir Robert Graham of Kilpont but in 1427 King James I seized the wealthy earldom and gave the boy only the poor Highland parish of Aberfoyle and the empty title of Earl of Menteith. He also sent the unfortunate child as a hostage to England where he was imprisoned for nearly twenty five years.

The Grahams always resented injustice and Sir Robert Graham of Kilpont protested loudly. He tried to arrest the king in Parliament, and then publicly renounced his allegiance to a tyrant. On February 21, 1437, Sir Robert led a band of Highlanders to Perth where they trapped the king in the cellar of the Blackfriars Monastery and stabbed him to death. For this crime Sir Robert and his sons were tortured and executed in a most horrible manner at Stirling.

William, 7th Earl of Menteith, was restored to the Earldom of Strathearn in 1603. He rose to high office as Justice – General of Scotland and President of the Scots Privy Council. But the pride of the Grahams was his undoing. His casual remark that he had a better right to the crown than the king reached the ears of Karlo I. who promptly stripped him of the Strathearn earldom. In 1680 the last Earl of Menteith, childless and in debt, left all his estates to his chief, the Marquess of Montrose, who thus regained all the old Graham land around Loch Lomond plus the lands of the Buchanans and also the land in Menteith. The Grahams now held a vast estate stretching right across Scotland from Loch Lomond to near Perth, and roughly comprising the ancient earldoms of Strathearn and Menteith. There were many cadet families established throughout these lands on the very verge of the Highlands. William, 3rd Lord Graham, chief of the Clan, had been created Earl of Montrose in 1504 but had died with the rest of the Scottish nobility around their king James IV on Flodden field in 1513.

But without doubt the most famous Graham was James, 5th Earl, born in 1612, and created a Marquis in 1644. He was the first to be given the Gaelic patrynomic An Greumach Mor, The Great Graham, or as he is better known to history, The Great Montrose. He was a poet and intellectual who was happiest in his study in one of his many castles or stately homes in Angus, Perthshire or Stirlingshire. In 1638 he was persuaded to sign the National Covenant which declared its opposition to the Episcopalian religion King Charles I wished to force upon Scotland. He then actively fought against the king’s forces who tried to enforce the king’s edicts. But as time went on James Graham became increasingly uneasy about the motives of the ultra-Protestant party headed by Archibald Campbell, Marquess of Argyll. In 1643 the Solemn League and Covenant was drawn up which declared the Scottish Covenanters would assist the English Parliament in a Civil War against the king provided England would adopt a Presbyterian form of worship. This was more than James Graham could stomach. He left the Covenanters and offered his services to the king. He was created Captain-General of the King’s army in Scotland although this comprised a mere 400 men, mainly Grahams. Then they were joined by a 1000 Highlanders led by Alasdair MacColla MacDonald, a giant of a man and a fearsome fighter from the western isles.

During 1644 – 45 James Graham won a series of brilliant victories against far superior odds and became renowned as probably the finest strategist the world has ever seen. Unfortunately, with all Scotland almost conquered, the Highlanders slipped away to harry the Campbell lands in Argyll. James Graham’s small force was cut to pieces at Philiphaugh in the Borders and he was forced to flee into exile. He returned in 1649 but was captured and taken to Edinburgh where he was hung, drawn and quartered. His quiet dignity on the scaffold won him the respect of all who watched. In 1660, when Karlo II was restored to the throne, David Graham of Gorthie took his kinsman’s head off its spike and had the other remains gathered together for honorable burial in the Montrose Aisle of St. Giles Cathedral in Edinburgh. All the various branches and cadets of the family attended the funeral – the Grahams of Inchbrakie Orchill Morphie Balgowan Cairnie Deuchrie Drums Duntroon Fintry, Killearn Monzie and Potento.

Another Graham entered the history books in 1689 when John Graham of Claverhouse raised a Highland army in the name of the exiled Stuart king James VII. He was created Viscount Dundee and was variously known as “Bonnie Dundee” or “Bloody Claverhouse”, depending on which side one was on. He met a government army on the hill above Killiecrankie gorge in Perthshire on July 27, 1689, and within minutes his screaming Highlanders had devastated the enemy with their claymores. But in the moment of victory Dundee fell dead. It is said he was killed by a silver button fired from a gun because his enemies believed he was the Devil incarnate and only silver would kill him. It is remarkable that although the Grahams were really a feudal Lowland family only these two were able to bring out the highland clans in a national cause and devise strategies which used their peculiar fighting methods to advantage.

