Cornelius Vanderbilt - Biografija, djeca i činjenice

Cornelius Vanderbilt - Biografija, djeca i činjenice


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Tajkun u špediciji i željeznici Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794.-1877.) Bio je multimilijunaš koji je sam napravio i postao jedan od najbogatijih Amerikanaca 19. stoljeća. Kao dječak radio je s ocem koji je upravljao brodom koji je prevozio teret između Staten Islanda, New Yorka, gdje su živjeli, i Manhattana. Nakon što je radio kao kapetan parobroda, Vanderbilt je u kasne 1820 -te krenuo u vlastiti posao i na kraju postao jedan od najvećih operatora parobroda u zemlji. Pritom je Commodore, kako je dobio javni nadimak, stekao reputaciju žestoko konkurentne i nemilosrdne. 1860 -ih preusmjerio je fokus na željezničku industriju, gdje je izgradio drugo carstvo i pomogao učiniti željeznički promet učinkovitijim. Kad je Vanderbilt umro, vrijedio je više od 100 milijuna dolara.

Cornelius Vanderbilt: Rane godine

Potomak nizozemskih doseljenika koji su došli u Ameriku sredinom 1600-ih, Cornelius Vanderbilt rođen je u skromnim okolnostima 27. svibnja 1794. na Staten Islandu u New Yorku. Njegovi su roditelji bili poljoprivrednici, a njegov je otac također zarađivao na prijevozu proizvoda i robe između Staten Islanda i Manhattana u svom dvokrilnom jedrenjaku, poznatom kao periauger. Kao dječak, mlađi Vanderbilt radio je s ocem na vodi i kratko pohađao školu. Kad je Vanderbilt bio tinejdžer, prevozio je teret po njujorškoj luci u svom vlastitom periaugeru. Na kraju je nabavio flotu malih brodova i naučio o dizajnu brodova.

1813. Vanderbilt se oženio svojom rođakinjom Sophiom Johnson, pa je par na kraju imao 13 djece. (Godinu dana nakon što mu je prva žena umrla 1868., Vanderbilt se oženio drugom rođakinjom, Frankom Armstrong Crawford, koja je bila više od četiri desetljeća mlađa od njega.)

Cornelius Vanderbilt: Parobrod

Cornelius Vanderbilt je u početku zarađivao na poslu s parobrodima prije nego što je uložio u željeznice. Godine 1817. Vanderbilt je otišao raditi kao kapetan trajekta za bogatog poduzetnika Thomasa Gibbonsa, koji je posjedovao komercijalnu uslugu parobrodice koja je poslovala između New Jerseyja i New Yorka. Posao je Vanderbiltu pružio priliku da sazna o rastućoj industriji parobrodnih brodova. Krajem 1820 -ih počeo je samostalno poslovati, gradio parobrode i upravljao trajektnim linijama po regiji New York. Lukav i agresivan, postao je dominantna snaga u industriji ulazeći u žestoke ratove sa svojim suparnicima. U nekim slučajevima konkurenti su mu plaćali pozamašne svote da se ne natječe s njima. (Tijekom života, Vanderbiltov nemilosrdan pristup poslu zaradio bi mu brojne neprijatelje.)

1840-ih, Vanderbilt je izgradio veliku kuću od opeke za svoju obitelj na adresi 10 Washington Place, u današnjoj četvrti Greenwich Village na Manhattanu. Unatoč rastućem bogatstvu, gradska elita stanovnici su sporo prihvaćali Vanderbilta, smatrajući ga grubim i nekulturnim.

Početkom 1850 -ih, za vrijeme kalifornijske zlatne groznice, vrijeme prije transkontinentalnih željeznica, Vanderbilt je pokrenuo uslugu parobroda koja je prevozila tragače iz New Yorka u San Francisco putem preko Nikaragve. Njegov je put bio brži od ustaljene rute preko Paname i mnogo brži od druge alternative, oko rta Horn na južnom vrhu Južne Amerike, što bi moglo potrajati mjesecima. Vanderbiltova nova linija postigla je trenutni uspjeh, zarađujući više od milijun dolara (oko 26 milijuna dolara u današnjem novcu) godišnje.

Cornelius Vanderbilt: Željeznice

Bio je neslavno uključen u Erie -ov željeznički rat 1868. godine, kada se borio s trgovcima na Wall Streetu Jimom Fiskom i Jayom Gouldom za financijsku kontrolu nad željeznicom Erie. Erie je kontrolirao Daniel Drew, koji je u dogovoru s Vanderbiltom otkupio većinu dionica u željeznici. Kao odgovor, Gould i Fisk izdali su dodatne, razvodnjene dionice koje je Vanderbilt nastavio kupovati. Novine tog doba uživale su u borbi između razbojničkih baruna. Željeznički rat u Erieu bizarno se završio kada su Gould i Fisk stekli potpunu kontrolu nad željeznicom, tjerajući Drewa da se povuče, a Vanderbiltu je vratio otplaćene zalihe.

Bez straha, Vanderbilt je nastavio s drugim pothvatima i bio je pokretačka snaga izgradnje Velikog središnjeg skladišta na Manhattanu, otvorenog 1871. Stanica je na kraju srušena i zamijenjena današnjim Grand Central Terminalom, koji je otvoren 1913.

Cornelius Vanderbilt: Posljednje godine

Za razliku od titana iz pozlaćenog doba koji su ga slijedili, poput čelika magnata Andrewa Carnegiea (1835.-1919.) I osnivača Standard Oil-a Johna D. Rockefellera (1839.-1937.), Vanderbilt nije posjedovao velike kuće niti je veliki dio svog ogromnog bogatstva davao u dobrotvorne svrhe uzroci. Zapravo, jedina značajna filantropska donacija koju je dao bila je 1873. godine, pred kraj svog života, kada je dao milijun dolara za izgradnju i uvakufiranje sveučilišta Vanderbilt u Nashvilleu, Tennessee. (Kao znak nadimka svog osnivača, sportski timovi škole zovu se Commodores.)

Kuće Vanderbilt povezane s pozlaćenim dobom, uključujući Breakers u Newportu, Rhode Islandu i Biltmore u Ashevilleu, Sjeverna Karolina, izgradili su potomci Corneliusa Vanderbilta. (Imanje Biltmore s 250 soba, koje je krajem 19. stoljeća izgradio jedan od Vanderbiltovih unuka, danas je najveća kuća u privatnom vlasništvu u Sjedinjenim Državama.)

Vanderbilt je umro u 82. godini života 4. siječnja 1877. godine u svom domu na Manhattanu, a pokopan je na moravskom groblju u New Dorp -u, Staten Island. Glavninu svog bogatstva, procijenjenog na više od 100 milijuna dolara, ostavio je sinu Williamu (1821-85).

Izvor

Rat na Wall Streetu za kontrolu željezničke pruge Erie. ThoughtCo.


Činjenice Corneliusa Vanderbilta za djecu

Cornelius Vanderbilt (27. svibnja 1794. - 4. siječnja 1877.), također neformalno poznat kao "Commodore Vanderbilt", bio je američki poslovni magnat i filantrop koji je svoje bogatstvo gradio u željeznicama i pomorstvu. Rođen kao siromašan i sa osrednjim obrazovanjem, upotrijebio je ustrajnost, inteligenciju i sreću kako bi zauzeo vodeća mjesta u trgovini unutarnjim vodama i ulagao u brzorastuću željezničku industriju. Najpoznatiji je po izgradnji centralne željeznice u New Yorku.

