Funk rupe

Funk rupe


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Funk rupe bile su male površine izgrebane sa strane rova. Kad je padala kiša, vojnici su preko otvora navlačili vodootpornu plahtu i pokušavali se naspavati. Neki su časnici smatrali da su funk rupe previše opasne i zabranjivali su muškarcima da spavaju u njima.


Enciklopedija - Dug -Out

Iskopci, obično smješteni blizu linije rova ​​- često unutar ili ispod zida rova ​​- korišteni su kao oblik podzemnog skloništa i odmora za postrojbe i časnike. Stanari iskopanih objekata bi jeli obroke, dogovarali sastanke i često ondje namještali krevet.

Smatralo se da su izvlačenja mnogo sigurnija od odmora ili ležanja na otvorenom jer su pružala neki oblik zaštite ne samo od vremenskih uvjeta, već, što je još kritičnije, od neprijateljske vatre. Međutim, nije bilo neobično da se izravni pogoci granata probiju do iskopa, ubijajući ili osakativši sve stanare.

Iskopavanje je općenito imalo jedan od tri oblika. Oni koji su omogućili jednom, moguće i dvojici muškaraca da se odmore u nelagodi unutar zida rova, nazvani su 'kockaste rupe' ili 'funk-rupe'. Poduprti drvenim stupovima i valovitim željezom i nešto dublje, 'Skloništa' su pružala zaštitu prilično većem broju muškaraca.

Međutim, najbolji oblik iskopavanja bila je sorta 'Deep' i gotovo su je isključivo koristili stariji časnici. U duboke iskope ulazilo se stubištem koje se protezalo do 10 stopa ispod zemlje. Unutar iskopane bile su smještene jedna ili više prostorija koje su služile za sastanke, kao i za odmor i opuštanje. Električna svjetla često su se ugrađivala u takve udubljenja, poput žičane posteljine.

Ulaz u zemunicu često bi bio prekriven plinskom zavjesom kako bi se spriječio neprijateljski plin. Takva zaštita mogla bi djelovati u oba smjera, međutim vojnik koji je ušao u iskopanu zemlju nakon napada plinom mogao je nositi čizme ostatke plina. Plinska zavjesa tada bi spriječila istjecanje plina, nije bilo rijetkost da se svi muškarci u iskopanom plinu ispuše tijekom spavanja kao posljedica plina koji je slučajno donio kolega.

Subota, 22. kolovoza 2009. Michael Duffy

"Blimp" je bila riječ primijenjena na promatrački balon.

- Dali si znao?


Svjetonazor u kontekstu

Slike 1 i 2 pružaju osnovu za dublje razumijevanje svjetonazora. Osjećanje, razmišljanje, spoznavanje, djelovanje sebe postoji u miljeu svijeta (točnije, svemira) materije, energije, informacija i drugih osjeta, razmišljanja, spoznavanja, djelovanja (slika 1). U središtu nečijeg znanja je nečiji svjetonazor ili Weltanschauung.

Slika 1. Jastvo i njegov svjetonazor u kontekstu svijeta.

Osjetiti znači vidjeti, čuti, okusiti i osjetiti podražaje iz svijeta i sebe (slika 2). Djelovati znači orijentirati osjetilne organe (uključujući oči i uši), pomicati dijelove tijela, manipulirati vanjskim objektima i komunicirati govorom, pisanjem i drugim radnjama. Iako mi ljudi nismo jedinstveni u svojoj sposobnosti osjećanja i djelovanja na svoju okolinu, koliko je nama poznato, u nama je ta misao kao osnova za djelovanje najrazvijenija.

Misao je proces, slijed mentalnih stanja ili događaja, u kojem se osjetili podražaji i postojeće znanje pretvaraju u novo ili izmijenjeno znanje, čiji su neki primjeri namjere koje pokreću motoričke kontrolne signale koji zapovijedaju našim mišićima na akciju. Iako su neke radnje samo rezultat senzomotornih refleksa, odgovora na emocije poput straha ili ljutnje ili automatiziranih obrazaca razvijenih navikom, barem volimo vjerovati da je većina naših postupaka više reflektirajuća, temeljena na „tišim“ quot oblicima mišljenja.

Na primjer, u većini osjetilnih iskustava postoji element percepcije, u kojem se osjetni podražaji prvo prepoznaju i tumače u svjetlu postojećeg znanja (naučenih obrazaca) prije nego što se predaju djelovanju. A da bi se misli usmjerile na neke podražaje ili znanje, a ne na druge, potrebno je usredotočiti pozornost, dodijeliti ograničene mentalne resurse nekim mentalnim aktivnostima i udaljiti se od drugih. No, najviše se ponosimo svojim razumom - i specijaliziranim oblicima razuma, poput rješavanja problema, prosuđivanja i odlučivanja.

Rezoniranje je fokusirana misao usmjerena na cilj koja polazi od percepcije i postojećeg znanja i radi prema novom i vrijednom znanju. Rezoniranje dakle počinje znanjem, a završava znanjem, mišljenjima, uvjerenjima i izvjesnostima kojih se čovjek drži. Induktivnim zaključivanjem (koje je idealizirano u empirijskoj znanosti) radi se od percepcija i drugih posebnih znanja do općenitijih znanja. Odbitkom (primjer matematičke logike) stvaraju se daljnje generalizacije i, praktičnije, određeno znanje. Tijekom života razum ne gradi samo određena mišljenja i uvjerenja, već i skup sve više osnovnih, općih i temeljnih znanja na kojima se temelje određena uvjerenja i namjere vanjskih činova. Ta jezgra temeljnog znanja, svjetonazor, nije samo temelj za deduktivno zaključivanje koje u konačnici dovodi do djelovanja, već je i temelj za svako zaključivanje, pružajući standarde vrijednosti za utvrđivanje kognitivnih ciljeva prema kojima razum djeluje i za odabir pravila po kojima razum djeluje. Velike crvene strelice na slikama 1 i 2 simboliziraju apsolutno ključnu ulogu koju svjetonazor igra u nečijem ponašanju.

Slika 2. Svjetonazor u kontekstu sebstva.

Ukratko rečeno, u skladu s gore navedenim definicijama,

Svjetonazor je skup uvjerenja o temeljnim aspektima Stvarnosti koji utemeljuju i utječu na svačije opažanje, razmišljanje, znanje i radnju.

Elementi nečijeg svjetonazora, uvjerenja o određenim aspektima Stvarnosti, jesu nečiji

  • epistemologija: uvjerenja o prirodi i izvorima znanja
  • metafizika: uvjerenja o konačnoj prirodi Stvarnosti
  • kozmologija: uvjerenja o podrijetlu i prirodi svemira, života, a posebno čovjeka
  • teleologija: uvjerenja o značenju i svrsi svemira, njegovim neživim elementima i stanovnicima
  • teologija: uvjerenja o postojanju i prirodi Boga
  • antropologija: uvjerenja o prirodi i svrsi čovjeka općenito, a posebno sebe
  • aksiologija: uvjerenja o prirodi vrijednosti, što je dobro i loše, što je ispravno i pogrešno.

Sljedeća razrada ovih elemenata i njihovih implikacija na mišljenje i djelovanje temelji se na Hunter Mead -ovim Vrste i problemi filozofije, što toplo preporučujem za daljnje proučavanje. Za svaki svjetonazorski element postavljam vam neka važna pitanja čiji odgovori čine vaša odgovarajuća uvjerenja. Predlažem nekoliko mogućih odgovora na ova pitanja. Zatim iznosim neke implikacije koja bi ta uvjerenja mogla imati na vaše mišljenje, druga uvjerenja i djelovanje.