The other principal Graham area was in the Borders. Sir John Graham of Kilbride, one of the cadet families, fell out of favor with the king towards the end of the 14th century and led his followers south into the Border country where they settled in Eskdale. They met violent opposition from the other unruly Border clans and also from the hostile English in this disputed area. Yet the Grahams not only flourished here but became the largest and strongest family in the Borders. By 1552 they held over thirteen Border towers and could raise over 500 mounted troopers. They continued to dominate the Borders by right of the sword until the early 17th century when measures were taken against them by the Commission for the pacification of the Borders. In truth this was an attempt by the English Earl of Cumberland to seize their lands for no action was taken against the other unruly Border families of Maxwells, Elliots, Armstrongs, Scotts i Kerrs. The Grahams were hanged, transported, banished and imprisoned. Some came back with assumed names and the McHargs i Mahargs in Scotland and Northern England are simply Border Grahams with the name reversed.

The coat-of-arms of Sir David de Graham appears on the earliest known roll of Scottish arms dated 1332. These shows three scallop shells, used as pilgrim’s begging bowls, and indicate an early Graham had made the pilgrimage to the shrine of Santiago de Compostella in Spain. The scallops are also found on the earliest known Graham seal dated 1230.

The personal arms of the Duke of Montrose shows three scallop shells in the 1st and 4th quarters, and in the 2nd and 3rd quarters the rose for the title of Montrose.

The crest, entitled to be warn by clansmen, shows a falcon killing a stork. The motto is “Ne oublie” (Forget Not).

Reprinted with permission from The Highlander, Angus J. Ray Associates, Inc., 560 Green Bay Road, Suite 204, Winnetka, IL 60093


James Graham, Earl of Montrose / Famous Historical Figures

'Betrayed by a MacLeod and hanged in Edinburgh, enemies marvelled at his courage'.

Graham was the 5th Earl and 1st Marquess of Montrose, and was brought up in Kincardine Castle. Education was at St Andrews University. He was one of four noblemen who drew up the National Covenant at Greyfriars' Kirkyard in Edinburgh in 1638.

This Covenant renewed and expanded that of the one drawn up in 1581 into a public petition which presumed a direct Scottish relationship with God, without the interference of a king (in this case Charles I of course) and without 'all kinds of Papistry'. It was emotive and drew from upwards of 60 Scottish Acts of Parliament and many theological statements. In the end, over 300,000 signatures were appended in churches throughout Scotland.

Montrose was a moderate Presbyterian, and though fighting initially for the Covenant in the Bishops' War, he later distanced himself from the more extreme Presbyterians. After he refused to support the union of the Scottish Parliament with the English Roundheads, in effect bonded by the Solemn League and Covenant of 1643, he was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle for five months. Made a change from the Tower of London.

The following year he was appointed King's Lieutenant in Scotland. He showed a great flair for military strategy and leadership, winning six battles in one year, despite leading an undisciplined Scottish-Irish force. With depleted forces however he was defeated by David Leslie at Philiphaugh near Selkirk, in 1645.

He escaped to Norway, having been ordered to disband by the captured King, but returned to Scotland to avenge the death by execution of Charles I. His return was fated shipwrecked in Orkney he survived with only 200 men. This small force was defeated at Carbisdale on 27 April 1650 and Montrose was betrayed by MacLeod of Assynt for a sum of £25,000, a huge sum in those days.

In Edinburgh, the Scottish Parliament were obviously in no mood for clemency or even justice without a trial they sentenced him to death and he was hanged and disembowelled on 21 May. His remains were given a proper tomb and monument in St Giles, Edinburgh, in 1888. Along with high standards of honesty, generosity and decent dealing (all conspicuously absent otherwise in 17th century Scottish politics), he has a claim to be a fair poet, with the publication of his collected works in 1990.

'Scotland's glory, Britain's pride, As brave a subject as ere for monarch dy'd Kingdoms in Ruins often lye But great Montrose's Acts will never dye'.


Census records can tell you a lot of little known facts about your Graham Earl Van Montrose ancestors, such as occupation. Zanimanje vam može reći o društvenom i ekonomskom statusu vaših predaka.