Kao jedan od najbogatijih Amerikanaca u povijesti i najbogatijih osoba ukupno, Vanderbilt je bio patrijarh bogate, utjecajne obitelji. On je dao početni dar za osnivanje Sveučilišta Vanderbilt u Nashvilleu, Tennessee.


Biografija Corneliusa Vanderbilta: "Komodor"

Čak i danas, više od 140 godina od njegove smrti, ime Corneliusa Vanderbilta nastavlja izazivati ​​moć, prestiž i slavu.   Ostaje najcjenjeniji željeznički direktor svih vremena, iako je izravno sudjelovao tek u 70. godini! &# xa0

Veći dio svog života ovaj samouki Staten Islander, gotovo bez formalnog obrazovanja, zarađivao je milijune u pomorskoj/trajektnoj trgovini.  

Sadržaj

Vanderbilt je rođen desetljećima prije široke upotrebe parnog stroja.Komodor.    

Bio je slavna osoba i legenda u svoje vrijeme, postavši jedan od najbogatijih pojedinaca u Americi zahvaljujući svojoj nemilosrdnoj konkurentnosti.    

Vanderbilt je žarko vjerovao u ekonomiju  laissez-faire, koristeći je u velikoj mjeri u slomljivanju svojih suparnika.   Nakon života na moru, 1863. preusmjerio je sav fokus na željeznice.  

Iako se Vanderbilt s pravom može tvrditi kao profiter s malim interesom za javno dobro, ipak je bio pošten u poslovima. Do svoje smrti 1877. postavio je temelje za ono što će postati moderni središnji sustav New Yorka.  

Skupina A -B središnjih F3 u New Yorku manifestovana je prema zapadu dok vlak prolazi istočnim "New England States" (Chicago - Cleveland - Boston) u blizini US Steel's South Works u 87. ulici (Chicago) tijekom siječnja 1951. godine.

Pozadina i rani život

Rani život i djetinjstvo Corneliusa Vanderbilta nisu osobito vrijedni pažnje.   Iako će se ovdje ukratko govoriti, ovaj će se članak uglavnom fokusirati na Commodore's željeznička karijera.  

Ako vas zanima potpuna biografija Vanderbilta, razmislite o kopiji T.J. Stiles '"Prvi tajkun: Epski život Kornelija Vanderbilta. " 

To je najvažnija knjiga o njegovom životu.   Cornelius Vanderbilt rođen je 27. svibnja 1794., četvrto dijete Phebe Hand i ਌ornelius Van Der Bilt (izvorni pravopis).  

Njegovi su roditelji bili Nizozemci, iako se povijest njihove obitelji može pratiti od doseljenika koji su naselili koloniju "Nova Nizozemska" 1650. godine.  

Po trgovačkoj djelatnosti, otac Cornelius bio je poljoprivrednik i, živeći tako blizu New Yorka (tada grada od samo 33.000), prodavao bi svoje proizvode u gradu.   Za prijevoz svoje robe na tržište potreban je vodeni prijevoz.   U Van U slučaju Der Bilt-a upravljao je dvo jarbolom poznatim kao periauger.  

Ovaj mali čamac bio je nizozemski izum koji je posebno namijenjen prevozu ljudi i/ili robe preko zaljeva.   Cornelius se nikada nije obogatio ovom trgovinom iako je nadopunjavao poljoprivredu.  

Zbog svojih ograničenih sredstava, on i njegova žena bili su prilično štedljivi i uvijek su štedjeli koliki raspoloživi prihod su imali.

Industrija i činjenice

Ova pozadina postavila je pozornicu za buduće napore mladog Kornelija.   Kao dijete provodio je duge sate na očevoj farmi i od ove impresivne dobi naučio vrijednost vrijednog rada.   Njegov je otac često bio nadmoćan u potrazi za obiteljsko poljoprivredno gospodarstvo.  

Iz tog razloga dječak nikada nije imao veliki interes za formalno školovanje i prestao je s 11 godina fokusirati se isključivo na poljoprivredu.   Vanderbiltov nedostatak obrazovanja skupo bi se pokazao dok se uspinjao korporativnim ljestvama.   Nikada nije naučio napisati pravi engleski i umjesto toga fonetski napisati riječi.  

Taj je nedostatak tijekom čitavog života mučio Vanderbilta, ne samo da je bio neugodan, već je i uzrokovao njegovo izbjegavanje od strane društvene elite dugi niz godina.   S godinama se djelomično bavio tim problemom, ali je uvijek mrzio stavljati olovku na papir.  

Do 12. godine prilično je dobro shvatio posao s trajektima, zajedno s majčinim učenjima o štednji, zaduživanju i kolateralima, a bio je spreman za ulazak u poslovni svijet.  

To se dogodilo u dobi od 16 godina kada je na posao stavio  periauger, koji je tehnički bio u vlasništvu njegovih roditelja.   Nakon što je uštedio dovoljno novca, kupio je vlastiti brod do 1813. godine i službeno je započela njegova karijera na vodi (to je iste godine, 19. prosinca, oženio se prvom rođakinjom, Sophiom Johnson).

Reklamna fotografija centra New Yorka s vodećom željezničkom službom, "20th Century Limited", u Cold Springu, New York, u lipnju 1947. godine.

Tijekom rata 1812. Vanderbilt je osigurao vladin ugovor za kretanje vojne zalihe u utvrde i druge projekte u izgradnji oko luke New York.  

Iako se valjanost priče ne može potvrditi, kaže se da mu je ovaj poduhvat dodijeljen zbog sve veće reputacije kompetentnog i sposobnog trajekta koji je ponudio poštene cijene.  

Vanderbiltova pažnja prema troškovima, štedljivosti, kupcima i ustrajnoj konkurentnosti donijela mu je sve više novca.   Njegova agresija neprestano je tjerala suparnike iz posla.   U nekim su ga slučajevima otkupili jednostavno kako bi uklonili glavobolju.

Njegova uobičajena taktika uključivala je snižavanje cijena tako niskih da bi opozicija kapitulirala.   Obično je sam gubio novac kratkoročno, ali je gotovo uvijek dugoročno gotovo uvijek pobjeđivao.  

Vanderbilt je neprestano stjecao tvrdi kapital bilo izravnom gotovinskom štednjom, nekretninama ili kamatama zarađenim na zajmovima.   Kako je njegova financijska sigurnost rasla, pomagala je u budućim osvajanjima.  

24. studenog 1817., u dobi od 23 godine, preuzeo je zapovjedništvo nad parobrodom Miš, plovilo u vlasništvu bogatog Thomasa Gibbonsa, tada jednog od najuspješnijih trgovaca u zemlji.  

New York Central E7A #4002 zalazi u čikašku postaju Englewood Union 21. travnja 1965. Fotografija Rogera Pute.

Steam je, naravno, bio budućnost u prijevozu jer više nisu bili potrebni vjetrovi ili struje za napajanje plovila.   Tijekom svog vremena nadgledajući Gibbonsovu flotu usavršio je svoje vještine i kao pomorac i kao poslovni čovjek.  

