USS Phoenix (CL-46)

USS Phoenix (CL-46)


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

USS Phoenix (CL-46)

USS Feniks (CL-46) je bila laka krstarica klase Brooklyn koja je sudjelovala u borbama u južnom Pacifiku, tijekom napredovanja duž Nove Gvineje i invazije na Filipine, ali to je poznatije kao argentinska krstarica General Belgrano, potonuo tijekom Foklandskog rata 1982. godine.

The Feniks položen je u travnju 1935., lansiran u ožujku 1938. i pušten u rad 3. listopada 1938. Njena krstarica koja ju je vodila odvela ju je u vode Južne Amerike. Zatim se pridružila Pacifičkoj floti, te je bila u Pearl Harboru kada su Japanci napali 7. prosinca 1941. Nije bila oštećena tijekom napada, a bila je na moru do podneva, čineći dio radne skupine s kruzerima St Louis (CL-49) i Detroit (CL-8) koji je napravio kratak pokušaj da pronađe japansku flotu.

The Feniks činila je dio pratnje za prvi konvoj iz Pearl Harbora za Sjedinjene Američke Države, početak mjesec dana konvojske dužnosti na toj ruti. Potom je ispratila konvoj iz San Francisca u Melbourne i ostala u australskim vodama, uglavnom djelujući zapadno od kontinenta. U veljači je ispratila konvoj do Ceylona. Također je pratila konvoj do Bombaja, te je sudjelovala u savezničkoj evakuaciji Jave. Zatim se pridružila Operativnoj skupini 44, koja je djelovala zajedno sa snagama ANZAC-a u jugozapadnom Pacifiku, gdje je ostala sve dok nije otišla na ponovnu opremu u srpnju 1943. godine.

Nakratko je napustila pacifičko kazalište u ljeto 1943. godine kada je odvela državnog tajnika Cordella Hulla u Casablancu. Nakon toga je raspoređena u Sedmu flotu koja je djelovala kao podrška generalu MacArthuru u južnom Pacifiku.

Bila je dio TG74.2 za iskrcavanje na Cape Gloucester u Novoj Britaniji 26. prosinca 1943. Izvela je bombardiranje prije invazije, a zatim je vojnicima pružila vatrenu potporu.

U siječnju 1944. sudjelovala je u bombardiranju japanskih baza u Madangu i Alexishafenu na Novoj Gvineji. U veljači je podržala 1. konjičku diviziju dok su izvodili izviđanje na snazi ​​na Los Negrosu. Japanski otpor bio je manje učinkovit nego što se strahovalo pa je napad postao trajna okupacija.

Početkom ožujka Feniks (zajedno s Nashville i HMAS Shropshire) bombardirao otok Hauwei u Admiralitetskoj skupini. U travnju je podržala iskrcavanje u Hollandiji na Novoj Gvineji. Kasnije u mjesecu bombardirala je Wakdea i Sawara. U svibnju je podržala iskrcavanje u Arareu i invaziju na Wakde. Zatim je sudjelovala u invaziji na otok Biak uništavajući opasne japanske baterije.

Dana 4. lipnja Feniks napala su dva japanska borbena bombardera. Jedan muškarac je poginuo, a četiri su ranjena pri promašajima tijekom ovog napada. Sličan napad sljedeće noći bio je manje uspješan. Od 8. do 9. lipnja radna skupina presrela je japanske razaračke snage koje su pokušale ubaciti pojačanje u Novu Gvineju i natjerala ih u bijeg.

Početkom srpnja izvela je bombardiranje otoka Noemfoor prije invazije.

U rujnu je postala dio krstarica koje su podržavale invaziju na Morotai (Boise, Nashville, Shropshire, Phoenix i HMAS Australija). 15. rujna bombardirali su Halmaheru i podržali invazijske snage.

U listopadu je Feniks je bio dio Zatvorske grupe za pokrivanje tijekom invazije na Leyte. Izvela je bombardiranje prije invazije, a zatim je podržala nadiruće trupe. Tijekom bitke kod zaljeva Leyte Feniks bio je dio flote admirala Oldendorfa tijekom bitke na tjesnacu Surigao, posljednje borbe s oružjem između bojnih brodova. The Feniks sama je pucala na japanski bojni brod Fuso.

Nakon bitke Feniks vratio snagama koje su štitile plažu. Dana 1. studenoga njezinu je snagu napalo deset japanskih torpednih bombardera. Tijekom napada zrakoplovi koji su se srušili pogodili su tri razarača. Kasnije istog dana pogođen je četvrti razarač.

U prosincu je Feniks sudjelovao u invaziji na Mindoro. Još jednom se našla pod napadom kamikaza, ali je izbjegla da je sama udari. The Nashville imao je manje sreće i pogodio ga je jedan zrakoplov.

U siječnju 1945 Feniks sudjelovao u invaziji na Luzon. Ona je prije invazije bila meta patuljaste podmornice, ali je izbjegla dva torpeda. U veljači je podržala napad na Bataan i Corregidor, a u ožujku invaziju na Mindanao.

Njezina posljednja ratna služba došla je tijekom invazije Balikpapana na Borneo. Između 29. lipnja i 7. srpnja podržavala je minolovce koji su djelovali u dometu japanskih obalnih topova. Tijekom tog razdoblja jedanaest minolovaca oštećeno je ili potonulo pucnjavom i minama, unatoč protuakumulacijskoj vatri koju je osigurala Feniks.

Krajem rata Feniks bila na putu za Pearl Harbor na planirani remont. Nastavila je prema istoku, a početkom rujna pridružila se Atlantskoj floti. U veljači 1946. stavljena je u proviziju u pričuvu, a 3. srpnja 1946. raspisana.

U travnju 1951. godine Feniks prodan je Argentini. Nakon remonta naručena je kao 17 de Octubre 17. listopada 1951. Preimenovana je u General Belgrano 1956., ime po kojem je sada najpoznatija.

The General Belgrano potopljen je u jednom od politički najkontroverznijih trenutaka Falklandskog rata 1982. 29. travnja veliki dio argentinske flote izašao je na more. The General Belgrano kretao se oko juga otoka, dok je radna skupina izgrađena oko nosača Veinticinco de Mayo otplovio prema sjeveru. Donekle ironično, ovo je bio bivši britanski nosač klase Colossus Časni. Prodana je Nizozemcima 1938. godine, gdje je postala Karel Doorman. 1969. prodana je Argentini, a 1982. još je nosila mnogo britanske opreme.

Sada je postojao potencijal za trostruki napad na britansku operativnu grupu, istočno od Falklanda, s avionima nosačima koji dolaze sa sjeverozapada, kopnenim zrakoplovima s Foklanda i argentinskog kopna i General Belgrano dolazi s jugozapada. Unatoč svojim godinama, argentinska krstarica predstavljala je stvarnu prijetnju britanskim brodovima - njezinih dvanaest topova od 6 inča bili su tada najmoćniji u bilo kojoj floti, a nosila je rakete Exocet.

Ujutro 2. svibnja argentinski prijevoznik pripremio se za napad, naoružavajući svojih osam zrakoplova A-4 Skyhawk. Samo su ih slabi vjetrovi spriječili u napadu. Na jugu Belgrano i njegova pratnja (dvoje Allen M Sumner razarači klase, također naoružani egzocetama) cikcakali su južno od Foklanda, blisko slijedeći britansku nuklearnu podmornicu Osvajač. Admiral Woodward, zapovjednik Operativne skupine, naredio je Osvajač potonuti Belgrano prije nego što je uspjela ući u plitke vode da bi ih podmornica mogla slijediti. Naredbu je potvrdio Ratni kabinet, a nešto prije 19.00 sati 2. svibnja Osvajač ispalila tri torpeda na Belgrano. Dva pogotka, a ona je potonula za 45 minuta. 368 argentinskih mornara izgubljeno je s Belgrano, a 880 je spašeno. Većina uzroka uzrokovana su dvama udarcima torpeda. Dva razarača u pratnji (Hipolto Bouchard i Piedra Buena izveo neuspješan napad dubinskim nabojem na britansku podmornicu.

Ostatak argentinske flote brzo se vratio u luku, eliminirajući površinsku prijetnju britanskoj radnoj skupini. Veliki dio kontroverzi došao je iz Belgranova točno mjesto u vrijeme napada - tada je bila udaljena 220 milja od otoka i plovila je zapadno na 10 km - što ju je smjestilo 20 milja izvan zone potpune isključenosti. Argumenti su u velikoj mjeri ignorirali vojnu stvarnost, a to je da su neprijateljski ratni brodovi bili valjana meta, bili oni unutar ili izvan zone isključenja, te da je Belgrano očito je u to vrijeme samo držao stanicu, a nije se vraćao kući.