Ali prvo moram priznati neke pretpostavke koje leže u osnovi ili ograničavaju ono što govorim. Prvo, vaš svjetonazor možda nije eksplicitan. Zapravo, malo ljudi odvoji vrijeme za temeljito promišljanje, a još manje artikuliranje svog pogleda na svijet. Ipak, vaš je svjetonazor implicitan i može se barem djelomično zaključiti iz vašeg ponašanja. Drugo, elementi vašeg svjetonazora jako su međusobno povezani, gotovo je nemoguće govoriti o jednom elementu neovisno o ostalim. Treće, pitanja koja vam postavljam nisu sveobuhvatna: postoji još mnogo povezanih pitanja koja se mogu postaviti. Četvrto, primjeri odgovora koje dajem na pitanja - odnosno svjetonazorska uvjerenja - nisu sveobuhvatni: moguće su mnoge druge perspektive i možda nećete pronaći svoje odgovore među onima koje ja predlažem. Ali, nadam se, oni ilustriraju točke. Peto, moja tvrdnja da vaš svjetonazor utječe na vaše djelovanje temelji se na pretpostavci da je misao temelj djelovanja, a znanje osnova mišljenja. Naravno, kao što sam gore napisao, neke radnje su refleksne ili automatske prirode: svjesna misao, mnogo manje znanja i, osobito, svjetonazor, vjerojatno imaju malo direktno utjecaj na njih. Ipak, čak i vrlo automatizirane ili impulzivne radnje često slijede obrasce ponašanja nastale u razmatranim djelima. Konačno, moje izlaganje svjetonazora temelji se na vlastitom svjetonazoru i pitanjima koja odaberem postaviti vam, mogućim odgovorima koje dajem kao primjere, pa čak i načinu na koji predstavljam te primjere odgovora obojen je mojim svjetonazorom.


Tiger Woods: Počinje

Mary Sullivan prvi je put vidjela Tiger Woodsa kako igra golf u američkom Amateru 1994. na stadionu. Bila je među skupinom volontera Playersa koji su zamoljeni da rade u američkom Amateru, a sa Woodsom je prošetala svih 36 rupa u prvenstvenoj utakmici protiv Trip Kuehnea.

"Bože, tada je bio tako mršav", rekao je Sullivan, učitelj u školi u okrugu St. Johns, koji volontira u The Playersu više od 40 godina. "Tada nisu ništa konopirali. Samo smo ja i nekoliko drugih ljudi zatražili da prošetamo iza njih 36 rupa. Bilo je zabavno jer su većina dečki na turniru bila djeca s fakulteta i izgledali su uzbuđeni što će biti tamo."

Sullivan se sjeća da se Woods vratio sa šest rupa prema dolje i konačno preuzeo vodstvo kada je zamalo pogodio svoju majicu sa br. 17 u vodu, a zatim je napravio ptičicu s ruba.

"Moj Bože, bio je nešto posebno", rekla je.

Tri godine kasnije, Woods je bio u svojim prvim igračima. Sullivan je bio u odboru za pratnju igrača i od njega je zatraženo da bude jedna od pješaka s Woodsom.

Samo što je ovaj put imala više društva. Woods je bio najzgodniji novak u povijesti igre i samo su ga tjedni dijelili od pobjede na prvom velikom turniru na Mastersu.

"Imali su neke potpredsjednike [iz volonterskog osoblja Playersa] i neke druge mišićave ljude koji su ga šetali uokolo", rekao je Sullivan.

No, udarao se akord između mlade međunarodne zvijezde i učitelja.

Primijetila je male stvari, poput Woodsove uljudnosti oko starijih zvijezda igre i prema volonterima. Voljela je njegov entuzijazam za igru, jednostavne radosti biti na zelenoj tabli ili biti u žaru turnira.

"Jednom je vidio Byrona Nelsona na parkiralištu", rekao je Sullivan. "Byron je hodao do nekog drugog, a Tiger je skinuo kapu i stao sa strane, čekajući da završe razgovor prije nego što mu je stisnuo ruku i upitao ga kako je. Kasnije sam rekao Tigeru koliko sam ponosan na njega i način na koji se odnosio prema ljudima. Pretpostavljam da je to školski učitelj u meni. "

Sullivan je počeo služiti kao pješačka pratnja s Woodsom kod svih igrača. Svaki put kad ga je srela na parkiralištu, od Woodsa je dobila ono što naziva, "zagrljaj moje mame". Pekla mu je i kolačiće od čokolade (sve do 9-11, kada je Tour zabranio igračima da primaju hranu od obožavatelja), što je Woods proždirao.

Ni treći krug 2001. nije bio drugačiji. Sullivan i druga pratnja čekali su Woodsa na parkiralištu, otišli s njim do vježbališta, a zatim do prve majice, gdje se Woods odvojio s Philom Mickelsonom.

"Taj dan je bio vrlo opušten", rekao je Sullivan.

Woods se tako igrao. Nakon uvodnog bombea na broju 1, napravio je svoj korak, s ptičicama na brojevima 2, 3 i 4.

Nakon šest parija zaredom, Woods je nagazio na gas kratkim orlovskim udarcem na broju 11, nakon što je udario 4-željezno 229 metara iznad vode, a zatim i ptičicu na 12. mjestu.

Još tri sigurna para, a zatim je Woods krenuo gore-dolje za ptičicu na 16. mjestu i bio tri hica iza Kelly.

Tada je gotovo pretjerao u 17. majici. Suočen s uobičajenim subotnjim prednjim desnim zatičem, Woods je rekao da je to savršen klin, ali ako ga malo povuče, lopta bi se mogla okrenuti natrag u vodu.

Umjesto toga, pogodio je tri četvrtine, izrezao 9-željezo, nadajući se da će ga pogoditi u padinu zelenila. No vjetar se promijenio kad je Woods zamahnuo.

"Lopta se upravo podigla i položila na mene", rekao je. "Jednostavno je nestalo."

Pod "otišao", Woods je mislio na zadnjoj polici zelenila, nekoliko centimetara na ovratniku. ShotLink tehnologija Tour -a za mjerenje udaljenosti kuglica bila je udaljena još dvije godine, pa je povijesno prihvaćena udaljenost udarca 60 stopa.

S obzirom na to gdje je bila rupa, a gdje Woodsova lopta, bilo je teško imati pokušaj uticanja ptice koji bi trajao duže.


Udio

Prošlo je stoljeće otkako je masakr utrkom ubio stotine stanovnika Crnaca u gradu Oklahomi i uništio njihov prosperitetni kvart koji su izgradili s ponosom, otpornošću i marljivim radom. Ako ste prošli tjedan bili blizu vijesti, nesumnjivo ste priče čuli kroz bezbroj članaka, televizijskih izvještaja i internetskih komentara. To je priča o bijesu i jadu - ne samo zbog onoga što se dogodilo tih krvavih dana 1921. godine, već i zbog onoga što se poslije dogodilo. Ili još važnije što nije: računovodstvo s istinom.

Htio sam to pokrenuti danas u našem nedjeljnom eseju kako bih došao do neke temeljne stvarnosti o načinu na koji pričamo svoju američku priču, svojoj djeci, jedni drugima i sebi. Činjenica je da je mnogo desetljeća masakr u Tulsi uglavnom bio odsutan iz naših učionica i naših povijesnih udžbenika. Ako je uopće uključena, bila je to samo fusnota. Moramo shvatiti zašto i zašto ovo nije jedino zanemareno poglavlje naše povijesti.

Mnogi tek saznaju za Tulsinu prosperitetnu crnačku zajednicu Greenwood (nadimak "Black Wall Street") i kako su je u nekoliko sati uništili bijelci koji su bili naklonjeni krvoproliću. Ovo je snažan podsjetnik: imamo rupe u američkoj povijesti. Naravno, ne doslovne rupe - ti su se događaji svakako dogodili. Ali rupe u našem znanju, obrazovanju i nacionalnoj kolektivnoj svijesti.

Dan Rather @DanRather

1.491 Retvitovi 10.812 sviđanja

Živimo u vremenu u kojem vidimo cinične pokušaje zatrpavanja prošlosti na mnogim poljima. Čak i dok svijet obilježava ono što se dogodilo u Tulsi, u mojoj voljenoj rodnoj državi Teksas i mnogim drugima pokreće se pokret za gušenje učenja rasizma u našim učionicama. Predstavlja se pod novim barabom političke desnice-takozvanom „teorijom kritičke rase“-a nastavnici i povjesničari duboko su zabrinuti da će to imati zastrašujući učinak na našu sposobnost poučavanja budućih generacija o snagama mržnje i netrpeljivosti koje su igrale i nastavljaju igrati značajnu ulogu u političkim, ekonomskim i društvenim sustavima naše zemlje.