Dana 16. svibnja 1826. preminuo je Vanderbiltov dugogodišnji mentor, a imanje je prešlo na njegova sina.Komodor loathed.  

Početkom 1828. pomorac u usponu lansirao je vlastiti parobrod,  Građanin sidewheeler od 106 stopa, 145 tona.   Kako su njegova sredstva rasla, Vanderbilt je postao snaga unutar pomorske industrije.  

Stekao je sve više parobroda i bio je jednako vješt u projektiranju vlastitih brodova sa stalnom pažnjom prema cijeni i brzini.   Osobni službenik kojeg je zaposlio 1837. godine, Lambert Wardell, jednom je primijetio: "Nikada nije imao dug i nikad ništa nije kupio na kredit.   Bio je ekonomičan gotovo do krajnjih granica. " 

Vjerovalo se da je Vanderbilt do 1834. vrijedio pola milijuna dolara, a šest godina kasnije kročio je u svoju novu vilu na Staten Islandu. (Zanimljivo je da bi u ovom domu živio samo 13 godina.   1846. preselio se u novi dom na adresi Washington Washington 10 na Manhattanu.   To će mu ostati prebivalište do smrti.)

Dobit ćete titulu "Commodore"

Do kasnih 1840-ih, Vanderbilt se uglavnom koncentrirao isključivo na teretni i putnički promet (trajektni i pomorski) između New Yorka-Bostona, a posebno Long Island Sounda.  

To se promijenilo kalifornijskom zlatnom groznicom 1849.

New York Herald je 6. ožujka 1851. objavio "Komodor Vanderbiltov karakter za energiju i aheadativnost dobro je poznat u ovoj zajednici.

On je čovjek čije je rješenje nesalomljivo, a pred čijom odlučnošću prepreke, koliko god bile velike, nestaju kao jutarnja rosa pred srpanjskim suncem.

Rezultat Zlatne groznice doveo je tisuće doseljenika u Kaliforniju, posebno u tada malu zajednicu San Francisca.  

Kako je sve veći broj Europljana hrlio prema zapadu, pretežito parobrodom oko Cape Horna, Kalifornija je postigla državnost 9. rujna 1850. s toliko snažnim potrebama putovanja, mnoge su kompanije istupile kako bi ispunile potražnju jer su se milijuni dolara ulijevali u transport u vodi.  

Dana 19. travnja 1849. samo je 226 parobroda krenulo iz New Yorka u Kaliforniju s oko 20.000 putnika.   Osim ljudi, savezna vlada bila je zainteresirana za slanje pošte na i sa zapadne obale.   Najpraktičnije put je bio ocean i južnoamerički rt Horn.  

Prepoznavši ovu golemu novčanu priliku, Vanderbilt i nekoliko suradnika vjerovali su da kanal preko Nikaragve nije samo praktičan, već može i obrijati dane s putovanja.  

Bio je to naporan, iako pretežno prirodan prolaz, kojim bi se koristila rijeka San Juan i jezero Nikaragva između Tihog oceana i Karipskog mora.

Jedina ručno izrađena dionica bila je komponenta od 12 milja duž zapadnog ruba.   Projekt je inkorporiran u američku Atlantsko-pacifičku brodsku kanalsku tvrtku nakon značajnih kašnjenja, dogovora i političkih prepirki (osobito u Engleskoj) parobrod Vanderbilt i #xa0Prometej stigao je do Greytowna u Nikaragvi stazom koja vodi iz New Yorka.  

Nakon što su stigli na odredište, roba i putnici iskrcani su na manja plovila kako bi završili putovanje kopnom.   Vanderbilt je i sam bio na ovom putovanju i uvjerio se u njegove zasluge nakon što se vratio u New York.  

Dana 14. srpnja 1851. godine Prometej ponovno je napustio luku New York, ovaj put na inauguracijskom upravljanju ਊmeričke kompanije Atlantic & Pacific Ship Canal Company.   Pokazalo se da je to kratkotrajni pothvat jer je povelja korporacije prenesena na drugi subjekt pod kontrolom Vanderbilta 14. kolovoza iste godine, Tvrtka za pomoćni prijevoz.    

Skup ABA pokrivenih vagona u središtu New Yorka predvođenih F7A #1707 zaustavljen je u St. Thomas, Ontario na podružnici Canadian Southern (CASO) s teretnim vozilom prema zapadu dok vlak čeka na elektrificiranu željeznicu London i Port Stanley tijekom rujna 1957. godine. Veći dio ove rute s dvostrukim kolosijecima, vrlo važan koridor ispod Centralne, od tada je napušten. Fotografija Davida Sweetlanda.

Nažalost, njegovo zanimanje za nikaragvanski pothvat uvijek je bilo burno, uglavnom zbog umiješanog suradnika, jednog Josepha L. Whitea.  

Operacija se ipak pokazala prilično uspješnom i do 1850 -ih dobio je nadimak਌ommodore, tipično rezervirano za najviše zvanje pomorskog časnika, bilo je dobro uhodano.

Kasnije je iskoristio transatlantsko parobrodarsko tržište (krajem 1854.), pothvat koji se također pokazao uspješnim.   Zbog svojih brojnih postignuća u zemlji i inozemstvu, Vanderbiltov željeni američki poštanski ugovor uvijek ga je aludirao.   Tijekom sljedećeg desetljeća nastavio je usredotočite se na njegove razne pomorske poslove.  

S velikim osjećajem domoljublja čak je odigrao ključnu ulogu tijekom Građanskog rata.   Više od jednom Vanderbiltu su ponuđena najviša mjesta u stožeru predsjednika Abrahama Lincolna.   Međutim, uvijek žestoko protiv političke arene svaki put je odbijao.  

Njegov primarni doprinos ratnim naporima uključivao je pozajmljivanje njegove pomorske stručnosti i darivanje Sjedinjenih Država svojim najcjenjenijim parobrodom, petokrilnim brodom  Vanderbilt.  

Ovaj ogromni brod pušten je u promet 5. svibnja 1857. gdje se natjecao u transatlantskoj areni.   Bio je ne samo velik, već i brz, koji je mogao smanjiti vožnju New York-Liverpool s osamnaest dana na devet.   Mornarica je isprva odbila njegovu ponudu.   Međutim, kada je Konfederacija otkrila gvozdene  CSS Virginia od 8. ožujka 1862. sve se promijenilo.

-  CSS Virginia  se uvijek nazivao  Merrimack  snagama Unije dok se ratni brod obnavljao iz spašenog  USS Merrimack. -Skoro neprobojnim oklopom plovilo je moglo samostalno razbiti flotu Unije koja se sastojala od tradicionalnih drveno vučenih dizajna.

Tijekom tog dana potonuo je  USS Cumberland i USS Kongres  dok je ozbiljno oštetio  USS Minnesota.   Dana 9. ožujka dočekali su ga novi željezni oklop Sjedinjenih Država,  USS Monitor.   Njih dvojica borili su se u pat poziciji unutar rijeke James na Hampton Roads, Virginia.  

Kao dodatnu zaštitu od novog stvaranja pobunjenika, predsjednik Lincoln i Ratno ministarstvo stekli su  Vanderbilt.   Iako to nikada ne bi uključilo  CSS Virginia izravno ju je titanski bočnjak spriječio da nanese dodatnu pustoš.    