Feniks (CL – 46) zaslužio je devet borbenih zvijezda za službu u Drugom svjetskom ratu.

Potis (standardni)

9.767t

Pomak (opterećen)

12,207t

Najveća brzina

32,5 kt

Domet

10.000 nm na 15kts

Oklop - pojas

5in na 0.625in STS

- paluba

2in

- barbettes

6 in

- kupole

6,5 inča za lice
2 -in krov
1.25 in bočno i straga

- zvonik

5in
Krov 2,25 inča

Duljina

608ft 4in

Naoružanje

Petnaest topova 6in/47 (pet trostrukih kupola)
Osam topova 5in/25 (/38 uključenih St Louis, Helena) (osam pojedinačnih pozicija)
Osam topova od 0,5 inča
Četiri zrakoplova

Komplement posade

868

Položen

15. travnja 1935

Pokrenut

13. ožujka 1938

Dovršeno

3. listopada 1938

Prodano Argentini

17. listopada 1951


USS Phoenix (CL -46) - Povijest

9.767 tona (standardno)
12.403 tone (maksimalno)
600 'x 61' 7 & quot x 19 '9 & quot
Naoružanje (1945)
15 (5x3) x 6 & 47 /47 cal pištolja
8 x 5 & quot AA topovi
4 x Quad 40 mm AA pištolja
2 x Twin 40 mm AA
Topovi 18 x 20 mm

27. veljače 1944. u jutarnjim satima lansirala je svoj plutajući avion na ceste Buna radi sastanka u vezi s nadolazećim operacijama. U 10:30 sati ušao je u Kineski tjesnac, a u 12:09 sati privezao se s lučke strane HMAS Bishopdale (A128) u zaljevu Milne i ukrcao 13 osoblja, a plovak se vratio u 16:08. U 16:18 sati ukrcali su se general američke vojske Douglas MacArthur i viceadmiral američke mornarice (USN) Thomas C. Kinkaid, zapovjednik Sedme flote plus njihovi pomoćnici. U 16:35 sati krenuo je i otišao kao Zadaća skupina 74.2 (TG 74.2) uključujući USS Nashville (CL-43), USS Beale (DD-471), USS Daly (DD-519), USS Hutchins (DD-476) i USS Bache (DD-470) preko Gavranova kanala koji vodi prema cestama Buna.

28. veljače 1944. u 5:24 ujutro na putu prema Buna cestama. U 8:05 ujutro general -potpukovnik američke vojske Walter Krueger i kontraadmiral DE Barbey ukrcali su se na konferenciju s MacArthurom, a zatim su otišli do 9:30 sati, a ubrzo nakon toga snage su otišle i podijelile se u skupinu A uključujući Phoenix, Daly i Huchins i skupinu B uključujući Nashville, Beale i Bache i nastavili do Admiralitetskih otoka.

1. ožujka 1944. u 6:00 sati napustila je formaciju na putu s Admiralitetskih otoka prema Cape Sudestu. U 7:59 sati ispred otoka Nussing u blizini rta Cretin, PT brodovi su došli zajedno, a MacArthur i Kinkaid i njihovi pomoćnici iskrcali su se. Prije odlaska, general MacArthur izjavio je: & quotOvo je izvrstan brod. Po mom mišljenju, nikada nisam vidio učinkovitiji brod. "Admiral Kinkaid je dodao:" Imate izuzetno lijep, čist i učinkovit brod. Čudim se tišini s kojom se sve radi. & Quot Nakon toga, ponovno sam se pridružio TG 74.2 i zig-zged sa zvučnim kontaktom na Buna Roads te u 2:37 privezao na lučku stranu USS Trinity (AO-13) za natočenje goriva usidren u 6:31 na pristaništu 43 u Buna cestama.

Ukrcali su se viceadmiral Thomas C. Kinkaid i general američke vojske MacArthur kako bi promatrali iskrcavanje SAD -a na Admiraltijsko otočje. 28. veljače 1944. kod Los Negrosa sudjelovao je u bombardiranju prije invazije.

30. lipnja 1945. Phoenix stiže s Balikpapana na Borneo i pruža podršku pucnjavom za bombardiranje prije invazije. Dana 1. srpnja 1945. podržava "operaciju Oboe Two" amfibijsko iskrcavanje 7. divizije australske vojske, a zatim pruža potporu i pokriće minolovcima do 7. srpnja 1945. godine.

Za svoju službu u Drugom svjetskom ratu Phoenix je zaslužila jedanaest borbenih zvijezda.

Poslijeratna
Dana 6. rujna 1945. prešao je Panamski kanal i pridružio se Atlantskoj floti. 28. veljače 1946. u Philadelphiji njezin je status sveden na proviziju. 3. srpnja 1946. stavljen van pogona u Philadelphiji. 27. siječnja 1951. izbačen iz mornarice.

Dana 9. travnja 1951. prodano Argentini. 17. listopada 1951. u Armadi de la República Argentina (argentinska mornarica) naručen kao Diecisiete de Octubre (C-4). 1956. preimenovan u ARA general Belgrano. Tijekom 1967. do 1968. nadograđen novim nizozemskim radarima i britanskim protuzračnim projektilima Sea Cat.

Potonuća povijest
Dana 2. svibnja 1982. tijekom Foklandskog rata, pogođen torpedom koji je ispalila britanska podmornica HMS Conqueror, izgubivši 323 člana posade. Ovaj gubitak činio je nešto više od polovice argentinskih vojnih smrti pretrpljenih tijekom Foklandskog rata. Ovo je bio jedini ratni brod koji je tijekom rata potopila podmornica s nuklearnim pogonom.

Reference
NavSource - USS Phoenix CL -46 (fotografije)
NARA USS Phoenix (CL-46) veljača 1944
NARA USS Phoenix & "Izvješće o djelovanju bombardiranja i okupacije aerodroma Momote, otok Los Negros, grupa Admiraliteta, 29. veljače 1944." 3. ožujka 1944. godine
NARA USS Phoenix (CL-46) ožujak 1944
NARA USS Phoenix (CL-46) travnja 1944
NARA USS Phoenix (CL-46) svibanj 1944

Doprinesite informacijama
Jeste li rođak ili ste povezani s nekom spomenutom osobom?
Imate li fotografije ili dodatne informacije za dodati?


Feniks tada je djelovao u blizini Zapadne obale, a kasnije je imao sjedište u Pearl Harboru. Dana 7. prosinca 1941. tijekom napada na Pearl Harbor usidrena je jugoistočno od otoka Ford u blizini Utjeha. Posmatrači na brodu Feniks ugledao izlazeće sunce Japana na avionima koji su se spuštali nisko iznad otoka Ford, a nekoliko sekundi kasnije brodsko oružje odvelo ih je pod vatru [ Potrebno pojašnjenje ] . Feniks je izbjegao katastrofu neozlijeđen i nedugo nakon podneva bilo je u tijeku pridruživanje Louis, Detroit i nekoliko razarača u improviziranoj radnoj skupini koja je neuspješno tražila neprijateljske nosače aviona.

Feniks sljedeći je nakon napada ispratio prvi konvoj u Sjedinjene Američke Države iz Pearl Harbora i odmah se vratio s drugim konvojem. Nakon mjesec dana konvojske dužnosti između Sjedinjenih Država i Havaja, napustila je San Francisco sa snagama za Melbourne, Australija. Neko vrijeme krstarica je djelovala u australskim vodama u pratnji brodova trupa, nekad se uparivši sjeverno od Jave. Dok Feniks plovio je prema Cejlonu u veljači 1942. s konvojem koji je uključivao Langley i SS  Morska vještica, tim je brodovima naređeno da napuste konvoj i najvećom brzinom krenu prema Javi s dragocjenim zrakoplovima potrebnim za zaustavljanje japanske invazije na Nizozemsku Istočnu Indiju. Langley napadnuti i potopljeni japanskim avionima 27. veljače, i Seawitch je izbjegao istu sudbinu samo zbog toga što je bio prespor da bi držao korak s prijevoznikom. Tijekom sljedećih mjeseci, Feniks patrolirao u Indijskom oceanu, pratio konvoj do Bombaja i bio nazočan evakuaciji Jave.