Politički pokret koji potiskuje ovu povijesnu amneziju ne ograničava njihove napore na udaljenije anale iz prošlosti. Prošlo je pet mjeseci otkad su pobunjenici upali na Kapitol, a većina republikanaca u Kongresu upravo je izglasala pokušaj brisanja potpunog izvješća o onome što se dogodilo. Ista stvar se događa oko pandemije. Da, istina može biti neugodna. Može izazvati sliku koju želimo stvoriti za sebe i svoju naciju. On izjeda mitotvorne i pojednostavljene naracije. Ali priznavanje povijesti - potpune i potpune povijesti - više je od svjedočenja o onome što se dogodilo u prošlosti. To je jedini način na koji možemo razumjeti sile koje oblikuju naš svijet danas.

Čitava mantra knjige Make America Great Again opet je izgrađena na doslovnom bijeljenju naše prošlosti (u iskušenju sam da je napišem kao "Bijelo pranje"). To je pokušaj reći da je Amerika bila bolje mjesto kada je bila diskriminatornija i kada je bilo manje mogućnosti za marginalizirane skupine da imaju mogućnosti „života, slobode i traganja za srećom“. To me rastužuje na mnogim razinama. Smanjuje nasilje, bol i patnju koji su definirali mučeni put Amerike prema rasnoj jednakosti. Promiče svjetonazor gdje se sam pojam istine sanira u lažne narative. I to također oduzima našoj povijesti vlastite izvore snage.

Priča o našem narodu, u svoj njegovoj punoj složenosti, priča je o isprepletenim pripovijestima - o tragediji i trijumfu, nadi i očaju, okrutnosti i empatiji. Kad eliminiramo negativna poglavlja, uklanjamo i mnoga pozitivna. Kad zanemarimo negativce, zanemarujemo i heroje. Zabilježiti ono što se dogodilo u Tulsi znači i ispisati iz naših povijesnih knjiga ono što je tamošnja crnačka zajednica uspjela izgraditi suočena s velikim vjetrovima netrpeljivosti. Zanemariti je otpornost koju preživjele nisu imale druge nego pozvati. Zanemariti je da je naša nacija poboljšana svojom raznolikošću, obogaćena kultura, ojačana demokracija i naš moralni kompas čvršće je ukazivao na Sjevernu zvijezdu napretka i pravde.

Postoji toliko mnogo drugih priča poput Tulse gdje talasi povijesti još uvijek oblikuju našu naciju. Toliko je skupina ljudi učinjeno da se osjećaju kao autsajderi - osjećali su duboku povrijeđenost, a često i fizičku bol zbog nepravde. Možemo početi s domorocima ovog kontinenta. Moramo naučiti njihove brojne priče o gubitku. Njihova je priča puno više priča o Tragu suza nego o verzijama Dana zahvalnosti za čestitke. Ipak, ta su se plemena borila za opstanak. Nastojali su prenijeti svoju kulturu i jezik na svoju djecu. Iskoristili su ponos. Ne moramo ih promatrati samo zbog onoga što su pretrpjeli, već i zbog toga kako su podnijeli, kako su Ameriku učinili boljom. Isto možete reći za mnoge skupine, vjerske i etničke manjine, LGBTQ zajednicu, osobe s invaliditetom, da nabrojimo samo neke. Sve ove skupine imaju svoja poglavlja koja su predugo odbačena. Fanatizam američkog društva još uvijek muči sve one koji su u nekom obliku marginalizirani. Ali opet, moramo prepoznati snagu, domišljatost i otpornost koji su omogućili tim zajednicama ne samo opstanak, već i procvat.

(L-R) Preživjele Lessie Benningfield Randle, Viola Fletcher i Hughes Van Ellis zajedno pjevaju na završetku skupa tijekom obilježavanja 100. godišnjice masakra u Tulsi.

Od svih priznanja prošlog tjedna u Tulsi i diljem zemlje, svih promišljenih i emocionalnih govora, detaljne dokumentacije o gubitku i uništenju (veze ću podijeliti u nastavku), rasprave o reparacijama i odgovarajućem pomirenju, kumulativno priznanje da će ovo biti jedno poglavlje koje se više ne zaboravlja, postojala je jedna scena koja me je možda najviše dirnula. Usredsredio se na troje preživjelih iz masakra i još puno više. A uključivala je pjesmu koju sam već mnogo puta čuo o Pokretu za građanska prava.

S ovim emotivnim stihovima veze sadašnjosti, prošlosti i udaljenije povijesti došle su u središte pozornosti. Kao narod vezani smo putovanjem koje nam ne preostaje ništa drugo nego zajedničko putovanje. A činjenica da u našoj Americi još uvijek postoji marš napretka svjedočanstvo je svima koji se nisu slomili. Neka radimo na tome da svijet učinimo boljim i pravednijim mjestom, sjećajući se i poštujući one koji više nisu ovdje da marširaju zajedno s nama.

p.s. Prvi korak u popravljanju rupa u našoj povijesti je svijest. Dolje su linkovi za daljnje čitanje. Pozivamo vas da se uključite otvorenog uma. Javite nam svoja razmišljanja i povratne informacije u donjem odjeljku komentara.

Razmislite o pretplati na STALNO, ako već niste. Naš cilj je izgraditi živu digitalnu zajednicu - više glasova, perspektiva i gledišta koji mogu dodati razgovoru, što je veselije.


Povijest

Sljedeću povijest sastavio je Jean Schultz, koristeći lokalne izvore, uključujući knjigu Dijamant blista od Lois Webster Welch, koja je dostupna u našoj internetskoj trgovini.

1618-1863

Etienne Brule otkrio je Michigan pokušavajući pronaći sjeverozapadni prolaz.

Otac Jacques Marquette organizirao je prvo bijelo naselje u Michiganu u Sault Ste. Marie.

Francuski istraživač LaSalle istraživao je rijeku St. Joseph do South Benda.

Utvrda Ponchartrain (kasnije nazvana Detroit) sagrađena je radi zaštite francuske trgovine krznom s Indijancima.

Michigan je formalno prešao u ruke Amerikanaca na kraju rata za nezavisnost.

Michigan je postao dio novoorganiziranog sjeverozapadnog teritorija. Stalni indijski napadi zabranili su naseljavanje bijelaca.

Michigan je bio organiziran kao teritorij. Manje od desetak malih bijelih naselja bilo je u cijelom Michiganu.

General Lewis Cass imenovan je guvernerom teritorija Michigana.

Britanci su odustali od posljednjih svojih vanjskih položaja u Michiganu. Lovac i zamka Zaccheus Wooden počeo je hvatati krzno na obali Diamond Lakea i vratio se u svoju kuću na istoku nakon sezone hvatanja.

Javna zemljišta u Michiganu otvorena su doseljenicima. Guverner Cass potaknuo je naseljavanje poboljšanjem odnosa s Indijancima.

Čikaški ugovor s Indijancima odredio je da SAD imaju privilegiju napraviti i koristiti cestu kroz indijsku zemlju od Detroita do Chicaga. Chicago Road (South Trail) slijedio je krivudavu stazu koju su stoljećima koristili Indijanci. Potawatomies su ovim ugovorom ustupili cijelo zemljište u jugozapadnom Michiganu istočno od rijeke St. Joseph. Na konferenciji je bilo prisutno tri tisuće Indijanaca.

Otvorio se kanal Erie i otvorio put doseljenicima u Michigan s istoka. Uzziel Putnam postao je prvi stalni bijeli doseljenik na području okruga Cass. Putnam je osnovao naselje Pokagon Prairie.

Mnogi Potawatomi Indijanci još su živjeli na tom području tijekom ranog razdoblja naseljavanja. Neki od indijskih vođa u tom razdoblju su Topinabee - pravi prijatelj bijelca, Weesaw - krupan čovjek, visok preko 6 stopa, koji je imao 3 žene i često je viđen u bijelim naseljima, Shavehead - zlovoljan, mrzovoljan i drski čovjek s pramenom raspuštene kose na leđima, Pokagon - preobraćeni rimokatolik. Indijanci koji su živjeli u blizini Diamond Lakea posjekli su velika stabla i izdubili ih kako bi ribarske kanue koristili za hvatanje bijele ribe i ogromne štuke. Indijanci su u neko vrijeme očito izgradili podvodnu stazu od stepenica od ženevske obale do sjeverne točke otoka.