Dana 10. svibnja 1862. sindikalne snage zauzele su Norfolk, negirajući  Virginia port objekti.   Budući da se nemaju gdje ponovno opremiti i preurediti, snage Konfederacije su 11. svibnja pogodile brod kako bi izbjegle njegovo zauzimanje.  

 Vanderbilt  bi kasnije zaslužili priznanje jureći za drugim zloglasnim ratnim brodom Konfederacije,  CSS Alabama.   Ovaj ratni ratnik zaslužio je priznanje kao jedan od najuspješnijih ratnih napadača.   Još jednom,  Vanderbilt  nikada nije angažirao  Alabama  iako je spriječila brod da stvara dodatne probleme duž američke obale.

 Theਊlabama  je na kraju potonuo od  USS Kearsarge u bitci kod Cherbourga izvan luke Cherbourg, Francuska 19. lipnja 1864.   Za službu svojoj zemlji, Vanderbilt je nagrađen posebnom zlatnom medaljom nakon rezolucije koju je Kongres donio 28. siječnja 1864. godine.

Nova era, željeznice

Dok Commodore's izravno sudjelovanje na željeznici započelo je tek u 70. godini, on je ipak imao dugu povijest u industriji.   Počelo je 8. studenog 1833. kada je otputovao u obližnji South Amboy, New Jersey kako bi pregledao nedavno završene Camden & Amboy Željeznica.  

U to vrijeme nova tehnologija nije bila ništa više od novosti, iako bi se to uskoro promijenilo.   Odlukom koja ga je umalo ubila, Vanderbilt je tog dana vozio novu napravu.  

Vlak je na putu iskočio iz tračnica i unatoč traumatičnom događaju nije imao ozbiljnu zamjerku željeznom konju.   Zapravo, Vanderbilt je ostao živo zainteresiran za novonastali uređaj.  

Dana 10. studenog 1837. New York, Providence & Boston Railroad (NYP & B) otvorio je svojih prvih 50 milja jugozapadno od Providencea, Rhode Island.   Poznatiji kao "Stonington Railroad" (buduća komponenta modernog New Yorka, New York Haven & Hartford) Vanderbilt je također vozio ovu liniju i uvjerio se u njezin potencijal.  

Izjavio je da je to najbrži put do Bostona (iz New Yorka), a kasnije je, u ljeto 1845., kupio znatne udjele u NYP & B.   Sljedeće godine također je stekao značajne udjele u željezničkoj pruzi Hartford & New Haven ( preteča modernog New Havena).  

Do 1847. godine popeo se na mjesto predsjednika Stoningtona.   Dok je sustavom bilo dobro upravljano pod njegovim vodstvom, Commodore's interes za željeznice ostao je prigušen dok je provodio projekt kanala u Nikaragvi.   To je dovelo do njegove ostavke iz Stoningtona 14. svibnja 1849. godine.

Bilo je to 1854. godine kada se prvi put uključio u željeznicu koju će kasnije kontrolirati, u New York & Harlem Railroad (NY&H).   Bio je to prvi takav sustav u gradu, osnovan 25. travnja 1831.  

Tek nakon Vanderbiltova sudjelovanja (O18. svibnja 1863. osvojio je mjesto direktora, a sljedećeg je dana izabran za predsjednika.), koji je prepoznao potencijal željeznice, je li uspio.  

Prije toga NY&H je bio loše vođena, neprofitabilna operacija.   1864. preuzeo je kontrolu nad obližnjom željeznicom Hudson River koja je održavala otprilike paralelnu rutu između Albanyja i New Yorka.  

A-B-A skup njujorškog središnjeg E7 gužva prema istoku "20th Century Limited" duž rijeke Hudson sjeverno od New Yorka u srpnju 1947. Planina Olujni kralj može se vidjeti u pozadini lijevo. Fotografija Ed Nowaka.

Zanimljivo je kako je gospodin Stiles primijetio da se Vanderbiltova poslovna taktika promijenila s produbljivanjem njegove željezničke uključenosti. Možda je djelomično zbog poodmakle dobi često birao diplomaciju umjesto otvorenog neprijateljstva.  

Drugi je razlog posljedica same prirode željeznice, za razliku od parobroda, gdje se jednostavno moglo zacrtati kurs između dvije točke, željeznice su radile na fiksnoj infrastrukturi.   Budući da nijedna pojedinačna tvrtka tada nije imala prolaznu rutu između velikih gradova, tvrtke su bile prisiljene raditi zajedno.

Djeca Kornelija i Sofije Vanderbilt

Phebe Jane Vanderbilt (1814. -1878.)

Ethelinda Vanderbilt (1817–1889)

Eliza Vanderbilt (1819–1890)

William Henry "Billy" Vanderbilt (1821–1885)

Emily Almira Vanderbilt (1823. - 1896.)

Sophia Johnson Vanderbilt (1825–1912)

Maria Louisa Vanderbilt (1827–1896)

Frances Lavinia Vanderbilt (1828–1868)

Cornelius Jeremiah Vanderbilt (1830–1882)

George Washington Vanderbilt I (1832–1836)

Mary Alicia Vanderbilt (1834. - 1902.)

Catherine Juliette Vanderbilt (1836–1881)

George Washington Vanderbilt II (1839–1864)

Korporativna Amerika u 19. stoljeću bila je snažna afera sa špekulantima i magistrima s Wall Streeta koji su se neprestano potkopavali u pokušaju da poređaju vlastite džepove.   To se posebno odnosilo na željeznice, najveća poduzeća u zemlji.  

Nažalost, uz mali nadzor vlade, rukovoditelji poput Jaya Goulda, Daniela Drewa i Collisa Huntingtona često stavljaju profit ispred javnih službi.  

Čak je i Vanderbilt mogao biti s pravom optužen za to, iako njegovo carstvo nije bilo rezultat izravnih osvajanja.   Uvijek je dodavao sustave kao obrambene mjere.  

Nakon što se uključio u Harlem, kupio je konkurentnu željezničku prugu Hudson River (putem kontrole zaliha) kako bi zaštitio NY&H.   Zavjera Leonarda Jeromea 1864. za preuzimanje izvorne njujorške središnje željeznice (NYC) u osnovi bi učinila NY&H suvišan.  

Jerome je također kontrolirao rijeku Hudson, a njegov dodatak NYC -u omogućio bi mu izravnu rutu od New Yorka do Buffala preko Albanyja.  

Nakon osvajanja Vanderbiltove rijeke Hudson, izjavio je: "Rekao sam da je to pogrešno, ove ceste se ne bi trebale sudariti.   Zatim sam korak po korak ušao u rijeku Hudson.

Tipično za Vanderbilta bio je jezgrovit i do te mjere, iako je stvarni proces stjecanja sustava bila šahovska igra, u kojoj je postao majstor.   Kako su njegovi željeznički portfelji rasli, Vanderbilt je zauvijek napustio ocean 1864.  

"Missourian" istočnog centra New Yorka (St. Louis - New York) zaobilazi rijeku Mohawk između Utice i Albanyja u New Yorku tijekom srpnja 1952. godine.