Pod zapovjedništvom kapetana Josepha R. Redmana, Feniks bila je dio Operativne skupine 44 krajem 1942. Sa svojim pratećim razaračima USS  Kormilariti  (DD-388), USS  Mugford  (DD-389) i USS  Patterson  (DD-392), sudjelovala je u operaciji Liliput, naizmjenično s australskom lakom krstaricom HMAS Hobart i njezini prateći razarači za pokrivanje konvoja južno od Nove Gvineje. ΐ ]

Feniks napustio je Brisbane, Queensland, Australija radi remonta u mornaričkom dvorištu Philadelphia u srpnju 1943. prije no što je državnog tajnika Cordella Hulla odnio u Casablancu. Zatim je raspoređena u 7. flotu i otplovila je prema južnom Pacifiku.

Dana 26. prosinca u društvu s Nashville, bombardirala je područje Cape Gloucester u Novoj Britaniji, razbivši obalna postrojenja u četverosatnom granatiranju. Feniks pokrivali desantne snage dok su izlazili na obalu i pružali potpornu vatru protiv neprijateljskih uporišta koja nisu srušena. U noći s 25. na 26. siječnja 1944. brod je sudjelovao u noćnom prepadu na Madang i Alexishafen, Nova Gvineja, granatirajući obalna postrojenja.

Viceadmiral Thomas C. Kinkaid (lijevo u sredini) s generalom Douglasom MacArthurom (u sredini) na zastavnom mostu USS Phoenix tijekom bombardiranja otoka Los Negros prije invazije.

Feniks zatim se preselio na Admiralitetsko otočje kako bi podržao 1. konjičku diviziju u izviđanju na snazi ​​na otoku Los Negros 29. veljače. Kad su postrojbe izašle na kopno nakon bombardiranja prije kopna, otpor neprijatelja bio je toliko slab da povlačenje nije bilo potrebno i otok je zauzet. General Douglas MacArthur bio je na brodu tijekom operacija. Α ]

4. i 7. ožujka, Feniks, Nashville, i HMAS  Shropshire bombardirali otok Hauwei iz Admiralitetske skupine. Neprijateljsko oružje na ovom otoku prijetilo je savezničkim položajima u Admiralitetima, osobito na otoku Manus i, iako je uzvratna vatra s plaže bila jaka, neprijateljske baterije prestale su pucati kad su granate s kruzera pukle u njihovoj blizini.

Hollandia (trenutno poznata kao Jayapura), Nova Gvineja, uskoro je pala u sve jaču amfibijsku ofenzivu. Ovaj najveći napad koji su do tada poduzele američke snage pokrenulo je 200 brodova. Feniks granatirali obalu u području zaljeva Humboldt-Hollandia dok su postrojbe izlazile na obalu 22. travnja te ih podržao u učvršćivanju dobiti i pripremi za daljnje napade uz sjeverozapadnu obalu velikog otoka. Feniks granatirali zračne luke i područja raspršivanja zrakoplova u Wakdeu i Sawaru u noći s 29. na 30. travnja kako bi neutralizirali opasnost od zračnog napada na novoosvojene savezničke položaje na Novoj Gvineji.

Trupe generala Douglasa MacArthura slijedile su 17. svibnja u Arare kako bi osigurale uzletišta za podršku daljnjim operacijama na području Nizozemske Nove Gvineje. Ovo plažište je kasnije prošireno na otok Wakde uz kretanje trupa od obale do obale. Feniks bombardirao područje Toema i otpratio postrojbe do desantne plaže.

Uslijedio je amfibijski napad na otok Biak, u uvali Geelvink. Tamo je MacArthur planirao uspostaviti prednju bazu za teške bombardere. S Nashville i Boise, Feniks iskrcan iz uvale Humboldt 25. svibnja, a dva dana kasnije podržao je iskrcavanje. Otpor je bio tvrdoglav. Dok je radna skupina pucala na obalna postrojenja, dva razarača iz pratnje pogođena su granatama iz obalnih baterija. Feniks izbrisala je postavljanje pištolja s dvije salve iz svojih 5  in (130  mm)/25 cal baterija.

4. lipnja, kod sjeverozapadne obale Nove Gvineje, napalo je osam japanskih borbenih bombardera Feniks's radna grupa. Dvojica su ograničila svoju pažnju Feniks. Premda brodska pucnjava nije pogodila zrakoplove, preusmjerila je njihovu bombu. Oba aviona bacila su bombe, od kojih je jedna pukla u vodi blizu Feniks, ubivši jednog čovjeka i ranivši četiri druga fragmentima. Brod je također pretrpio podvodno curenje i oštetio propelere. Sljedeće noći zrakoplovi su ponovno napadnuti Feniks. Ovaj put, niskoleteći torpedni bombarderi pogodili su dok je prolazila kroz Japanski tjesnac, između otoka Biak i Nove Gvineje, ali njezina pucnjava i taktika izbjegavanja spriječile su štetu.

Feniks a njezina je radna skupina osujetila pokušaj neprijatelja da pojača svoje garnizone u noći s 8. na 9. lipnja. Kad su stupili u kontakt s američkim brodovima, japanski razarači okrenuli su se i pobjegli tako velikom brzinom da se samo jedna američka razaračka divizija uspjela uhvatiti unutar dometa. Nakon tri sata borbe na daljinu, Feniks a njezine su sestre prekinule akciju.

S Boise i deset razarača, Feniks iskrcali su se iz luke Seeadler u Admiralitetima i bombardirali obranu obale prije nego što su 2. srpnja američke snage iskrcale otok Noemfoor. Nakon bitke, mnogi mrtvi japanski i olupini avioni pronađeni su u ciljanom području kojemu je dodijeljeno Feniks.

Boise, Nashville, Shropshire, Feniks i HMAS  Australija pridružio se okupaciji Morotaija na otocima Molucca 15. rujna. Kruzeri su granatirali obližnji otok Halmahera kako bi pokrili desant i zaštitili jurišne snage dok su izlazili na obalu protiv neprestanog lakog protivljenja.

Slijetanjem na Leyte započelo je dugo očekivano ponovno osvajanje Filipina. Feniks, pridružen grupi Close Covering Group, žestoko je bombardirao plaže prije vrlo uspješnog slijetanja 20. listopada. Njezine su baterije ušutkale neprijateljsko uporište koje je zadržalo napredovanje bojne 19. pješačke pukovnije i nastavile isporučivati ​​učinkovitu vatru.

U bitci kod zaljeva Leyte, Feniks bila je jedinica grupe kontraadmirala Jesseja Oldendorfa koja je uništila japanske južne snage u bitci kod tjesnaca Surigao. Feniks ispalila je četiri salve za uočavanje, a kad je četvrti pogodio, otvorila se sa svih svojih 6 "(152 mm) baterija. Kasnije se pokazalo da je meta bila Yamashiro, koji je potonuo nakon 27 minuta koncentrirane vatre američke flote. Izgubili su i Japanci Fusō i tri razarača u bitci, a američki su avioni potonuli Mogami sljedeći dan.

Feniks zatim patrolirao ušću zaljeva Leyte kako bi zaštitio savezničke položaje na obali. Ujutro 1. studenog 1944., deset neprijateljskih torpednih bombardera napalo je nju i prateće brodove. U 0945, Feniks otvorio vatru i pet minuta kasnije, Claxton pogodio a kamikaza. Gotovo u istom trenutku, hitovi iz Feniks Topovi kalibra 130 mm i 130 mm zapalili su još jedan avion, ali ga nisu mogli spriječiti da zaroni u pramac Amen. U 0957 zrakoplov koji je napravio torpedo trčao je dalje Feniks je oboren brodskom mitraljeskom vatrom, ali za nekoliko minuta bombarder je pogodio Killen.

Nakon zatišja od dva i pol sata, više kamikaze stigao i 1340. postigao pogodak Abner Pročitaj. Japanski zrakoplovi napali su druge razarače dok su stajali kraj potonulog broda, ali Feniks oborio jednog od napadača.

Feniks ponovno su napadnuti neprijateljskim zrakoplovima 5. prosinca i pripisana mu je pomoć u uništavanju dva napadača. Pet dana kasnije, a kamikaza pokušao se zabiti u brod, ali oboren je vatrom od 40 mm kad je udaljen samo 100  yd (100  m).