Job Wright, samotnjak s dva palca na jednoj ruci, izolirao se na otoku u Diamond Lakeu zbog svoje nesklonosti prema čovječanstvu. Možda je bio najneobičniji čovjek koji je ikad šetao obalama Diamond Lakea. Uvijek je nosio hlače od jelenje kože i košulju s resama pričvršćenu u struku kožnim remenom s kojeg je objesio omot za svoj dugi lovački nož. Na otoku na kojem je živio do svoje smrti 1842. godine sagradio je brvnaru. Njegov grobni znak nalazi se na groblju Prospect Hill. Seoska pošta bila je postavljena u Mr. Silvers “Old Red Store. ”

Županija Cass organizirana je i dobila ime po guverneru Cassu. Grad Ženeva postavljen je na sjevernoj obali Diamond Lakea i trebao je biti sjedište okruga. Volovska zaprega dovezla su zalihe iz Detroita za prvu opću trgovinu u novoj zajednici.

Selo Cassapolis je oplaćeno. Cassapolis je iza Ženeve izabran za sjedište županije nakon dugih i žestokih prijepora. Prva dvokrevetna brvnara izgrađena je i otvorena kao hotel. Formirano je povjerenstvo za ceste za izgradnju cedrenih cesta u županiji.

Doseljenici su bili zabrinuti za svoju sigurnost kad su do njih stigle vijesti o indijanskom ratu u Blackhawku. Planirali su učvrstiti se na Diamond Islandu, ali rat završava prije nego što je stigao do okruga Cass. Radove na Chicago Roadu prekinuo je rat.

Prvi zatvor izgrađen je u selu Cassapolis (Stara brava se može vidjeti u Muzeju brvnare).

Chicago Road je dovršen i prošao je sjeverno od Diamond Lakea. (Ova cesta se sada zove M-60).

Prva zgrada suda u okrugu Cass izgrađena je u selu Cassapolis. Usluga Stage Coach započela je na Chicago Roadu.

Većina Indijanaca iz Potawatomija iseljena je u Kansas. Samo je plemenu Leopolda Pokagona bilo dopušteno ostati u selu otprilike milju zapadno od rijeke St. Joseph i sjeverno od državne granice Indiane.

Podzemna željeznica osnovana je radi pružanja tajnog skloništa robovima koji bježe s juga. Ova sigurna utočišta zvala su se stanicama, a muškarci koji su živjeli na postajama nazivali su se kondukterima. Pokriveni vagoni bili su spojeni i spremni za polazak u trenutku. U okrugu Cass postojale su dvije postaje koje je držao Stephen Bogue.

Opća trgovina Ritter otvorena je u selu Cassapolis (Trgovina je nekoć stajala na Broadwayu gdje se sada nalazi seoska cvjećarnica i premještena je preko puta Pošte gdje i danas stoji.) Prva školska zgrada izgrađena je od trupaca.

Lovci i zamke ovog vremena uklesali su datum i svoja imena na divovskoj bukvi na Diamond Islandu. (Ovo drvo još uvijek stoji na otoku.)

The Zastupnik okruga Cass sišao s tiskare kao prve novine objavljene u Cassapolisu. Politika mu je bila demokratska.

Razjareni Kentuccians poslali su pljačkaške grupe u okrug Cass kako bi pokušali oporaviti odbjegle robove koji su bili skriveni na farmama Quakera na putu za Kanadu.

Crni medvjedi bili su brojni oko sela Cassopolis, a više od 20 je ubijeno.

The Nacional -demokrata novine, nasljednik Zastupnik okruga Cass, objavljen je i najavio promjenu pravopisa Cassapolis u Cassopolis.

Uključeno je selo Cassopolis. Popisom je izviješteno da je u selu živjelo 475 osoba.

1870-1899

Postavljene su željezničke pruge koje povezuju Chicago s Cassopolisom. Ubrzo je postao vlasništvo centra Michigan Central. Otprilike u isto vrijeme položena je i velika željeznička pruga koja povezuje South Bend s Cassopolisom. Ribolov bez propisa prestaje na jezeru Diamond jer je sezona ribolova bila zatvorena od rujna do svibnja, a lovljenje vode zabranjeno je.

Putničke i teretne usluge započele su na središnjim i velikim magistralnim željeznicama Michigana. Područje više nije imalo izlaz na kopno i počelo je cvjetati.

Tri dužnosnika Centralne željeznice u Michiganu kupila su zemljište na sjevernoj strani Diamond Lakea i sagradila veliku kuću koja se naziva “The Chicago House ” i koju namjeravaju dijeliti kao kuću za odmor. Velika trokatnica sa trijemom koji je omotavao sjedi na vrhu brežuljka s pogledom na jezero. Centralno skladište u Michiganu bilo je na maloj udaljenosti od kuće. Malo je puteva koji vode do vode, osim ako netko ne želi prijeći preko polja poljoprivrednika kako bi tamo stigao. Jedina spojna poveznica između Cassopolisa i jezera bila je nepristojna cesta koja je nekad vodila do Ženevskog sela na sjevernoj obali. Bilo je nekoliko dobro utabanih staza s ruba grada koje su s vremenom koristili konji i zaprege. Članak u Cassopolis Budni opisao je Diamond Lake kao, “lijepu vodu, odmaralište za ljubitelje užitka s čamcima za ribolov, ” i, “veliki dijelovi otoka zauzeti su šatorom … s glavne obale izgledalo je kao opsada vojska je napravila kamp na otoku. ”

Prvo državno mrijestilište riba osnovano je u kampu Crystal Springs u mjestu Pokagon. (Ovo je najstarije sastajalište metodističkog kampa u Michiganu.) The Union Bend Union proglasio Diamond Lake kao, “A poznato ljetovalište za užitak s obilnim pripremama za goste koje je napravio gospodin Moon. Zabave za piknik koje će se dotjerati do srca na otoku uz razumno utvrđenu naknadu u Moon’s Landingu. Željeznice nude cijene izleta. ” Bilo je očito da rekreacijske prednosti Diamond Lakea postaju komercijalne, a ribolov i izletište primarni su interesi. Gosti su dolazili željeznicom s lakim pristupom jezeru iz dva skladišta.

Pokretanje Steam -a započelo je s uslugom na Diamond Lakeu. The Cassopolis Budni izvijestio, “Parna jahta ‘O.W. Powers ’ jučer se zauvijek oprostio od zemlje i sada hoda po vodama Diamond Lakea kao stvar života. ”

Fred Moon i pukovnik Allen iz Kalamazooa napravili su na otoku kroketni teren, klizalište, vanjsku plesnu platformu i amfiteatar. Dodani su oblici osvjetljenja kako bi se u mraku moglo uživati ​​nakon mraka. Povećani su i poboljšani štandovi za osvježenje, kupatila i izletišta. Charles Morton kupio je interes za jezerski posao Moon & amp Linsley i zakup kuće “Chicago House ” sa svim svojim objektima, kuglanu, plesni podij, čamce za parobrod i dokove onoga što znamo kao Forest Hall. konkurencija između njega i aktivnosti otoka postala je evidentna. Tvrtka South Bend Singer šivaćih strojeva održala je najveći izlazak u sezoni na otoku sa 1600 ljudi.

The Cassopolis Budni izvijestio, “Sada na otoku Diamond Lake Island ima dovoljno zgrada za sklonište 5000 ljudi od oluja. ” Škola Cassopolis proslavila je svoj prvi maturski razred od dva učenika.

Naziv “Chicago House ” (koji se naziva i “The Club House ”) trajno je promijenjen u “Forest Hall, ”, a tvrtka Moon je dala u zakup kao javno odmaralište sa svim svojim sadržajima , Linsley & amp Morton. Ima kuglanu, plesni podij na rubu vode, parobrod, brodove i pristaništa. Otok se hvalio da je sjajno osvijetljen električnim svjetlom. Svjetlo je bilo u blizini amfiteatra i pojačano je svjetiljkama i bakljama. Na Diamond Lakeu održana je velika veslačka regata između klubova iz cijelog SAD -a i Kanade. Grupa grubih ljudi koja je zapalila šator u Forest Hallu i parobrod Rukavica očito kako bi izazvali uzbuđenje dok su pretresali sobe gostiju pokvarili su događaj.

Na jezeru je održan prvi vatromet 4. srpnja. Svi su se poslovi u Cassopolisu zatvorili u podne, a selo je bilo gotovo napušteno, gotovo svi su otišli na Diamond Lake. Na jezeru su radila dva parobroda O.W. Ovlasti bio je dugačak 65 stopa i mogao je nositi 350 ljudi Rukavica bio je dugačak 55 stopa i prevozio je oko 75 putnika. Vožnja na paru košta 20 centi za povratno putovanje. Šumska dvorana i otok podjednako su privukli posjetitelje i ponudili lijepe mogućnosti za rekreaciju.