Zanimljivo je da je njegova željeznička karijera uglavnom bila na razini vodstva.   Vanderbilt je rijetko bio uključen u svakodnevno, operativno upravljanje svojom imovinom, te je odgovornosti prenosio na podređene.   Redovito je to činio krenite na inspekcijske izlete.  

Prema knjizi gospodina Stilesa, "Vanderbilt. postaviti opće politike, kao i ukupni ton upravljanja. Commodore je stvorio ozračje učinkovitosti, štedljivosti i marljivosti, kao i brzu odmazdu za nepoštenje ili lijenost."  Uređaj  Commodore's najveća pojedinačna akvizicija bila je izvorna njujorška središnja željeznica.  

NYC je godinama kontrolirao Erastus Corning, čovjek koji je nakon nekog vremena postao saveznik Vanderbilta.   U travnju 1864. Corning se povukao, a zamijenio ga je potpredsjednik Dean Richmond, još jedan kompetentni željezničar kojeg je Vanderbilt cijenio.  

Tijekom njegova mandata uživali su u prijateljskim, međusobnim prometnim čvorovima.   Nažalost, neočekivano je preminuo krajem 1866., a kasnije ga je 12. prosinca 1866. zamijenio Henry Keep.  

Keep nije imao interesa raditi s  Komodor i postao izuzetno neprijateljski raspoložen prema Vanderbiltovim željeznicama.  

Toliko da je NYC odbijao rukovati pošiljkama rijeka Harlem i Hudson na zapadu.   Nakon mnogih neuspjelih pokušaja smirivanja, Vanderbilt je uzvratio odbivši poslati pošiljke NYC -a na istok izvan ulaza u Albany nakon 18. siječnja 1867. godine.

New York Central E8A ima putnike na čikaškom kolodvoru Englewood Union 21. travnja 1965. Fotografija Rogera Pute.

Kao najveći američki grad, New York je bio vitalno tržište, a Vanderbilt je kontrolirao jedini izravni ulaz.   Njegov potez uplašio je Keepa tako da je čovjek popustio i odmah se riješio uvjeta 19. siječnja.   Nakon toga, Keep i njegovi su suradnici prodali velike blokove svojih dionica u New Yorku, koje je Vanderbilt stekao.  

Manje od godinu dana kasnije imenovan je predsjednikom New York Central (11. prosinca 1867).   Sada pod kontrolom svih linija između New Yorka i Buffala,  Komodor  formirali su centralnu željezničku prugu New Yorka i rijeku Hudson 1869. HRRR i NYC spojeni su u novu operaciju dok je Harlem iznajmljen.  

Kao što Brian Solomon i Mike Schafer primjećuju u svojoj knjizi, "Centralna željeznica New Yorka, "drugi važan dodatak bila je Lake Shore i južna željeznica Michigan.  

Ovaj vrlo veliki srednji zapad imao je povijest koja seže u daleke 1830 -e godine i rasla je kombinacijom preuzimanja i spajanja.  Na svom vrhuncu LS&MS je povezao Buffalo s Chicagom preko Toleda, Clevelanda i Elkharta.  

Također je stigao u Detroit, južne dijelove Michigana i Oil City, Pennsylvania.   Vanderbilt je preuzeo predsjedanje ovom cestom 2. srpnja 1873. nakon što je saznao da je prethodna uprava gotovo bankrotirala željeznicom.     Zahvaljujući njegovo vodstvo, u roku od godinu dana tvrtka je otplatila dugove.

Vanderbiltova posljednja velika akvizicija dogodila se 1. siječnja 1876. kada je dodao Južnu željeznicu Kanade putem kontrole zaliha.   Bolje poznat po svojim inicijalima, "CASO", nudio je kraći put kroz južni Ontario između Buffala i Detroita.   Ostao je sastavni dio centra New Yorka tijekom cijelog 20. stoljeća.    

Nakon  Commodore's򠷪th New York Central nastavio se širiti dospjevši u Boston Pittsburgh (kroz Pittsburgh i jezero Erie) Wheeling (West Virginia) ugljena polja južne West Virginije (preko Toledo & Ohio Central) Columbus Cincinnati Cleveland St. Louis preko Velike četvorke Ruta (Cincinnati, Cleveland, Chicago i željeznička pruga St. Louis) Detroit (preko središnjeg Michigana) pa čak i Montreal, Quebec.

Osim toga, luka Indiana Belt pružala je terminale NYC -a i usluge prebacivanja diljem Chicaga.   1868. Vanderbilt je pokrenuo "Erie War" s Jimom (Jamesom) Fiskom, Jayom Gouldom i Danielom Drewom kada je pokušao preuzeti kontrolu nad Erie željeznica.

Komplet A-B-A kompleksa "C-Liners" u središtu New Yorka (CFA/B-16-4) pomaže u prikazivanju željezničke brze teretne službe "Pacemaker", oko 1952. Fotografija Ed Nowaka.

Za to vrijeme Erie je bila jedna od najvećih američkih željeznica.   Borba je bila bitka volje između Goulda i Vanderbilta.  

Kao što je Komodor stekli sve više dionica, Gould i njegovi suradnici izdavali su sve veće dionice kako bi napuhali vrijednost dionica Erie -a (poznatu i kao "zalivane zalihe") i spriječili Vanderbilt u stjecanju većinske kontrole.  

Gould bi na kraju pobijedio podmićujući zakonodavno tijelo savezne države New York, koje je dionice odobrilo legalnim.   Tijekom godina Cornelius Vanderbilt imao je sporove s mnogima u poslovnom svijetu, poput Drew -a, Fiska i drugih.

Njegove svađe gotovo nikada nisu bile osobne, a s kasnije se kasnije u životu sprijateljio s Gouldom i Jimom Fiskom, no pokazalo se da je iznimka.  

Neto vrijednost i nekretnine

 Komodor otišao je 4. siječnja 1877. u dobi od 82 godine prikupivši bogatstvo od gotovo 100 milijuna dolara, što bi u današnjim dolarima vrijedilo više od 233 milijarde dolara, što ga čini jednim od najbogatijih Amerikanaca u povijesti.

U oporuci je Vanderbilt ostavio 95 milijuna dolara izravno svom sinu Williamu   sa svojih osam kćeri koje su primale između 250.000 i 500.000 dolara.

Za razliku od Jamesa Hilla i niza drugih poznatih željezničkih tajkuna,   Vanderbilt nije bio vrijedan filantropije.   Ipak je uložio milijun dolara za osnivanje Centralnog sveučilišta u Nashvilleu u Tennesseeju.   Ovo viša ustanova za učenje postala je danas prestižno sveučilište Vanderbilt.    


Činjenice o .

Činjenice o.
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Zanimljiv Činjenice
Odjeljak koji sadrži niz različitih tema i tema, uključujući plemena Indijanaca, Titanik, Veliku depresiju i alkohol.

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Reference

  1. Život komodora Vanderbilta. .siječnja 5, 1877. https: //query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf? _R = 1 & ampres = 9E01E2D7133AE63BBC4D53DFB766838C669FDE.  
  2. ↑ 2.02.1 "Cornelius Vanderbilt. Dug i koristan život završioThe New York Times. January 5, 1877 . https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1877/01/05/80358540.pdf .  
  3. Commodore Vanderbilt's Life. January 5, 1877 . https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1877/01/05/80358542.pdf .  
  4. ↑ Klepper, Michael; Gunther, Michael (1996). The Wealthy 100: From Benjamin Franklin to Bill Gates—A Ranking of the Richest Americans, Past and Present. Secaucus, New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group. p. xi. ISBN𧓒-0-8065-1800-8 . OCLC� .  