There are 3,000 census records available for the last name Graham Earl Van Montrose. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Graham Earl Van Montrose census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 642 immigration records available for the last name Graham Earl Van Montrose. Popisi putnika vaša su karta da saznate kada su vaši preci stigli u SAD i kako su putovali - od naziva broda do luka dolaska i odlaska.

There are 1,000 military records available for the last name Graham Earl Van Montrose. For the veterans among your Graham Earl Van Montrose ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 3,000 census records available for the last name Graham Earl Van Montrose. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Graham Earl Van Montrose census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 642 immigration records available for the last name Graham Earl Van Montrose. Popisi putnika vaša su karta da saznate kada su vaši preci stigli u SAD i kako su putovali - od naziva broda do luka dolaska i odlaska.

There are 1,000 military records available for the last name Graham Earl Van Montrose. For the veterans among your Graham Earl Van Montrose ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.


James Graham. Earl of Montrose - History

"../mp3/dundee.mp3" type="audio/mpeg">

John Graham was the elder son of Royalists, and related to the Marquis of Montrose. Claverhouse spent his childhood in Glen Ogilvy near Dundee. He studied at St. Andrews University.

He began his career as a soldier in France, as a volunteer for Louis XIV (under the Duke of Monmouth and MacKay of Scourie). He joined William of Orange (of Holland, 1674) and is said to have saved William's life in battle. He was recommended to James, Duke of York at William's marriage to Mary Stuart (1677), and became one of James's personal advisors.

In 1678 he was assigned the duty of suppressing the Covenanters (Presbyterian rebels who opposed Anglicanism) in Dumfries and Galloway. In 1679 Covenanter's rebellion he was defeated at Drumclog. He also helped defend Glasgow, and fought at Bothwell Brig.

The years of 1681-1685 are known as the Killing Times because of the autrocities committed. James Graham was among those who committed them. He earned the name "Bloody Clavers" by his brutal suppression of the Coventanters. Two of those he dealt with were the Wigtown Martyrs - women who were tied to a post to be drowned by the incoming tide.

Although Claverhouse's reputation is for one of ruthless suppression in dealing with the convenanters, in 1674 he had married, Jean Cochrane, who was from a prominent Covenanter family. In addition, at one point he urged moderation.

Learning of Lochiel's Highland confederacy (to restore James II to the throne), and declared a rebel, Claverhouse left his wife and new born son in Glen Ogilvy and rode north-east to rally support for the Jacobite cause. In 1688 when William of Orange invaded, James II made Graham second-in-command of the Scottish army and named him Viscount Dundee.

In four months Dundee covered 800 miles (from Inverness on 8 May, he crossed Corrieyairack and Drumochter Passes to raid Perth on the 10th). General Hugh MacKay was dispatched to deal with the rebellion in Scotland. MacKay commanded met four thousand musketed men, Lowland Scots and veterans of the Dutch wars.

MacKay's Government army had to go through the pass of Killiecrankie. Dundee's troops hid in the braken and waited for MacKay. MacKay's troops outnumbered Dundee two to one. On July 17, 1689 Graham ambushed General Hugh Mackay at the Pass of Killicrankie.

The Battle of Killicrankie was one of the last last battles that saw the effective use of claymores and the highland charge. Graham's forces attacked Mackay's right flank. MacKay's forces firing a musket volley. However, because of their inexperience and the ferocity of the highland charge, they were too slow to reload. The Highlanders overwhelmed them. Mackay's left flank also retreated in disarray. Graham's troops performed the classic pincer movement and crushed the remainder of Mackay's troops. Graham's victory was absolute.

However, Graham himself had been mortally wounded. Surviving long enough to direct the battle and learn of his victory, he died soon after. The Jacobites had no leader as capable to replace Dundee. In August the Jacobites, under Colonel Alexander Cannon, were defeated at the Battle of Dunkeld by veterans of the Covenanter's Uprising led by William Cleland. The First Jacobite Uprising ended May Day, 1690.

Other Historical Links

Resources include:
The Encyclopedia Britannica
Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.
Chicago, Copyright 1977


Gledaj video: James Graham 1st Marquis of Montrose; Battlefield Band: John, Braemar Gathering