Otok je s oduševljenjem proslavio 4., pucajući u vatromet i topništvo, s natjecanjima, svirkom ministranata, bendom Cassopolis i puštanjem balona od 15 stopa.

Almeda Moon i njezin sin Fred Moon osnovali su klub Joliet na otoku Diamond Lake Island. Članovi kluba izgradili su zgradu od 300 stopa na zapadnoj obali otoka, udaljenu 100 metara od vode. Odmaralište je imalo vrata i trijemove koji su nalikovali ranim motelima. Prolaz do i s otoka omogućio je jedan od dva parobroda koji su radili na jezeru.

Američki izumitelj F.W. Olfeldt proizvodi prvi motorni čamac za zabavu u Sjedinjenim Državama. Ima motor s dvije konjske snage, pogonjen je naftom, što se pokazalo kao opasno gorivo.

Kampiranje u šatorima započelo je u kampu Kozy. Staza kočije s jednom trakom dovela je kampere pokraj farme Smith do ruba vode. Kamp Kozy bila je prva plaža na jezeru koja je dobila ime i gdje je farmer Smith dovodio svoju stoku da ju napoji svako jutro i večer. Poslovni ljudi iz sela, kampirajući s obiteljima, rano ujutro krenuli su svojim kočijama na posao. Pristanište u kampu Kozy bilo je poznato pod imenom Smith ’s Landing.

Kapetan John Bartlett kupuje Diamond Lake Island i preuzima rad hotela Diamond Lake Island.

Kapetan Charles Shillaber, umirovljeni engleski pomorski kapetan kupio je zemljište i izgradio hotel Blink Bonnie. It was a two story building with about 20 rooms for guests, a large dining room and a nice porch on the west side. Elick Lowitz and wife Nellie are first time guests at Forest Hall. Fish stocking became a regular practice in Diamond Lake.

Diamond Lake Park (Park Shore) was platted and Diamond Lake Hotel (later called Anchorage Inn) was built. Mr. Rudd and Dr. Laughton purchased Forest Hall and turn it into a Health Resort. Mr. Rudd was a Clerk of Cass County and Dr. Laughton was a homeopath physician. Dr. Laughton was of extremely small stature with snow-white hair and used an ear trumpet.

Ida and William Rettic build the cottage “Idlewile” on land purchased from Captain Shillaber.

Diamond Lake became a favorite vacation spot for many Mishawaka residents although travel to Diamond Lake from Mishawaka by horse and buggy took most of a day.

Fred G. Eberhart, the Vice President of Ball Band in Mishawaka built the third cottage on Diamond Lake called “The Beeches.”

Diamond Lake Park was renamed Park Shore. The Hutchings family purchased the Diamond Lake Hotel and the boat landing at Park Shore. The Hutchings provided lodging, meals, bait and supplies for fishermen. One of the first telephones in the area was installed at Hutchings Landing. Cyrus Funk, a Cassopolis dentist built the “gingerbread” cottage with the tin roof on the south end of Park Shore. The Blink Bonnie Resort built a 30-foot tall toboggan slide. Water was pumped by hand to the top to provide a wet run for the sleds. James Leach purchased an 80-acre farm on the north side of the lake from James G. Hayden for $75 an acre and started the Shore Acres Hotel. J.C. Eberhart launched the first naphtha-powered boat on the lake.

Capt. Shillaber called a meeting at Sandy Beach to bring all yacht sailors together to form a Diamond Lake Yacht Club. The sailing yachts, “Marguerite,” “Priscilla,” and “Katy Van” were launched from a railway at Sandy Beach. Competitive sailing began on Diamond Lake. The water level was so low that the sand bars at Eagle Point and Willow Point are above the waterline.

J.M. Studebaker built a 22-room summer home at Sandy Beach adjacent to the Blink Bonnie Hotel. The summer home called “Crescent Surf” was built in just two weeks at a cost of $1500. The steamer Cassopoliscarried the Cassopolis band in the first 4th of July boat parade, and over 1000 people watched the fireworks display from the shore and some from boats. Mr. Ellett Hopkins built a double deck steamboat The South Bend on the shore of Diamond Lake and began service in competition with the other steam launches.

Capt. Shillaber became Diamond Lake’s first sailing instructor when he began giving sailing instructions aboard his beautiful sailing yacht, “Marguerite.” (One of his young pupils, John McKinlay, later became President of Marshal Fields & Co.) The Blink Bonnie Dance Pavilion was moved to a more prominent place on the beach. The dances were a highlight of the summer. Mr. and Mrs. Elick Lowitz of Chicago built an eight-room cottage in Park Shore at the corner of Park and Maple streets. An insulated under water telephone cable was laid to the island. Several other telephones were already in use at the lake. Ice deliveries were made from the Stone Lake Icehouse by calling #109. A telephone alarm was called into Cassopolis when a cottage in Park Shore caught fire and burnt down. EE Drake installed 12 arc lamps to light up Park Shore.

1900-1950

An 1863 Civil War cannon was dragged through the mud and placed on the hill at Eagle Point. (The cannon is still on the hill in the lawn of the Walter’s cottage.) There are no roads to the cottages on Eagle Point, rowboats or steamboats provide the only access. J.M. Studebaker set the first timed speed record in an automobile from South Bend to Diamond Lake, one hour and twenty minutes. A street leading to Park Shore from Cassopolis was constructed and paid for by subscription, two or three gates had to be opened and closed to get to the lake via this street. There were five resort hotels competing for the growing resort business Forest Hall, Blink Bonnie Hotel, Diamond Lake Island Hotel, Shore Acres Hotel and Diamond Lake Hotel.

Eagle Point Road was made, allowing access into Eagle Point from Brownsville Road. Captain Bartlett purchased the steamer CASSOPOLIS to go along with his other two steamers Glenn i South Bend, allowing him to corner the passenger steamboat business.

Dr. Cyrus Funk launched a new 18 ft. steel boat powered by a two horsepower gasoline engine.

The Blink Bonnie Hotel was sold, and closed a short time later. The grounds are platted as Sandy Beach. Electricity was brought into Sandy Beach under the influence of J. M. Studebaker. Windmills were replaced by electric power. An electric light line was extended from Cassopolis to light Park Shore Road all the way to the lake.

Ben Birdsell built the cottage “Somerset” in Sandy Beach. Wood salvaged from a livery stable was used to build “Hain Villa,” a fourteen-room resort hotel in Park Shore. Mrs. Hain employed a staff of 24 to maintain her lakeside resort.

Jacob Woolverton purchased the Birdsell cottage “Somerset.” (This beautiful old cottage in Sandy Beach is still in the Woolverton family and has been preserved in close to its original condition and decor by Hugh and Betty Lou Woolverton.)

J. M. Studebaker bought the Blink Bonnie Hotel and then sold half of the building to Walter Bogue for $225 and the other half to James Leach. Mr. Bogue moved his half to his farm on the north side of M-60 and refurbished it for his family home. Mr. Leach moved his half to Shore Acres where it was incorporated into an expansion of his Shore Acres Hotel.

The Carnegie Library was built on the west side of Broadway St. in Cassopolis. (This building is currently the Cass County Historical Library.)

American inventor Ole Evinrude produced the first portable outboard motor, a two horsepower gasoline powered model.

The Diamond Lake Park Improvement Association was formed with a board of directors and seventy-seven members. The purpose of the Association was the improvement of conditions about the lake and the protection of fish. Two houses were razed in the process of improving Park Shore Rd. and made a direct route from Cassopolis to Park Shore. The Association built a long wide pier for the use of its members.

The first Labor Day celebration was held on the lake with water sports and various contests. Suitable prizes were awarded. “Turk” McDermott, the World Champion Long Distance swimmer swam two complete rounds from Park Shore to the other end of the lake without stopping using his famous frog kick and the Australian Crawl. Kamp Kozy was platted and lots were offered for sale.

A road to Kamp Kozy was opened past the Smith’s red brick farmhouse at the curve in the road, and the first two cottages are built in Kamp Kozy. The hymn “The Old Rugged Cross” was completed and sung for the first time at a revival meeting in the nearby Village of Pokagon. The double-deck steamer South Bend caught fire and burned to the waterline off the north shore of the island.