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Cornelius Vanderbilt - Biography, Children and Facts - HISTORY

Upon his death in 1877, at age 82, Cornelius Vanderbilt, also known as Commodore Vanderbilt, was the wealthiest man in the United States and probably the greatest of the nineteenth century railroad barons. Earlier in his business career he probably was the greatest shipping tycoon in the United States. His estate was worth 100 million dollars, a sum unheard of in those days. He left the bulk of his estate to his son William Henry Vanderbilt, because he was the only child who had been actively involved in the business that produced the Vanderbilt fortune. William Henry also had been instrumental in building and expanding the railroad business since he joined his father in the management of the organization upon becoming an adult.

Cornelius was born in Port Richmond, Staten Island, New York on May 27, 1794. His parents were poor and his father earned his living by providing low level transportation services. As was usual for the common people in those days, Cornelius went to work at age 11, and was employed by his father. We know little of his parents but his ancestors came from the town of De Bilt, in the province of Utrecht in the Netherlands. His great great great grandfather was Jan Aertsen who came to New Netherland as an indentured worker in 1650, at the time of the early Dutch settlements including New Amsterdam. Cornelius married his first cousin, Sophia Johnson [1795-1868] on December 19, 1813 when he was only 19 and she was only 18 years old. They had their first child, Phebe Jane Vanderbilt [1814-1878] the following year in 1814. Eleven more surviving children followed until the last one, George Washington Vanderbilt [1839-1864], was born twenty five years later.

Between the years 1805 and 1810 Cornelius worked for his father and for the ferry services serving Staten Island. In 1810 when he was sixteen years old he convinced his parents to lend him $100 so he could buy a sailboat to start his own ferry and freight business. They provided him with the money but with the understanding that he would share the profits from the business with his parents. He used the money to start a passenger and freight service between Staten Island and New York City. There was a lot of competition in the ferry service business, but Vanderbilt competed on the basis of lower fares, asking as little as 18 cents per trip. He was quite successful and apparently was able to repay the $100 loan to his parents within one year. According to local lore, he was even able to earn a $1,000 for his parents during the first year of operations as part of their share in the profits.

The war of 1812 provided new opportunities for growth. The forts around New York City expanded and Vanderbilt obtained a government contract to supply them. Between 1814 and 1818 he expanded with additional schooners for freight and passenger services in Long Island Sound and in the coastal trade from New England to Charleston, South Carolina.

In 1818 he sold all his sailing vessels and became a steamboat captain and partner with Thomas Gibbons who operated a ferry service between New Brunswick, New Jersey and New York City. The Vanderbilt-Gibbons partnership charged only a quarter of the competitive fares. It soon became the dominant ferry service on the busy Philadelphia-New York City route. During the 1818-1829 time period the partnership made a fortune.

In 1829 Vanderbilt decided to go on his own and began passenger and freight service on the New York City-Peekskill Hudson River route. Again he competed on the basis of price and quickly eliminated the competition. He then expanded his service to Albany, New York. He also opened passenger and freight service to the Long Island Sound, Providence and Connecticut areas. By the 1840s Vanderbilt had a fleet of 100 steamships and he had become the biggest employer in the United States. At that point he not only competed on the basis of price but also on the basis of comfort, size, speed, luxury and elegance in the steamship passenger transportation industry.

During the California gold rush in 1849, Vanderbilt began steamship service to San Francisco by way of Nicaraqua. His competitors used the Panama route which was longer. Vanderbilt was able to cut two days off the length of the trip to San Francisco, and it was 600 miles shorter. This part of his transportation business netted him over one million dollars per year. As a result he became the principal transportation service provider on the East Coast to San Francisco route.

In the 1850s he did two possibly foolish things. In 1853 he decided to take his first vacation ever. He had a steam yacht built and made a triumphant tour of Europe. While on his trip he had left the management of the business to contract managers. They tried to fraudulently take over the business while he was away in Europe. Although they were not successful, his temporary absence from his business proved to be costly, but he quickly recovered. Another not so successful business attempt was trying to compete against the British Cunard Steamship Line, a line subsidized by the British government, on the North Atlantic passenger service route. This also proved to be a failure. So the old fox discovered that not all his ventures were automatically successful.

In the 1860s he became aware that the big growth in the future for the transportation industry was not by way of water but by way of rail. So he became interested in railroad transportation, which was then still in its infancy. But instead of building new railroads, he took the easier route of buying existing railroads. He acquired the Long Island Railroad followed by the New York and Harlem Railroad and the Hudson River Railroad. In 1867 he also acquired the Central Railroad and merged it with the other railroads he already owned. As he had done with his shipping ventures, he focused on improving service and on upgrading capital equipment while maintaining low fares. He eventually merged all his initial acquisitions into what became known as the New York Central Railroad. It is estimated that he made $ 25 million in the first five years from his railroad ventures.

The eventual main heir to his empire, his son William Henry Vanderbilt, influenced his father to expand rail service into the direction of Chicago. To do so they acquired the Lakeshore and Michigan Railway, the Michigan Southern, the Canadian Southern and the Michigan Central Railroad, creating for that time the largest American system of railway transportation.

In 1868 Cornelius lost his wife Sophia. This was a great loss to him. She had provided him with ten still living children and apparently was a good business woman herself, supporting and advising him in many of his business decisions. One of the things that is not widely known is the fact that Cornelius was a meticulous planner and analyst. Before he entered into any deal or venture he would meticulously analyze it and have it evaluated by others before making a decision. Many people attribute his success to luck. In reality Cornelius was a super smart and astute business man and hands-on manager of his many businesses. Although he may have made some mistakes along the way, he was always able to either cut his losses or extract himself from the occasional debacle. And undoubtedly, he often involved his wife Sophia in many if not most of his business decisions.

A year after the death of his wife Sophia, Vanderbilt now 73 years old, married a distant cousin named Frances Armstrong Crawford, and known as Frank. She was 34 years his junior. The marriage was probably a good one because it gave him a new outlook on life. It is doubtful if his children approved of it. After all, his new wife was younger than seven of his twelve children. It appears that the marriage to a younger woman gave him an imagined extension to his life.

Allthough Vanderbilt had not engaged in philanthropy at all until that point in his life, through his new wife's influence, he perpetuated his name through a gift of one million dollars to Nashville's Central University. One million dollars may not sound like a lot of money, but in the 1870's it was. Using a conversion ratio of 260, based on the gross domestic product per capita then and now, the one million dollars was essentially equal to $260 million in today's terms. The Nashville Central University would become, and to this day still is, the prestigious Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee.

During the last years of his life, his son William H. Vanderbilt became the senior manager of the business, and continued the path his father had set. Cornelius passed away in 1877 at the age of 83. He had left the bulk of his estate to his son William H. Vanderbilt and only gave modest amounts of half a million dollars to each of his other nine surviving children. Needless to say his will was contested but the suit was thrown out. He also donated $50,000 to the Church of the Strangers in New York City. Following his death the offspring did not suffer. Even half a million dollars, equal to 130 million dollars today, was also a substantial amount in 1877. The value of the Vanderbilt estate in today's terms would have been about $26 billion.