Zapovjednik i kolege časnici USS Pearl Harbor odaju počast spomen obilježju posvećenom argentinskom brodu ARA generalu Belgranu tijekom službe sjećanja na 25. godišnjicu

Dok su 13. prosinca nastavljali prema napadnom području kod Mindora, brod je bio stalno pod zračnim napadom pojedinačno kamikaze. Taj dan, usamljen kamikaza pogoditi Nashville. Dana 15. prosinca granata od 5 "(127 mm) iz Feniks oboren je kružni avion na 8 500  yd (7,8   km). Brod je tada opremio njezinu uobičajenu vatrenu potporu i pokrio desantne snage. To je saveznicima dalo bazu iz koje su mogli udariti na japanske pomorske putove kroz Južnokinesko more i omekšati Luzon radi predstojećeg iskrcavanja.

Na putu do zaljeva Lingayen za invaziju na Luzon, vidikovci na brodu Feniks ugledao toranj za skakanje ronilačke podmornice u moru Mindanao kod Siquijora. Podmornica je potopila i ispalila dva torpeda koja Feniks izbjegao. Taylor ispuhao podmornicu patuljka na površinu i nabio je.

Slijedili su Bataan i Corregidor, snimljeni od 13. do 28. veljače 1945. godine. Feniks pokrivao operacije čišćenja mina u Balikpapanu na Borneu od 29. lipnja do 7. srpnja. Otpor obalnih topova bio je neobično velik. Mine i granata su potopili ili oštetili 11 minolovaca. Feniks namještena potporna vatra i napadni su valovi sletjeli.

Feniks bio na putu za Pearl Harbor na remont kad je Japan kapitulirao. Krenula je kući i, 6. rujna stigavši ​​do Panamskog kanala, pridružila se Atlantskoj floti. Njezin status sveden je na komisiju, u pričuvi, u Philadelphiji 28. veljače 1946. godine.


USS Phoenix (CL -46) - Povijest

Iz "Rječnika američkih pomorskih borbenih brodova", (1970) sv. 5, str.291-293.

Treći PHOENIX (CL-46) postavila je 15. travnja 1935. New York Shipbuilding Co., Camden, NJ pokrenuta 13. ožujka 1938. pod pokroviteljstvom gospođe Dorothee Kays Moonan, a naručena u Philadelphia Navy Yard 3. listopada 1938., kapetan John W . Rankin zapovijeda.

Nakon što ju je potres odveo u španjolsku luku, Trinidad Santos, brazilski Buenos Aires, Argentinu Montevideo, Urugvaj i San Juan, Portoriko, nova krstarica se vratila u Philadelphiju u siječnju 1939.

PHOENIX je tada djelovao u blizini Zapadne obale, a kasnije je bio smješten u Pearl Harboru gdje ju je kobnog jutra 7. prosinca 1941. pronašao usidrenu jugoistočno od otoka Ford u blizini bolničkog broda SOLACE (AH-5). Promatrači na brodu PHOENIX ugledali su izlazeće japansko sunce na čudnim zrakoplovima koji su se spuštali nisko iznad otoka Ford, a nekoliko sekundi kasnije brodsko oružje ih je podvelo pod vatru. PHOENIX je neozlijeđen izbjegao katastrofu, a nedugo nakon podneva pridružio se lakim krstaricama ST. LOUIS (CL-49) i DETROIT (CL-8) i nekoliko razarača u improviziranoj radnoj skupini u potrazi za neprijateljskim nosačima.

PHOENIX je zatim nakon napada ispratio prvi konvoj u Sjedinjene Američke Države iz Pearl Harbora i odmah se vratio s drugim konvojem. Nakon mjesec dana konvojske dužnosti između Sjedinjenih Država i Havaja, napustila je San Francisco sa snagama za Melbourne, Australija. Neko vrijeme krstarica je djelovala u australskim vodama u pratnji brodova trupa, nekad se uparivši sjeverno od Jave. Dok je PHOENIX u veljači 1942. plovio prema Ceylonu s konvojem koji je uključivao natječaj hidroaviona LANGLEY (AV-3) i britanski brod SEAWITCH, tim je brodovima naređeno da napuste konvoj i najvećom brzinom krenu prema Javi sa dragocjenim zrakoplovima potrebnim za zaustavljanje Japanaca invazija Nizozemske Istočne Indije. Japanski avioni napali su LANGLEY i potopili ga 27. veljače, a SEAWITCH je izbjegao istu sudbinu jer je bio prespor da bi držao korak s nosačem. Tijekom sljedećih mjeseci PHOENIX je patrolirao u Indijskom oceanu, pratio konvoj do Bombaya i bio nazočan evakuaciji Jave.

PHOENIX je u srpnju 1943. napustio Brisbane u Australiji radi remonta u mornaričkom dvorištu Philadelphije prije no što je državnog tajnika Cordella Hulla odnio u Casablancu. Zatim je raspoređena u 7. flotu i otplovila je prema južnom Pacifiku.

Dana 26. prosinca, u društvu s lakom krstaricom NASHVILLE (CL-43), bombardirala je područje Cape Gloucester u Novoj Britaniji, razbivši obalna postrojenja u četverosatnom granatiranju. PHOENIX je pokrivao desantne snage dok su izlazile na obalu i pružao potpornu vatru protiv neprijateljskih uporišta koja nisu srušena. U noći s 25. na 26. siječnja 1944. brod je sudjelovao u noćnom prepadu na Madang i Alexishafen, Nova Gvineja, granatirajući obalna postrojenja.

PHOENIX se zatim preselio na Admiralitetsko otočje kako bi podržao 1. konjičku diviziju u izviđanju na snazi ​​na otoku Los Negros, 29. veljače. Kad su postrojbe izašle na kopno nakon bombardiranja prije kopna, otpor neprijatelja bio je toliko slab da povlačenje nije bilo potrebno i otok je zauzet.

4. i 7. ožujka 1944. PHOENIX, NASHVILLE i australska teška krstarica SHROPSHIRE bombardirali su otok Hauwei iz Admiralitetske skupine. Neprijateljsko oružje na ovom otoku prijetilo je savezničkim položajima u Admiralitetima, posebno na Manusu, i iako je uzvratna vatra s plaže bila jaka, neprijateljske baterije prestale su pucati kad su granate s krstarica rasule u njihovoj blizini.

Hollandia, Nova Gvineja, uskoro je pala u sve jaču amfibijsku ofenzivu. Ovaj najveći napad koji su do tada poduzele naše snage pokrenulo je 200 brodova. PHOENIX je granatirao obalu u zaljevu Humboldt-Nizozemska dok su trupe izlazile na obalu 22. travnja i podržao ih u učvršćivanju dobiti i pripremi za daljnje napade uz sjeverozapadnu obalu velikog otoka. PHOENIX je u noći s 29. na 30. travnja granatirao zračne luke i područja raspršivanja zrakoplova u Wakdeu i Sawaru kako bi neutralizirao opasnost od zračnog napada na novoosvojene savezničke položaje na Novoj Gvineji.

Vojske generala MacArthura slijedile su se 17. svibnja u Arare kako bi osigurale zračne luke za podršku daljnjim operacijama na području Nizozemske Nove Gvineje. Ovo plažište je kasnije prošireno i na otok Wadke uz kretanje trupa od obale do obale. PHOENIX je bombardirao područje Toema i otpratio trupe do desantne plaže.

Uslijedio je amfibijski napad na otok Biak, zaljev Geelvink. Tamo je MacArthur planirao uspostaviti prednju bazu za teške bombardere. S NASHVILLE-om i lakom krstaricom BOISE (CL-47), PHOENIX je 25. svibnja iskrcao iz zaljeva Humboldt, a dva dana kasnije podržao je slijetanje. Otpor je bio tvrdoglav. Dok je radna skupina pucala na obalna postrojenja, dva razarača iz pratnje pogođena su granatama iz obalnih baterija. PHOENIX je izbrisala postavljanje pištolja s dvije salve iz svojih 5-inčnih baterija.

Dana 4. lipnja, kod sjeverozapadne obale Nove Gvineje, osam japanskih borbenih bombardera napalo je radnu skupinu PHOENIX -a. Dvojica su svoju pozornost ograničila na PHOENIX. Premda brodska pucnjava nije pogodila zrakoplove, preusmjerila je njihovu bombu. Oba aviona bacila su bombe, od kojih je jedna pukla u vodi blizu broda PHOENIX, ubivši jednog čovjeka, a četiri druga ranivši fragmentima. Brod je također pretrpio podvodno curenje i oštetio propelere. Sljedeće noći zrakoplovi su ponovno napali PHOENIX. Ovaj put niskoleteći torpedni zrakoplovi pogodili su dok je prolazila kroz tjesnac Japen, između otoka Biak i Nove Gvineje, ali njezina pucnjava i taktika izbjegavanja spriječile su štetu.