A regulation baseball field was built in Park Shore and named Yost Park. The “Cassopolis” team was good and did very well against semi-pro and local independent teams. Dissatisfied with the 18 mph speed of his father’s boat, J.M. Studebaker Jr. launched a hydroplane, one of the first “fast” boats on the lake. Shore Acres Hotel completed large additions and added a dance hall.

The Association built a dance hall near the “Association Pier” in Park Shore. The dance hall was a unique nearly round structure with outside benches on all but the side facing the lake, where people could sit during intermissions or kneel and watch the dancers inside. Dances were held on Thursday and Saturday nights for Association member families, and not open to the public or maintained for profit.

Spring Beach was platted. The Shore received its name from the many natural springs found along the shoreline. The Diamond Island Hotel was closed.

A nine-hole golf course was constructed on the grounds of the Forest Hall Resort Hotel. Two holes of the Diamond Lake Golf Course were on the north side of the seldom-traveled gravel road (M-60).

Ralph Samuelson invented water skiing at Lake City, Minnesota. A cable was laid for a barge between Shore Acres and the Island, but the distance was apparently too great and too treacherous because the project was abandoned.

The Pioneer Society of Cassopolis built The Log Cabin Museum on Stone Lake. Exhibits were moved from the Court House to the new museum. The Lowitz family purchase the Gar Wood designed and built racing hydroplane “Miss Chicago” and launch her on Diamond Lake, this caused quite a stir among the local populace, as hundreds of people come to Park Shore where she was docked.

Diamond Lake’s Leigh Wade was pilot of one of three U.S. Army Air Service planes to complete the first around the world flight.

1925,p>E.J. Kloss purchases the Island and it was platted for sale as residential lots. Howell Point was platted. Construction of a bridge to the southeast side of the Island was started and many large pilings are driven before lake residents band together to halt the project.1926

Diamond Shores was platted. Forest Hall closes operations as a resort hotel but remained in use as the clubhouse for the Diamond Lake Golf Club. The Budan upija The National Democrat leaving just one weekly newspaper in Cassopolis.

A dam was constructed by the Diamond Lake Association at the outlet of Diamond Lake that fixed the lake level at 852.25 feet above sea level.

Park Shore was platted. E. L. Lowitz built the nine-hole Park Shore Golf Course with the help of farm hands. The Club House had showers, which was quite a luxury.

The Howell Estates Development Co. was formed to develop the 80-acre tract at Howell Point.

The large pilings remaining from the aborted bridge project, an eyesore for several years, were removed. They had been sticking up out of the water 10 to 15 feet.

“Hain Villa,” one of the last two resort hotels closed. Ed Yost purchased the property and converted it into four apartments.

The derelict hull of the old steamboat South Bend, left on the northeast side of the Island where it sat for many years, was towed out to deep water and blown up with dynamite.

The Forest Hall Resort Hotel was torn down and wood from the building was used to construct a new clubhouse for the Diamond Lake Golf Club. A round of golf cost 25 cents.

The new Diamond Lake Yacht Club was formed at a meeting on the front lawn of Joe Geary’s summer home with 48 members. Horace Fox was elected as the first Commodore with the objective of promoting sailboat racing and good fellowship among its membership. The Anchorage Inn, which was formerly the Diamond Lake Hotel in Park Shore mysteriously exploded and burns just before the 4th of July. Children lit their firecrackers from the smoldering embers. A severe storm suddenly struck during a Sunday DLYC race capsizing all 18 sailboats and causing some masts to break. Fortunately no one was seriously injured.

The Bidwell family purchased the old Hutchings Landing site in Park Shore and built a new store which they operate in conjunction with a dock, boat rental and picnic area. The Michigan Central railroad tracks were abandoned and the rails are taken up to provide steel for the war effort.

N.L. LaMunion purchases the marshy southeast side of the Island and has two canals dug. The digs from the canals are used to fill the marshy areas. He purchases 10 Army barracks and has them ferried to the Island to be sold as summer cottages. Four rooms are detached from the Studebaker cottage and moved to the Island on two barges pulled by a single powerboat. (Wood was scarce after WWII).

The ferryboat Diamond Island Queen operated between Eagle Point and the Island. It took six minutes to cross the 1100 feet of open water and was guided by a cable. The first marina on the lake was opened in Shore Acres and was called Clapper’s Marine Hospital. Wade’s Addition was platted.

The Diamond Lake Yacht Club opened its first clubhouse in the former Clappers Marine Hospital sales office after remodeling and refurbishment. Cassopolis’s Edward Lowe developed his cat litter box filler product called “Kitty Litter.”

Geneva Shores was platted and named after the lost village of Geneva. Clapper’s Marine Hospital was sold to “Cap” Purdy and the name was changed to Purdy Marine Company. Thorpe Marina was opened on the south side of the Island with gas pumps, dock space, boat hoist, warehouse and picnic area.

Diamond Cove was platted. Diamond Lake had the largest registered Snipe fleet in the world with 45 sailboats. The DLYC Nipper fleet was introduced with nine sailboats.

1951-Present

The barge to the island ceased to operate after the death of Mr. Kloss who owned most of the island and operated the barge. Diamond Island Association was formed.

N.L. LaMunion purchases the remaining undeveloped portions of the Island and the barge was reactivated on the south side of the Island connecting the Island with Carleton Drive.

The Barko family purchased the Park Shore Golf Course.

A biological survey was made of Diamond Lake. One finding of the survey was that Diamond Lake was not suitable for trout because the cool water strata is deficient of oxygen during the summer season. The first aluminum pontoon boat designed by Godfrey Marine was launched on the lake. There are 262 waterfront cottages on the mainland and 24 on the Island. (Old-time Island residents dispute this number as being too low.) There are also 69 boathouses at the waters edge. Most roads to the lake are unimproved with only M-60 and Eagle Point Road paved.

An attempt was made to build a road to the Island. The Diamond Lake Yacht Club and other Lake Organizations combined their legal talent and financial aid to stop the project. Walt Bieneman worked on a Bill prohibiting bridges and causeways to be built across lakes less than 1500 acres in area, which was passed by the Michigan Legislature.

The Studebaker Corp. used the Diamond Island barge in their ads introducing the new Lark model automobile. Click here for picture of this ad.

The old Shore Acres Hotel was renovated with a modern contemporary addition and opened as the Diamond Harbor Inn Restaurant and Gift Shop. Dave and Danny Herman purchased the Bidwell store and grounds in Park Shore and open the Park Shore Marina. Jack Mell completed a three-year scientific study of bass fishing in Diamond Lake, and the findings of this study were published in Outdoor Life Časopis.

The marina in Shore Acres, called the Purdy Marine Company, was sold to the Newall family and the name was changed to Diamond Lake Marina.

The Lowitz and Hepler families began sponsoring the 4th of July fireworks displays shot from the point in Shore Acres.

Some of the Diamond Island residents formed The Diamond Island Lake Corporation and purchased the remaining undeveloped portion of the Island from N.L. LaMunion in order to preserve it in its natural state.

The dam was relocated to a new site just west of Eagle Point Road as part of a plan by developer Karl Jones to dredge the marsh and wildlife areas on the south side of the lake. The Jones plan to create a 46 home site Sail Bay area followed by a Yacht Bay area with over 400 home sites became a very controversial issue and was met with stiff opposition. The dredging and platting of Sail Bay was completed. The Gem Theater was razed in Cassopolis. It had been a landmark for 127 years used first as the courthouse and then as a movie theater for the previous 40 years. Thorpe’s Marina on the Island ceased operations.

Steve Palatinus and John Landaw purchase the Park Shore Marina. The first Hobie Cat catamaran was launched on Diamond Lake. The grave of Job Wright, the first white inhabitant of the Island, is located in Prospect Hill Cemetery by Dr. Ray Spenner and a marker was placed at the site.

A Diamond Sparkles, a 232 page hardbound edition of Diamond Lake history written by Lois Webster Welch, was published. The Diamond Lake Yacht Club built a new clubhouse on Shore Acres Road next to the Diamond Harbor Inn. The Cass County Health Department in cooperation with the Diamond Lake Yacht Club conducted a pollution survey and control program for Diamond Lake.