Cornelius and Sophia Vanderbilt had 12 children, but only 11 survived to adulthood.

  1. Phebe Jane Vanderbilt Cross [1814-1878]
  2. Ethelinda Vanderbilt Allen [1817-1889]
  3. Eliza Vanderbilt Osgood [1819-1890]
  4. William Henry Vanderbilt [1821-1885]
  5. Emily A. Vanderbilt Thorn [1823-1896]
  6. Maria L. Vanderbilt Clark Niven [1827-1896]
  7. Francis L. Vanderbilt [1828-1868]
  8. Cornelius J. Vanderbilt [1830-1882]
  9. Maria A. Vanderbilt La Beau Berger [1834-1902]
  10. Catherine J. Vanderbilt Barker La Fitte [1836-1881]
  11. George W. Vanderbilt [1839-1864]

FAMILY TREE BRANCHES FOR THE ELEVEN VANDERBILTS DESCRIBED IN THE INDIVIDUAL BIO PROFILES INCLUDED IN THE COLLECTION OF “PROMINENT DUTCH AMERICANS”

THE ELEVEN VANDERBILTS ARE HEADED UP BY THE MOST PROMINENT ONE WHO IS THE FOUNDER OF THE VANDERBILT FAMILY TREE PRESENTED BELOW: CORNELIUS VANDERBILT (1794-1877).

CORNELIUS VANDERBILT IS KNOWN AS THE COMMODORE AND FOUNDER OF THE VANDERBILT NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD SYSTEM AND THE VANDERBILT FAMILY.

There will be three family tree branches shown below to indicate the relationship between the eleven Vanderbilts whose bio profiles are included in the New Netherland Institute collection of Prominent Dutch Americans. All of those included have a common ancestor: Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt.

The eleven Vanderbilts and their respective family tree branches will be listed below. This will allow you to determine where each one of the ten Vanderbilts fits in the overall Vanderbilt family tree. The first Vanderbilt to appear is the founder of the Vanderbilt family clan.

CORNELIUS VANDERBILT (1794 -1877) WAS THE FOUNDER OF THE VANDERBILT FAMILY AND THE NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD SYSTEM. HE WAS KNOWN AS THE COMMODORE, OR COMMODORE CORNELIUS VANDERBILT.

His son William Henry Vanderbilt was the sole individual in the family who continued the operation and control of the transportation empire represented by the New York Central Railroad and to a large extent the Vanderbilt family. His name is listed below.

WILLIAM HENRY VANDERBILT (1821-1885) HE WAS THE SON, MAIN HEIR AND SUCCESSOR TO THE COMMODORE. HE BECAME THE CENTRAL PERSON WHO EXPANDED THE NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD SYSTEMHICH HIS FATHER DEVELOPED.

William Henry Vanderbilt had two sons consisting of Cornelius Vanderbilt II [1843-1899] and William Kissam Vanderbilt [1849-1920]. Each one of the two sons is the head of their own respective Vanderbilt family branch. Below follow the three branches of the two sons.

THE FIRST FAMILY BRANCH OF THE VANDERBILTS

CORNELIUS VANDERBILT II (1843-1899) WAS THE OLDER SON OF WILLIAM HENRY VANDERBILT AND ONE OF THE COMMODORE’S GRANDSONS. AFTER HIS FATHER’S DEATH HE BECAME THE SUCCESSOR AND MANAGER OF THE NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD SYSTEM.

Below follows Cornelius Vanderbilt III, the next member in this branch. He was the son of Cornelius Vanderbilt II.

CORNELIUS VANDERBILT III (1873-1942) WAS ONE OF WILLIAM HENRY VANDERBILT’S GRANDSONS.

The next person is Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney [1875-1942]. She was a daughter of Cornelius Vanderbilt II [1843-1899]. She was involved in the founding of the Whitney Museum of American Arts, named after her husband’s family name.

GERTRUDE VANDERBILT WHITNEY [1875-1942] GRANDDAUGHTER OF WILLIAM HENRY VANDERBILT

Below follows Cornelius Vanderbilt IV, the next member in this branch. He was the son of Cornelius Vanderbilt III.

CORNELIUS VANDERBILT IV (1898-1974) WAS ONE OF WILLIAM HENRY VANDERBILT’S GREAT GRANDSONS.

THE SECOND FAMILY BRANCH OF THE VANDERBILTS

WILLIAM KISSAM VANDERBILT (1849-1920) WAS THE YOUNGER SON OF WILLIAM HENRY VANDERBILT AND ONE OF THE GRANDSONS OF COMMODORE CORNELIUS VANDERBILT. HE BECAME THE LEADER OF THE VANDERBILT FAMILY CLAN FOLLOWING THE DEATH OF HIS OLDER BROTHER CORNELIUS VANDERBILT II.

Below follows the next member of the William Kissam Vanderbilt branch. His name is Harold Sterling Vanderbilt.

HAROLD STIRLING VANDERBILT (1884-1970) WAS THE SON OF WILLIAM KISSAM VANDERBILT (1849-1920) AND THE LAST VANDERBILT TO HAVE SOME CONTROL OVER THE NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD SYSTEM. HE WAS A BOARD MEMBER UNTIL 1954.

Below follows the third family tree branch of Reginald Claypoole Vanderbilt. His branch shows how the two youngest members, Gloria Vanderbilt and her son Anderson Cooper fit into the overall Vanderbilt family tree.

THE THIRD FAMILY BRANCH OF THE VANDERBILTS

This branch is headed up by Reginald Claypoole Vanderbilt.

REGINALD CLAYPOOLE VANDERBILT [1880-1925] WAS THE SON OF CORNELIUS VANDERBILT II.

Reginald Claypoole Vanderbilt and Gloria Morgan were the parents of Gloria Vanderbilt [1924].

GLORIA VANDERBILT [1924] WAS THE DAUGHTER OF REGINALD CLAYPOOLE VANDERBILT.

Gloria Vanderbilt is the mother of Anderson Cooper. His father was Wyatt Cooper.

ANDERSON COOPER [1967] IS THE ONLY SURVIVING SON OF GLORIA VANDERBILT.

Anderson Cooper was the grandson of Reginald Claypoole Vanderbilt and the great great great grandson of the Commodore, Cornelius Vanderbilt [1794-1877].

Final Note: Collectively there are bio profiles for 11 members of the Vanderbilt family. Nine members are Vanderbilts, and the other two are Anderson Cooper, the surviving son of Gloria Vanderbilt and Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney.

The eleven members of the Vanderbilt family listed above are only a small portion of all the descendants of Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt [1794-1877]. But they are the most prominent and are included to show how they are related to each other. In the 1990’s there was a family reunion of the Vanderbilt descendants and close to 200 people showed up. And they were only representative of a still larger group of descendants.

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OSAM ISTAKNUTIH NIZOZEMSKIH AMERIČKIH OBITELJI: ROOSEVELTS, VANDERBILTS I DRUGI, 2015.

PETNAEST ISTAKNUTIH NEMAČKIH AMERIČKIH OBITELJI: VAN BURENS, BRAĆA KOCH, VOORHEES I DRUGI, 2015.