PHOENIX i njezina radna skupina osujetili su neprijateljski pokušaj pojačanja svojih garnizona u noći s 8. na 9. lipnja. Kad su stupili u kontakt s američkim brodovima, japanski razarači okrenuli su se i pobjegli tako velikom brzinom da se samo jedna američka razaračka divizija uspjela probiti unutar dometa. Nakon tri sata borbe na daljinu, PHOENIX i njezine sestre prekinule su akciju.

S BOISE -om i deset razarača, PHOENIX je izletio iz luke Seeadler u Admiralitetima i bombardirao obranu obale prije nego što su se naše snage iskrcale na otok Noemfoor 2. srpnja. Nakon bitke, mnogi mrtvi japanski i razbijeni avioni pronađeni su u ciljnom području dodijeljenom PHOENIX -u.

BOISE, NASHVILLE, SHROPSHIRE, PHOENIX i teška krstarica HMAS AUSTRALIA pridružili su se za okupaciju Morotaija na otocima Molucca, 15. rujna 1944. Kruzeri su granatirali obližnji otok Halmahera kako bi prikrili iskrcaj i zaštitili jurišne snage dok su odlazile na obalu protiv kontinuiranog lakog protivljenja .

Slijetanjem na Leyte započelo je dugo očekivano ponovno osvajanje Filipina. PHOENIX, priključen Zatvorenoj skupini za pokrivanje, žestoko je bombardirao plaže prije vrlo uspješnog slijetanja 20. listopada. Njezine su baterije ušutkale neprijateljsko uporište koje je zadržalo napredovanje bojne 19. pješačke pukovnije i nastavile isporučivati ​​učinkovitu vatru.

U sada već poznatoj "Bitci za zaljev Leyte", PHOENIX je bila jedinica grupe admirala Oldendorfa koja je uništila japanske južne snage dok je prolazila kroz tjesnac Surigao. PHOENIX je ispalio četiri salve za uočavanje, a kad je četvrti pogodio, otvorio se sa svim svojim 6-inčnim baterijama. Meta se kasnije pokazala kao japanski bojni brod FUSO, koji je potonuo nakon 27 minuta. Neprijatelj je također izgubio još jedan bojni brod, a tri razarača i američki avioni potopili su sljedeći dan oštećenu krstaricu.

PHOENIX je zatim patrolirao ušću zaljeva Leyte kako bi zaštitio savezničke položaje na kopnu. Ujutro 1. studenog, deset neprijateljskih torpednih bombardera napalo je nju i prateće brodove. U 0945 PHOENIX je otvorio vatru, a pet minuta kasnije avion samoubojica srušio je razarač CLAXTON (DD-571). Gotovo u istom trenutku pogoci PHOENIX-ovih 5-inčnih topova zapalili su još jedan avion, ali ga nisu mogli spriječiti da zaroni u desni pramac razarača AMMEN (DD-527). U 0957 zrakoplov koji je izveo torpedo na PHOENIX-u bio je zapljusnut mitraljeskom vatrom broda, ali za nekoliko minuta bombarder je pogodio treći razarač, KILLEN (DD-593).

Nakon zatišja od dva i pol sata, neprijateljski zrakoplovi su se vratili i u 1340. postigli pogodak na razaraču ABNER READ (DD-769). Japanski zrakoplovi napali su druge razarače dok su stajali kraj potonulog broda, ali je PHOENIX oborio jednog od napadača.

PHOENIX su 5. prosinca ponovno napali neprijateljski zrakoplovi i pripisana mu je pomoć u uništavanju dva napadača. Pet dana kasnije, avion samoubojica pokušao je srušiti brod, ali ga je vatra od 40 milimetara srušila na samo 100 metara udaljenosti.

Dok su 13. prosinca nastavljali prema napadnom području kod Mindora, brod je bio stalno pod zračnim napadima pojedinačnih aviona samoubojica. Tog dana usamljena kamikaza pogodila je obližnju krstaricu NASHVILLE. 15., 5-inčna granata iz PHOENIX-a oborila je kružni avion na 8 500 metara. Brod je tada opremio njezinu uobičajenu vatrenu potporu i pokrio desantne snage. To je saveznicima dalo bazu iz koje su mogli udariti na japanske pomorske putove kroz Južnokinesko more i omekšati Luzon radi predstojećeg iskrcavanja.

Na putu do zaljeva Lingayen za invaziju na Luzon, vidikovci na brodu PHOENIX ugledali su toranj ronilačke podmornice u moru Mindanao kod otoka Siquijor. Podmornica je potopila i ispalila dva torpeda koja je PHOENIX izbjegao. Razarač TAYLOR (DD-468) podigao je podmornicu na površinu i nabio je.

Slijedili su Bataan i Corregidor, odvedeni od 13. do 28. veljače 1945. PHOENIX je od 29. lipnja do 7. srpnja 1945. pokrivao operacije čišćenja mina u Balikpapanu na Borneu. Otpor obalnog oružja bio je neobično velik. Mine i granata su potopili ili oštetili 11 minolovaca. PHOENIX je opremio potpornu vatru i napadni su valovi sletjeli.

PHOENIX was en route to Pearl Harbor for overhaul when Japan capitulated. She headed home and, upon reaching the Panama Canal 6 September, joined the Atlantic Fleet. Her status was reduced to in commission, in reserve, at Philadelphia 28 February 1946. She decommissioned there 3 July 1946, and remained at Philadelphia until transferred to Argentina, 9 April 1951. She was commissioned in the Argentine Navy as DIECISIETE DE OCTUBRE (C-4) on 17 October 1951. Renamed GENERAL BELGRANO in 1956, she continues to serve the Argentine Navy into 1970.

PHOENIX (CL-46) earned nine battle stars for World War II service.

On 2 May 1982, during the Falklands War, GENERAL BELGRANO was operating some 220 miles from the Falkland Islands and steaming toward the mainland at 10 knots, screened by destroyers HIPOLTO BOUCHARD (D-26) and PIEDRA BUENA (D-29). At 1600 hours, local time, GENERAL BELGRANO was torpedoed twice by nuclear attack submarine HMS CONQUEROR (S-48). The cruiser sank in 45 minutes with the loss of 321 men. Keeping station on the far side of GENERAL BELGRANO from the submarine, HIPOLTO BOUCHARD was reportedly struck by a third torpedo from CONQUEROR, but it did not explode. The destroyers delivered a depth charge attack, but CONQUEROR escaped undamaged. Conway s All The World s Fighting Ships, 1947-1995 p.7


PHOENIX CL 46

This section lists the names and designations that the ship had during its lifetime. The list is in chronological order.

    Brooklyn Class Light Cruiser
    Keel Laid April 15 1935 - Launched March 13 1938

Naval Covers

This section lists active links to the pages displaying covers associated with the ship. Za svaku inkarnaciju broda (tj. Za svaki unos u odjeljku "Naziv broda i povijest oznaka") trebao bi postojati zaseban skup stranica. Covers should be presented in chronological order (or as best as can be determined).

Since a ship may have many covers, they may be split among many pages so it doesn't take forever for the pages to load. Each page link should be accompanied by a date range for covers on that page.

Postmarks

This section lists examples of the postmarks used by the ship. Za svaku inkarnaciju broda (tj. Za svaki unos u odjeljku "Naziv broda i povijest oznaka") trebao bi postojati zaseban skup poštanskih žigova. Within each set, the postmarks should be listed in order of their classification type. If more than one postmark has the same classification, then they should be further sorted by date of earliest known usage.

A postmark should not be included unless accompanied by a close-up image and/or an image of a cover showing that postmark. Date ranges MUST be based ONLY ON COVERS IN THE MUSEUM and are expected to change as more covers are added.
 
>>> If you have a better example for any of the postmarks, please feel free to replace the existing example.


Pearl Harbor Attack, USS Phoenix (CL-46)

CL46/A16
(0202)
U.S.S. Feniks
December 11, 1941.

From: The Commanding Officer.
To: Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet.

Subject: Report of attack on Pearl Harbor -- December 7, 1941.