The first sewer plans are developed.

Dr. Fred Matthews and Earl Marhanka bought Diamond Harbor Inn from Mr. Charles Zeman.

Twenty-five condominium units were built in the Colony Bay area on the southeast side of the lake.

Wayne Meagher launched “Diamond Belle,” an 18-foot steam powered boat complete with a steam calliope. The boat was an instant hit with residents who enjoyed seeing and hearing the boat make its almost daily trips around the lake in the summer.

Scuba divers Zoltan and Diane Tiser and some friends discover the wreck of the old steamboat South Bendoff the northeast point of the Island.

A Grumman “Widgeon” amphibian plane makes a hard landing on Diamond Lake damaging the fuselage. The plane began taking on water making it too heavy to lift off again. After several attempts to bail water and take off, the plane sank in over 50 feet of water near the island. The pilot was rescued, and a team of divers using flotation devices later salvaged the plane. The Lowitz and Hepler families end their sponsorship of the 4th of July fireworks display and Louie Beehler took over with financial support from Diamond Lake residents.

The new Diamond Lake Association was formed. The Edward Lowe Foundation was created to provide education, information, research, and assistance to small businesses.

Divers Jim Couch, Dave Yates, Bill Archer and Zoltan Tiser do an underwater reconstruction of the steamboat South Bend. The old 60-foot boat was a favorite dive site. A buoy marker with the words “Ship Wreck” was placed near the bow section that is about 40 feet below the surface.

One half of the old Blink Bonnie Hotel was moved from the former Walter Bogue farm on M-60 to the Big Rock Valley Farm complex on the east side of Decatur Rd. and was restored.

The Diamond Lake sewer system was completed.

The Diamond Lake Newspaper On and Around the Water was established for the purpose of better lake communication and to preserve and develop the history of Diamond Lake. Zebra Mussels were found for the first time in Diamond Lake.

Diamond Lake property owners got a welcome tax reduction with the enactment of Michigan’s new property tax law.

The Diamond Lake Association took over responsibility for the 4th of July fireworks celebration under Doug Horstmann.

A survey of watercraft on Diamond Lake showed that there were 430 powerboats, 224 jet skis, 213 pontoon/deck boats, 165 rowboats with motors, 148 pedal boats 70 rowboats without motors, 74 Sunfish sailboats, 53 M Class sailboats, 41 Hobie Cat sailboats, 31 Butterfly sailboats, 63 other type sailboats, 48 canoes, 11 windsurfers, 7 rowing shells, 5 kayaks, 1 steamboat, and 1 barge.

The Diamond Lake Yacht Club celebrated its 60th anniversary with an Art Show, a Vintage Boat Show and a Lake Home Tour.

The Council on Aging opened their new facility, The Edward Lowe Center, on Decatur Road. The Diamond Lake Marina closed operations on Shore Acres Rd. leaving Park Shore Marina as the only waterfront marina.

Louis and Donna Csokasy, founded the Diamond Lake Orchard off of Eagle Point Road, fulfilling Mr. Csokasy’s dream of having his own apple orchard.

The barge transfers the first modular home to the Island. The Village of Cassopolis attempts to annex Park Shore and Howell Point. The Diamond Lake Association purchases Fireworks Island on behalf of the lake residents. The uninhabitable remaining part of the Diamond Island Hotel was torn down.

Diamond Lake Orchard expands to include cherry trees, and plans on adding peaches.


Sadržaj

Formation (1969) Edit

Grand Funk Railroad was formed as a trio in 1969 by Mark Farner (guitar, keyboards, harmonica, vocals) and Don Brewer (drums, vocals) from Terry Knight and the Pack, and Mel Schacher (bass) from Question Mark & the Mysterians. [2] Knight soon became the band's manager and also named the band as a play on words for the Grand Trunk Western Railroad, a well-known rail line in Michigan. [2] First achieving recognition at the 1969 Atlanta International Pop Festival, the band was signed by Capitol Records. After a raucous, well-received set on the first day of the festival, Grand Funk was asked back to play at the 1970 Atlanta International Pop Festival II the following year. Patterned after hard-rock power trios such as Cream, the band, with Terry Knight's marketing savvy, developed its own popular style. In August 1969 the band released its first album titled On Time, which sold over one million copies and was awarded a gold record in 1970. [4]

In February 1970 a second album, Grand Funk (ili The Red Album), was awarded gold status. [4] Despite critical pans and little airplay, the group's first six albums (five studio releases and one live album) were quite successful.

Early 1970s Edit

The hit single "I'm Your Captain (Closer to Home)", from the album Closer to Home, released in June 1970, was considered stylistically representative of Terry Knight and the Pack's recordings. In the spring of 1970, Knight launched an intensive advertising campaign to promote the album Closer to Home. [2] That album was certified multiplatinum despite a lack of critical approval. [4] The band spent $100,000 on a New York City Times Square billboard to advertise Closer to Home. [5]

By 1971, Grand Funk equalled the Beatles' Shea Stadium attendance record, but sold out the venue in just 72 hours whereas the Beatles concert took a few weeks to sell out. [6] Following Closer to Home, The double disc Live Album was also released later in 1970, and was another gold disc recipient. [4] Survival i E Pluribus Funk were both released in 1971. E Pluribus Funk celebrated the Shea Stadium show with an embossed depiction of the stadium on the album cover's reverse.

By late 1971, the band was concerned with Knight's managerial style and fiscal responsibility. This growing dissatisfaction led Grand Funk Railroad to fire Knight in early 1972. Knight sued for breach of contract, which resulted in a protracted legal battle. At one point, Knight repossessed the band's gear before a gig at Madison Square Garden. In VH1's Behind the Music Grand Funk Railroad episode, Knight stated that the original contract would have run out in about three months, and that the smart decision for the band would have been to just wait out the time. [7] However, at that moment, the band members felt they had no choice but to continue and fight for the rights to their careers and name. The legal battle with Knight lasted two years and ended when the band settled out of court. Knight came out the clear winner with the copyrights and publisher's royalties to every Grand Funk recording made from March 1969 through March 1972, not to mention a large payoff in cash and oil wells. Farner, Brewer and Schacher were given the rights to the name Grand Funk Railroad. [8]

In 1972 Grand Funk Railroad added Craig Frost on keyboards full-time. Originally, the band had attempted to attract Peter Frampton, late of Humble Pie however, he was not available due to signing a solo record deal with A&M Records. The addition of Frost, however, was a stylistic shift from Grand Funk's original garage-band based rock and roll roots to a more rhythm and blues/pop rock-oriented style. With the new lineup, Grand Funk released Feniks, its sixth album of original music, in September 1972. [9]

To refine Grand Funk's sound, the band then secured veteran musician Todd Rundgren as a producer. Its two most successful albums and two number-one hit singles resulted: the Don Brewer-penned "We're an American Band" (from the number two album We're an American Band, released in July 1973) and "The Loco-Motion" (from their 1974 number five album Shinin' On, written by Carole King and Gerry Goffin and originally recorded by Little Eva). [2] "We're an American Band" became Grand Funk's first number-one hit on Farner's 25th birthday, followed by Brewer's number-19 hit "Walk Like a Man". "The Loco-Motion" in 1974 was Grand Funk's second chart-topping single, followed by Brewer's number-11 hit "Shinin' On". The band continued touring the U.S., Europe and Japan. [10]

Mid-1970s Edit

In 1974 Grand Funk engaged Jimmy Ienner as producer and reverted to using their full name: Grand Funk Railroad. The cover of All the Girls in the World Beware. (December 1974) depicted the band members' heads superimposed on the bodies of Arnold Schwarzenegger and Franco Columbu. This album spawned the band's last two top-10 hits, "Some Kind of Wonderful" and "Bad Time" in late 1974/early 1975.