Cornelius Vanderbilt

Cornelius was born in 1794 on Staten Island among the harbours that would make his first fortune. Aged 11, he started work with his father, a poor illiterate seaman, but by 16, he’s bought his first small ferry boat with a $100 loan. Even at this early age few could best him, in business, or on the street.

“He was a tough guy. Getting into scraps with other men, beating the hell out of them and knocking them unconscious.”
TJ Stiles, Vanderbilt Biographer

At 19, he marries his first cousin who will bear him 13 children. A cutthroat entrepreneur, he moves from sailboat to steamships, always undercutting, and then overcoming the competition.

FIRST FORTUNE
His single island-hopping ferry expands to an ocean going fleet and he becomes synonymous with shipping earning the nickname ‘Commodore’. Defeating many monopolies along the way, he creates the largest shipping empire in the world. But before the Civil War, he sells nearly everything to invest in the new railways believing they’ll unite America.

By war’s end, he’s the richest man in America with a net worth of over $65 million equivalent to nearly $75 billion today. But the war costs him his favourite son and heir apparent and he dives into a drink fuelled depression. He relies on his less able son, William and makes him operations director of the Hudson Railroad.

By 1866, he’s 72, and 30 years past the average age expectancy. His railroad rivals think he’s weak and ready to fall. But he owns the only rail bridge into New York City, and it is both the gateway to country’s largest and busiest port and, in his hands, a weapon.

SECOND FORTUNE
He orders his son to close Albany Bridge effectively blockading the millions of dollars of cargo of other rival railroads. Before their stocks become worthless, the rival rail road presidents try to sell their shares. When Wall Street realises, there’s a massive sell off. And when the price falls, Vanderbilt buys up. In just days, he creates the largest single railroad company in America.

Chicago is America’s fastest growing city and the Erie Line, the rail road connecting it to New York, the most profitable: And Vanderbilt doesn’t own it. So in 1867, Vanderbilt tries to buy up its shares demanding majority control by the end of the week, a move now known as a hostile takeover.

But middle managers, Jay Gould and Jim Fisk see a chance to cash in on the Commodore. They print over 100,000 new shares in a basement, diluting Vanderbilt’s ownership. This now illegal manoeuvre costs the equivalent of a billion dollars in today’s money.

But by 1871, his supremacy’s undisputed. Marking his conquest, he opens the Grand Central Depot, the biggest train station in the country. It covers 22 acres. He also gives the largest charitable donation in American history with a $1m gift to a university that still bears his name.

And Vanderbilt realises the rail network has been overbuilt and future profits will come from transporting new cargo, not from building new lines. He believes the demand for the kerosene that lights the lamps of the newly industrialising America will be explosive.

ENTER ROCKEFELLER
Vanderbilt homes in on Eastern Ohio, the Middle East of its day, and begins negotiations with a struggling oil man, John D Rockefeller. Vanderbilt wants the exclusive contract to transport his kerosene so his freight’s always full.
Initially, the deal suits Vanderbilt. But Rockefeller’s rise is meteoric enough to make Vanderbilt ally himself with railroad rivals. He hopes to control the Ohio oilman who seeks lower and lower rates for transportation.

Then, in 1877, in the depths of the economic depression, and holding the largest fortune in the US, Vanderbilt dies, aged 82. He leaves his $100m empire to his son William. And he leaves a template for the other robber barons to follow.


The Vanderbilt Family

Today, Biltmore House is known as America’s Largest Home® and a National Historic Landmark. But before it became one of North Carolina’s most popular tourist destinations, it was simply “home” to the Vanderbilt family.

George Vanderbilt visited Asheville, NC, in 1888 and was captivated by the area’s natural beauty. He slowly began purchasing land and ended up with 125,000 acres for his country estate. Determined to make this a self-sustaining home, Vanderbilt enlisted architect Richard Morris Hunt to design and build a 250-room château. Landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted was also hired to create formal gardens and transform the former farmland into a beautiful pastoral landscape.

A Legendary Romance

Edith Dresser’s formal engagement photo, 1898

That all changed on April 28, 1898, when Vanderbilt proposed to Edith Stuyvesant Dresser. A family friend, Edith was 10 years younger than Vanderbilt and admired for her beauty and personality. She was hailed as cosmopolitan and cultured yet humble and down to earth. The pair shared a passion for learning and travel that they enjoyed throughout their marriage.

On June 1, 1898, the pair was joined as husband and wife in a private 15-minute civil ceremony in a town hall in Paris, France. The next day, they followed French tradition with a religious ceremony at the American Church of the Holy Trinity in Paris. Close friends and family were invited to this ceremony, which was surprisingly simple and modest considering the media fanfare that surrounded the event.

A quiet Italian honeymoon followed, and then George brought his bride to Biltmore House. Estate employees welcomed Edith to her new home by lining up along the Approach Road. A giant horseshoe made out of goldenrod flowers with the phrase “Welcome Home” spelled out in more flowers greeted the couple as they arrived at Biltmore House.

Biltmore House Becomes a Family Home

The happy couple added to their family on August 22, 1900, with the birth of their daughter Cornelia. It was a joyous occasion celebrated among the family and recorded by local newspapers. The Spartanburg Journal wrote, “A new star has appeared at famous Biltmore, and the charming mistress of this most gorgeous home is smiling upon her first born, a tiny girl called Cornelia Stuyvesant Vanderbilt, and the world shares in her new found happiness.”

Cornelia spent her childhood on the estate, and often played with the local children whose families lived and worked on the estate. When Cornelia was 13, tragedy struck when George Vanderbilt unexpectedly died following an emergency appendectomy in Washington, D.C., in March 1914. Mrs. Vanderbilt returned to the estate after her husband’s death, but eventually consolidated the family businesses and properties.

The Arrival of a New Generation

Cornelia Vanderbilt’s formal wedding portrait, 1924

A decade later, wedding bells rang as Cornelia married the Honorable John Francis Amherst Cecil at All Souls Church in Biltmore Village on April 27, 1924. It was a joyous occasion as guests from around the world descended upon the quiet little town of Asheville. Mr. Cecil was a British diplomat and a descendant of Lord Burghley, who was High Treasurer to Queen Elizabeth I.

A second generation arrived at Biltmore House a year later. George Henry Vanderbilt Cecil was born in Biltmore House in 1925. Three years later in 1928, William Amherst Vanderbilt Cecil was born in Biltmore House. George and William were educated abroad in Switzerland and England, but always returned home to Biltmore for holidays and summer vacations.

The brothers were instrumental in caring for the estate as adults. William especially was involved in overseeing the care of Biltmore House, the estate and The Biltmore Company. Today, Biltmore remains a family business, with the fourth and fifth generations of George Vanderbilt’s descendants involved in day-to-day operations. Along with more than 2,400 employees, they continue Biltmore’s mission to preserve this national treasure.


Who is Cornelius Vanderbilt dating?

According to our records, Cornelius Vanderbilt is possibily singl & has not been previously engaged. As of June 2021, Cornelius Vanderbilt’s is not dating anyone.

Relationships Record

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Facts & Trivia

Cornelius Ranked on the list of most popular Entrepreneur. Also ranked in the elit list of famous celebrity born in United States. He dropped out of school at age 11 to work for his father’s ferry business.


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