Enclosure: (A) Brief Narrative of Events.

Enclosure (A) is forwarded as directed.
No direct damage to enemy planes by this vessel can be definitely established. Three planes which were under fire of several ships including Phoenix were seen to crash.
No damage was inflicted on this vessel by enemy fire. Number 3 ? 6" gun was placed out of commission owing to swollen barrel.
There were no individuals who were outstanding in the performance of duty.
[potpisan]
ON. FISCHER.

Time marked with an asterix are fairly definite.

VRIJEME
EVENT
0755* First attacking planes sighted from signal bridge attacking from north of Ford Island. Plane had all guns firing, passed over stern of Raleigh and proceeded toward Ford Island Central Tower and dropped bomb.
0800 Bombing attack on battleships (Plane markings: varied "U.S.--", Swastika's and Rising Sun, painted on fuselage).
0806* Phoenix made radio signal to ships of sector four to "prepare to get underway".
0807* One plane burning in water at end of pipe line astern of berth F-8.
0810 Machine gun battery opened fire on attacking planes.
0815 AA Battery opened fire.
0845 Ship ready to get underway.
0900 Formation of 11 planes crossed over fleet on heading 070, high altitude. Approximately 10,000. Planes appeared to be painted silver. Expended approximately 50 rounds of 5". No apparent damage to planes.
0910 (Approx) Second bombing attack on battleships. Expended approximately 60 rounds 5" ammunition.

After planes came out of dive and turned toward berth C-6 planes were brought under fire of machine gun battery.

0900-0915 Dive bombing attack on ships berthed northern side of Ford Island. Attack made at about 30? angle opposed with AA battery and machine gun battery. Expended about 20 rounds 5".

One plane was entirely disintegrated by DD fire.

0900-0930 Effected periodic fire on planes delivering low level bombing attack on Navy Yard and ships berthed there.
1010 Got underway, but returned to berth C-6 on receiving orders not to sortie.
1030 Got underway and started out of north channel, but received message from Tennessee "From Cincpac do not sortie". Turned around in channel and started back to berth C-6. On receipt of orders from Commander Cruisers, Battle Force proceeded via south channel and completed sortie and joined Commander Task Force One.

TOTAL AMMUNITION EXPENDED:
353 ? 5"/50 Cal.
35 ? 3"/25 Cal.
4500 ? 50 Cal. Machine Gun.


USS Phoenix (CL-46) - History

The Strange History of the Feniks

The light cruiser USS Feniks (CL46) - sixth ship of the Brooklyn Class - was launched on 12 March 1938.

On 7 December 1941 she was lying at anchor in Pearl Harbor, at a point north-east of Ford Island. When the Japanese surprise attack took place she got under way and sortied from the base, as did her sister ship Louis i krstarica Detroit. After the attack these three ships were ordered to join the heavy cruiser Minneapolis, and proceed westwards to meet the USS Poduzeće and Task Force 16 - which were on their way back to Pearl Harbor after ferrying aircraft to Wake Island.

Ironically a search aircraft mistook the group of four cruisers for a Japanese force, with the result that American efforts to find the carriers which had made the Pearl Harbor attack were then concentrated in the wrong direction - south of Oahu.

Feniks went on to establish a distinguished combat record in the Pacific, most of her wartime service being with Seventh Fleet - the naval arm of General Douglas Macarthur's South-West Pacific Forces - commanded by Admiral Thomas Kinkaid. She became the flagship of Task Force 75, a formation built around Feniks i njezini sestrinski brodovi Boise i Nashville and commanded by Rear Admiral Russell S. "Count" Berkey. In April 1944 she led Task Force 75 in providing fire support for the landings at Hollandia in western New Guinea.

In the Leyte operation Feniks again served as Admiral Berkey's flagship, Berkey this time commanding Task Group 77.3 - the Close Covering Group of Seventh Fleet - a group which included Phoenix, Boise and the Australian heavy cruisers Shropshire i Australija.

On October 24 1944 - during the Battle for Leyte Gulf - Berkey's Task Group was organised as part of Rear Admiral Oldendorf's force, which was deployed to stop the advancing Japanese Southern Force in Surigao Strait, south of Leyte Gulf. The Berkey group was placed on the right flank of the US disposition, close to the shore of Leyte Island.

In the small hours of 25 October - during the main gunfire phase of the Battle of Surigao Strait - she was in action against the Japanese flagship Yamashiro, firing her main armament at a rate of four 15-gun salvos per minute (Phoenix, Boise i Shropshire together firing a total of 1,181 rounds from their main batteries in the 17 minutes between 0351 and 0408).

From Leyte she went on to support the landings at Mindoro, Lingayen Gulf and Borneo. After World War Two she was decommissioned, and in 1951 sold to Argentina, becoming a major unit of the Argentinian Navy, finally acquiring the name General Belgrano. In the 1970's she was modernised and equipped with British Seacat short-range missiles, and Dutch radar, although she retained her original battery of fifteen 6-inch guns as her "main" armament.

She was to have been fitted with French Exocet sea-skimming surface-to-surface missiles, but these were in the event never installed.

On 26 April 1982, in the opening stages of the "South Atlantic War" between Britain and Argentina, she sortied from the port of Ushuahia, escorted by two guided-missile destroyers. On 2 May, in controversial circumstances, she was attacked without warning by the British nuclear-powered hunter-killer submarine Osvajač, and hit with two torpedoes. She sank rapidly, with the loss of 368 of her crew.


USS Phoenix (CL-46)


Figure 1: Pearl Harbor Raid, December 7, 1941. USS Feniks (CL-46) steams down the channel off Ford Island's "Battleship Row", past the sunken and burning USS Zapadna Virginia (BB-48), at left, and USS Arizona (BB-39), at right. Fotografija američkog pomorskog povijesnog centra. Click on photograph for larger image.


Slika 2: USS Feniks (CL-46) firing her 6"/47 guns during the pre-invasion bombardment of Cape Gloucester, New Britain, circa 24-26 December 1943. Photographed from the ship's fantail, looking forward. Službena fotografija američke mornarice, koja se sada nalazi u zbirkama Nacionalnog arhiva. Click on photograph for larger image.


Figure 3: USS Feniks (right) screening escort carriers (CVE) off Leyte, 30 October 1944. Photographed from one of the CVEs. Note flight deck barriers rigged in the foreground. Službena fotografija američke mornarice, koja se sada nalazi u zbirkama Nacionalnog arhiva. Click on photograph for larger image.


Figure 4: Port bow view of ARA General Belgrano (ex-USS Feniks) sometime prior to her sinking in 1982. Photo from NavSource Online: Cruiser Photo Archive. Click on photograph for larger image.


Slika 5: General Belgrano sinking after having been attacked by the British submarine HMS Osvajač on 2 May 1982 during the Falklands war. Note that the ship’s bow has been blown off by one of the HMS Osvajač’s torpedoes. Photo courtesy of Gerhard L. Mueller-Debus. Click on photograph for larger image.


Figure 6: General Belgrano sinking after having been attacked by the British submarine HMS Conqueror on 2 May 1982 during the Falklands war. Photo courtesy of Robert Hurst. Click on photograph for larger image.


Slika 7: General Belgrano sinking after having been attacked by the British submarine HMS Conqueror on 2 May 1982 during the Falklands war. Photo courtesy of Robert Hurst. Click on photograph for larger image.

Named after the capital of Arizona, the 9,575-ton USS Feniks (CL-46) was a Brooklyn class light cruiser that was built at the New York Shipbuilding Company in Camden, New Jersey, and was commissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 3 October 1938. The ship was approximately 608 feet long and 61 feet wide, had a top speed of over 33 knots and a crew of 868 officers and men. The Feniks was armed with 15 6-inch guns, eight 5-inch guns, and 8 .50-caliber machine guns, although additional smaller-caliber guns were added during the war.

After an initial shakedown cruise that took her along the Atlantic Coast of South America, the Feniks returned to Philadelphia in January 1939. She was then transferred to the Pacific Fleet and was based at Pearl Harbor. On the morning of December 7, 1941, the Feniks was anchored peacefully at Pearl Harbor just to the southeast of Ford Island, next to the hospital ship Utjeha. Lookouts on board the Feniks spotted the Japanese planes coming in low over Ford Island and sounded the alarm. The Feniks went to “Battle Stations” and soon the ship’s guns were firing at the Japanese planes. Miraculously, the Feniks was unharmed during the attack and was able to raise steam. She left Pearl Harbor shortly after noon and joined the light cruisers Louis (CL-49) and Detroit (CL-8), along with several destroyers, in a spontaneous search for the Japanese task force. It is fortunate that they did not locate the enemy because it seems doubtful that three light cruisers and a handful of destroyers would have lasted long against the enormous Japanese task force, which possessed several aircraft carriers and a large number of escorts.

The Feniks spent the first month of the war escorting ships between Hawaii and the West Coast. The ship was then sent to Australia, where she was based throughout 1942 and much of 1943. During this time, the Feniks witnessed the horrible Allied defeat in the Dutch East Indies, escorted convoys in the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific, and worked with US and Australian naval forces along the coast of New Guinea. On 26 December 1943, the Feniks, along with the light cruiser USS Nashville (CL-43), bombarded the Cape Gloucester area of New Britain in New Guinea for nearly four hours, destroying numerous Japanese targets. The Feniks also provided fire support for the Allied landing on New Britain, eliminating enemy targets that had not been destroyed during the initial bombardment. On the night of 25-26 January 1944, the Feniks also took part in a night raid that shelled Japanese shore installations on Madang and Alexishafen, New Guinea.

For the rest of the war, the Feniks was attached to the US Seventh Fleet in the Pacific. From March to September 1944, she took part in the Allied invasions of the Admiralty Islands, the Northern and Western coasts of New Guinea, and the island of Morotai. In addition to her duties of escorting convoys and invasion task forces, as well as providing fire support against enemy shore targets, the Feniks also assisted in the pursuit of a group of Japanese destroyers on the night of 8-9 June that were trying to bring reinforcements to the island of Biak. None of the Japanese ships were sunk because they quickly retreated after making contact with the Feniks and the other American warships that were steaming with her.

The Feniks then took part in the enormous invasion of the Philippine Islands. The Feniks was assigned to the landing on Leyte and she bombarded the beaches there before the successful Allied landing on 20 October 1944. Her guns demolished Japanese coastal targets and provided invaluable fire support to American troops that landed on shore. On the night of 24-25 October, the Feniks also took part in the famous Battle of Surigao Strait, in which American naval forces under the command of Admiral Jesse Oldendorf faced the Japanese “Southern Force” under the command of Admiral Shoji Nishimura. The Feniks fired four spotting salvoes and, when the fourth salvo hit its target, the ship began firing all of its 6-inch guns. The enemy warship the Feniks was firing at turned out to be the Japanese battleship Fuso, which sank in 27 minutes after being pounded by the Feniks and the other ships in her task force. During the battle the Japanese lost another battleship and three destroyers. A Japanese cruiser was also damaged during the battle and was sunk the next day by American aircraft. Admiral Nishimura was killed during the confrontation, which turned out to be one of the last major surface battles in naval history.

The Feniks continued serving off the coast of the Philippines for several more months, fighting off numerous Japanese air attacks and bombarding shore targets in support of American assaults on Mindoro, Lingayen Gulf, and Manila Bay. From May to July 1945, the Feniks also assisted in the landings on Borneo.

When the war in the Pacific ended on August 1945, the Feniks was steaming back to the United States for an overhaul. She reached the Panama Canal on 6 September and, after transiting the canal, was assigned to the Atlantic Fleet. She was placed in reserve at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 28 February 1946 and was decommissioned on 3 July 1946. The Feniks received nine battle stars for her service in World War II.

The Feniks remained in Philadelphia in “mothballs” until 9 April 1951, when she was transferred to Argentina. The ship was renamed the 17 de Octubre and re-commissioned into the Argentinean Navy on 17 October 1951. In 1956 the ship was renamed yet again and called the General Belgrano. The ship served Argentina for more than 30 years, but on 2 May 1982, the Belgrano’s luck ran out. During the war with Great Britain over the Falkland Islands, the General Belgrano was torpedoed by the HMS Osvajač, a British nuclear-powered submarine. The Belgrano was hit by two Mk. 8 torpedoes (which were designed in the 1920s) and the order to “abandon ship” was given approximately 20 minutes after the attack. Shortly after that the ship rolled over and sank, taking 323 men with her. Approximately 770 men were eventually rescued by nearby Argentinean ships. The General Belgrano was the only ship ever to have been sunk by a nuclear-powered submarine.

No doubt the USS Feniks had an amazing career. She managed to survive the attack on Pearl Harbor and the entire war in the Pacific, as well as one of the largest naval confrontations in naval history, the Battle of Surigao Strait. She also went on to serve the Argentinean Navy for more than 30 years before meeting her violent end in the South Atlantic in 1982. It does seem ironic that a nuclear-powered submarine sank a cruiser that was built before World War II using a torpedo that was also designed prior to World War II. But those are the types of ironies that make naval history eerie as well as intriguing.


Sadržaj

Feniks then operated off the West Coast and was later based at Pearl Harbor where the fateful morning of 7. prosinca 1941 found her anchored southeast of Ford Island blizu Utjeha. Observers on board Feniks sighted the rising sun of Japan on strange planes coming in low over Ford Island and a few seconds later the ship's guns took them under fire. Feniks escaped the disaster unharmed and shortly after noon was underway to join Louis, Detroit and several razarače in an impromptu task force searching, unsuccessfully, for the enemy aircraft carriers.

Feniks next escorted the first convoy to the United States from Pearl Harbor after the attack and returned at once with another convoy. After a month of convoy duty between the Ujedinjene države i Havaji, she departed San Francisco with a force bound for Melbourne, Australija. For some time the cruiser operated in Australian waters escorting troop ships, once steaming as far north as Java. Dok Feniks was steaming toward Cejlon in February 1942 with a convoy which included Langley i HMS Seawitch, these ships were ordered to leave the convoy and proceed at top speed to Java with precious airplanes needed to stem the Japanese invasion of the Nizozemska Istočna Indija. Langley was attacked and sunk by Japanese planes on 27 February, and Seawitch escaped the same fate only by being too slow to keep up with the carrier. During the following months, Feniks patrolled in the Indijski ocean, escorted a convoy to Bombaj, and was present at the evacuation of Java. [2][3]Feniks passing Zapadna Virginia i Arizona na Pearl Harbor in 1941.Under the command of Captain Joseph R. Redman, Feniks was a part of Task Force 44 in late 1942. With her accompanying destroyers USS Kormilariti (DD-388), USS Mugford (DD-389) i USS Patterson (DD-392), she participated in Operacija Liliput, alternating with the Australian light cruiser HMAS Hobart and her accompanying destroyers to cover the convoys south of New Guinea. [2]

Feniks departed Brisbane, Queensland, Australia for overhaul in the Philadelphia Navy Yard in July 1943 before carrying Secretary of State Cordell Hull do Casablanca. She was then assigned to the 7th Fleet and sailed for the South Pacific.

On 26 December, in company with Nashville, she bombarded the Rt Gloucester area of New Britain, smashing shore installations in a four-hour shelling. Feniks covered landing forces as they went ashore and furnished support fire against enemy strong points which had not been demolished. On the night of 25–26 January 1944, the ship took part in a night raid on Madang i Alexishafen, Nova Gvineja, shelling shore installations. [4][5]Vice Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid (left center) with General Douglas MacArthur (center) on the flag bridge of USS Phoenix during the pre-invasion bombardment of Los Negros Island.Feniks then moved to the Admiralty Islands to support the 1st Cavalry Division in a reconnaissance-in-force on Los Negros Island on 29 February. When the troops went ashore after the prelanding bombardment, enemy resistance was so weak that a withdrawal was not necessary and the island was occupied. Općenito Douglas MacArthur was on board during the course of the operations. [3]

On 4 March and 7 March, Feniks, Nashville, i HMAS Shropshire bombardiran Hauwei Island of the Admiralty Group. Enemy guns on this island had threatened Allied positions in the Admiralties, particularly on Manus Island and, although return fire from the beach was heavy, enemy batteries ceased firing when shells from the cruisers burst in their vicinity.

Hollandia (currently known as Jayapura), New Guinea, was next to fall to the mounting amphibious offensive. This largest assault till then undertaken by American forces, was launched by 200 ships. Feniks shelled the shore in the Humboldt Bay-Hollandia area as the troops went ashore on 22 April, and supported them as they consolidated their gains and prepared for further attacks along the northwest coast of the big island. Feniks shelled airfields and plane dispersal areas at Wakde i Sawar on the night of 29–30 April to neutralize the danger of air attack on newly-won Allied positions on New Guinea.

General Douglas MacArthur's troops next landed at Arare on 17 May to secure airfields to support further operations in the Netherlands New Guinea području. This beachhead was later extended to include Wakde Island by a shore to shore movement of troops. Feniks bombarded the Toem area and escorted the troops to the landing beach.

An amphibious assault on Biak Island, Geelvink Bay, followed. There, MacArthur planned to establish a forward base for heavy bombers. S Nashville i Boise, Feniks sortied from Humboldt Bay on 25 May and two days later supported the landing. Resistance was stubborn. While the task force fired on shore installations, two of the escorting destroyers were hit by shells from shore batteries. Feniks wiped out the gun emplacement with two salvos from her 5 in (130 mm)/25 cal baterije.

On 4 June, off the northwest coast of New Guinea, eight Japanese fighter bombers napadnuta Phoenix's task force. Two confined their attention to Feniks. Although the ship's gunfire did not hit the planes, it diverted their bomb runs. Both planes dropped bombs, one of which burst in the water close to Feniks, killing one man and wounding four others with fragments. The ship also suffered some underwater leakage and damage to her propellers. The following night, aircraft again attacked Feniks. This time, low-flying torpedo bombers struck as she proceeded through Japan Strait, between Biak Island and New Guinea, but her gunfire and evasive tactics prevented damage.

Feniks and her task force frustrated an enemy attempt to reinforce their garrisons on the night of 8–9 June. When they contacted the American ships, the Japanese destroyers turned and fled at such high speed that only one US destroyer division was able to get within firing range. After a running fight of three hours at long range, Feniks and her sisters broke off action.

S Boise and ten destroyers, Feniks sortied from Seeadler Harbor in the Admiralties and bombarded shore defenses before American forces landed on Noemfoor Island on 2 July. After the battle, many dead Japanese and wrecked planes were found in the target area assigned to Feniks.

Boise, Nashville, Shropshire, Feniks i HMAS Australija joined for the occupation of Morotai u Molucca Islands on 15 September. The cruisers shelled nearby Halmahera Island to cover the landing and protect the assault forces as they went ashore against continuing light opposition.

The long-awaited re-conquest of the Filipini began with the landing on Leyte. Feniks, attached to the Close Covering Group, heavily bombarded the beaches before the highly successful landing on 20 October. Her batteries silenced an enemy strong point holding up the advance of a battalion of the 19th Infantry Regiment and continued to furnish effective callfire.

U battle of Leyte Gulf, Feniks was a unit of Rear Admiral Jesse Oldendorf's group which annihilated the Japanese Southern Force in the battle of Surigao Strait. Feniks fired four spotting salvoes, and when the fourth hit, opened up with all of her 6" (152mm) batteries. The target later proved to be Yamashiro, which sank after 27 minutes of concentrated fire from the American fleet. The Japanese also lost Fusō and three destroyers in the battle, and American planes sank Mogami sljedeći dan.

Feniks then patrolled the mouth of Leyte Gulf to protect Allied positions on shore. On the morning of 1 November 1944, ten enemy torpedo-bombers attacked her and accompanying ships. At 0945, Feniks opened fire and five minutes later, Claxton was hit by a kamikaza. Almost at the same instant, hits from Feniks ' s 5 in (130 mm) guns set another plane afire but could not prevent it from diving into the starboard bow of Ammen. At 0957, a plane making a torpedo run on Feniks was shot down by the ship's machine-gun fire, but in a few minutes a bomber hit Killen.

After a lull of two and a half hours, more kamikaze arrived and, at 1340, scored a hit on Abner Pročitaj. Japanese aircraft attacked the other destroyers as they stood by the sinking ship, but Feniks shot down one of the raiders.

Feniks was attacked again by enemy planes on 5 December and was credited with assisting in the destruction of two attackers. Five days later, a kamikaza attempted to crash into the ship but was brought down by 40mm fire when only 100 yd (100 m) away. [6][7]USS Pearl Harbor (LSD 52) Commanding Officer and fellow officers pay homage to a memorial dedicated to the Argentinean ship ARA General Belgrano during a 25th anniversary remembrance serviceWhile proceeding to the assault area off Mindoro on 13 December, the ship was constantly under air attack by single kamikaze. That day, a lone kamikaza pogoditi Nashville. On 15 December, a 5" (127mm)shell from Feniks brought down a circling plane at 8,500 yd (7.8 km). The ship then furnished her usual fire support and covered the landing forces. This gave the Allies a base from which to strike at Japan's shipping lanes through the South China Sea and to soften up Luzon for forthcoming landings.

En route to Lingayen Gulf for the invasion of Luzon, lookouts on board Feniks sighted the conning tower of a diving submarine u Mindanao Sea isključeno Siquijor. The submarine submerged and fired two torpedoes which Feniks dodged. Taylor blew the midget sub to the surface and rammed her.

Došlo je sljedeće Bataan i Corregidor, taken from 13–28 February 1945. Feniks covered minesweeping operations at Balikpapan, Borneo, from 29 June to 7 July. Resistance from coastal guns was unusually heavy. Mines and shellfire sank or damaged 11 minesweepers. Feniks furnished supporting fire and the assault waves landed.

Feniks was en route to Pearl Harbor for overhaul when Japan capitulated. She headed home and, upon reaching the Panamski kanal on 6 September, joined the Atlantska flota. Her status was reduced to in commission, in reserve, at Philadelphia on 28 February 1946.


USS Phoenix (CL-46) (1938)

Question &ndash What American built ship was torpedoed and sunk by a British submarine during the Falklands War?

Answer &ndash USS Phoenix also known as ARA General Belgrano (Argentina)

mv2.jpg/v1/fill/w_185,h_114,al_c,q_80,usm_0.66_1.00_0.01,blur_2/USS%2520Phoenix%2520-%2520Broadside%2520View%2520P.jpg" />

mv2.jpg/v1/fill/w_143,h_114,al_c,q_80,usm_0.66_1.00_0.01,blur_2/220px-USS_Phoenix_(CL-46)_steams_down_th.jpg" />

USS Phoenix (CL-46) - Leaving Pearl Harbor after Japanese attack December 1941

USS Phoenix - Built by New York Shipyard and commissioned in 1938. USS Phoenix was anchored in Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941 but away from the main Japanese target area and escaped damage. She was a light cruiser, 600 feet long, 61 foot beam, draft of 20 feet, 4 screws and capable of 32 knots. Armament included 15 six inch guns and 8 five inch guns. After the attack she was part of a task force that unsuccessfully tried to locate the Japanese carrier that launched the attack. Highlights of the ships WWII activities are:

1942 Escorted a convoy of military ships from San Francisco to Australia and Indian Ocean. Escorted convoys from Australia to Bombay (now Mumbai) India, at evacuation of Java after Japanese invasion, escorted ships just north and east of Australia.

1943 & 1944 Staying in the area north and east of Australia. Provided covering support for landing forces as they went ashore in areas north of New Guinea (about 1000 miles north of Australia).

October &ndash December 1944 &ndash Return to Philippine Islands. USS Phoenix supported operations in returning General MacArthur to the Philippine Islands and was under frequent kamikaze attacks. The attacks caused much damage to surrounding ships of the task force but Phoenix escaped major damage.

1945 &ndash provided support for operations in or near South China Sea between Philippines and Indonesia.

1946 &ndash Placed in reserve status.

1951 &ndash Sold to Argentina and renamed ARA General Belgrano.

mv2.jpg/v1/fill/w_134,h_94,al_c,q_80,usm_0.66_1.00_0.01,blur_2/300px-ARA_General_Belgrano_underway.jpg" />

ARA Belgrano (Argentine) - Sunk in Falkland War

Falklands War &ndash 2 April 1982 - There was a longstanding dispute between the United Kingdom and Argentina over sovereignty of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic. The islands were the sovereignty of the British. The population of the islands is mostly British and they did not want the sovereignty status to change. The Argentine government was controlled by a series of military personnel and was not popular with many of the Argentine people. At least partially for political reasons, the government decided to invade the islands. A very hot war ensued. The war resulted in the sinking of ARA General Belgrano by the British nuclear submarine HMS Conqueror and the sinking of HMS Sheffield by an Exocet guided missel fired by the Argentine Navy. It also resulted in a land battle to regain control over the capital city of Stanley. The war lasted for about 10 weeks and resulted in a victory for the United Kingdom.