Although they were highly successful in the mid-1970s, tensions mounted within the band due to personal issues, burn-out and disputes over musical direction. Despite these issues, Grand Funk forged ahead. Needing two more albums to complete their record deal with Capitol, Grand Funk embarked on a major tour and decided to record a double live album, Caught in the Act (August 1975). [8]

The double album should have fulfilled the contract with Capitol however, because it contained previously released material, Capitol requested an additional album to complete Grand Funk's contractual obligation. While pressures between the band members still existed, the members agreed to move forward and complete one more album for Capitol to avoid legalities similar to the ones that they endured with Terry Knight in 1972. The band recorded Born to Die (January 1976), but its lower sales (it only managed to reach #47 on the Billboard chart) and lack of hit singles disappointed the group. They began to drift apart and a breakup was rumored. [11]

However, Grand Funk found new life from interest by Frank Zappa in producing the band. Signing with MCA Records, the resulting album Good Singin', Good Playin' (August 1976), though it netted them some of their best critical reviews ever, yielded little success. [2] After this, a totally disillusioned Grand Funk Railroad decided to disband in earnest in late 1976. [12] Farner recalled what happened at that time: "Things were disenfranchised within the band. I don't want to speculate about what was going on in Brewer's life—his first wife died, and that was rough—but one day he walked into the studio and said, 'I've had it. I need to find something to do with my life that's more stable.' He was done. He walked out and slammed the door. It was him, not me. Everybody thinks I broke the band up, but it was him." [13]

Disbanded, 1976–1981 new lineup in the early 1980s Edit

Following the breakup, Farner began a solo career and signed with Atlantic Records, which resulted in two albums: Mark Farner (1977) and No Frills (1978.). Brewer, Schacher and Frost remained intact and formed the band Flint. Flint released one 1978 album on Columbia Records a second record was finished but never released.

After being approached in 1980 by their former manager Andy Caviliere (who had taken over from Terry Knight in 1972), Grand Funk Railroad reunited in February 1981 without Frost (who was playing with Bob Seger) and with Dennis Bellinger replacing Schacher on bass. Schacher begged off saying he had developed a fear of flying but later confided that he had no longer wanted to be involved with Caviliere. [8]

The new line-up released two albums on Irving Azoff's Full Moon label, distributed by Warner Bros. Records. These releases included Grand Funk Lives (July 1981) and What's Funk? (January 1983). [2] Neither album achieved much in the way of critical acclaim or sales but the single "Queen Bee" was included in the film Heavy Metal and its soundtrack album. [8]

The band toured in 1981 and 1982 with Rick Baker joining them on the road to play keyboards. But the dismal sales of Grand Funk Lives and the death of manager Caviliere in 1982 caused the group to disband a second time in early 1983, shortly after What's Funk? je pušten. [8]

Farner continued as a solo performer and became a Christian recording artist while Brewer went on to join Frost in Bob Seger's Silver Bullet Band. [14] Farner was promoted by David Fishof in the late 1980s and was a part of Fishof's concept Ringo Starr & His All-Starr Band in 1995. After that, Fishof began sounding out Farner, Brewer and Schacher about reuniting again. [8]

Disbanded, 1983–1996 re-formation, 1996–present Edit

After some rehearsals in late 1995, Grand Funk Railroad's three original members (joined on tour by keyboardist/guitarist and background vocalist Howard Eddy, Jr.) once again reunited in 1996 and played to 500,000 people during a three-year period. [8]

In 1997 the band played three sold-out Bosnian benefit concerts. These shows featured a full symphony orchestra that was conducted by Paul Shaffer (from Late Show with David Letterman). The band released a live two-disc benefit CD called Bosna recorded in Auburn Hills, Michigan. This live recording also featured Peter Frampton, Alto Reed and Howard Eddy Jr.

In late 1998, Farner left the band and returned to his solo career.

After this, two years passed before the two remaining members recruited some well-regarded players to reform the band. Lead vocalist Max Carl (of 38 Special), former Kiss lead guitarist Bruce Kulick and keyboardist Tim Cashion (Bob Seger, Robert Palmer) completed the new lineup.

In 2005 Grand Funk Railroad was voted into the Michigan Rock and Roll Legends Hall of Fame. [15]

In 2018 bassist Stanley Sheldon (ex-Peter Frampton) sat in for Schacher, who lost his wife, Dena, to cancer. [16]

Grand Funk Railroad continues to tour, and kicked off its "The American Band Tour 2019", "Celebrating 50 Years of Funk" tour on January 17, 2019. [17]

On June 25, 2019 Časopis New York Times listed Grand Funk Railroad among hundreds of artists whose material was reportedly destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire. [18]

David Fricke of Kotrljajući kamen magazine once said, "You cannot talk about rock in the 1970s without talking about Grand Funk Railroad!" [19] [20]


  • Ujedinjene države
  • Swings: R
  • Turned Pro: 1981
  • PGA Debut 1982
  • College University of Maryland
  • Birth Date June 14, 1956 (Age: 65)
  • Birthplace Takoma Park, Maryland
  • Height 5-8
  • Weight 165 lbs.

Bermuda Championship - Oct 29 - Nov 1, 2020

FRED FUNK NEWS FEED

Smith takes Encompass lead with 8-under round

Jerry Smith matched a tournament record with an 8-under-par 64 Saturday to take a three-shot lead after the second round of the Encompass Championship.

Funk, 64, shines Armour, Clark lead in Bermuda

While Ryan Armour and Wyndham Clark hold the lead at the Bermuda Championship, 64-year-old Fred Funk stole the spotlight Friday by shooting a 72 to make the cut.

Pernice, Goydos, Bryant share Allianz lead

Tom Pernice Jr. closed with a double bogey for a 6-under 66 and a share of the first-round lead Friday in the Allianz Championship with Paul Goydos and Bart Bryant.

Funk takes 2nd-round Regions Tradition lead

After shooting a 7-under 65 on Friday, Fred Funk took the second-round lead in the Regions Tradition.

Leaney leads Funk seeks Tour Champions record

While Stephen Leaney leads the Chubb Classic by a stroke over Bernhard Langer heading into Sunday's final round, it's Fred Funk looking to make history. Two shots back, Funk looks to become the oldest competitor to win a PGA Tour Champions event.

Goydos closes out Allianz Championship win

Paul Goydos closed with a birdie for a 3-under 69 and a one-stroke victory over Gene Sauers on Sunday in the Champions Tour's Allianz Championship.

Frost makes two eagles for 62, leads in Calgary

David Frost made two eagles and shot a bogey-free 8-under 62 on Friday to take the first-round lead in the PGA Tour Champions' Shaw Charity Classic.

Janzen among four tied for Encompass lead

Lee Janzen shot a 7-under 65 at North Shore Country Club to share the first-round lead in the Encompass Championship with Fred Funk, David Frost and Brad Bryant.

Funk keeps 1-shot lead at Regions Tradition

Sixty-year-old Fred Funk maintained the Regions Tradition lead Saturday after shooting a 2-under 70 in the third round of the first PGA Tour Champions major tournament of the year.

Bohn takes lead into final round in Mexico

Jason Bohn looked out toward the ocean Saturday and knew it was going to be tough day at the OHL Classic. He kept it together long enough to take the lead.


2 players are tied for the most holes in one in PGA Tour history

There isn’t just one golfer that holds the record for most holes in one in PGA Tour history. It’s actually two players tied at the top. Robert Allenby and Hal Sutton are tied for the most aces in Tour history with 10. No one else has reached double digits.

Allenby won four times on the PGA Tour during his career. He still plays professionally today at the age of 48. If he can make one more ace on Tour, he’ll take the top spot by himself.

Sutton won 14 times on Tour, including two wins at The Players. He’s most famous for his “be the right club today!” moment on the 18th hole of TPC Sawgrass in 2000. It turned out to be the right club, and Sutton went on to win the tournament over a charging Tiger Woods.


Because of Her Story: The Funk List

It is with heavy hearts that we say goodbye to Dr. Vicki Funk, a botanist at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, and advisor to the American Women's History Initiative (AWHI), who died October 22, 2019. Dr. Funk was Curator of Asteraceae (daisies for the non-scientists) in the Botany Department for a stunning 38 years. She has over 280 publications credited to her as either lead or contributing author. She was named as an AAAS Fellow in 1987 and received the Linnaean Society's Linneaen Medal for Botany and the American Society of Plant Taxonimist's Asa Gray Award over the past several months.

Effie Kapsalis, AWHI's digital strategist, shares her reflections on Dr. Funk's work to ensure Smithsonian women in STEM received the recognition they deserve:

On March 27 th , 2014, I added Dr. Funk's name to a worklist for a Wikipedia edit-a-thon held at the Smithsonian Institution Archives on the history of women in STEM. I know this because of the page "edit history" on Wikipedia. Her article was written at an event that same month for women's history month. I followed up by featuring her as a "Women in Science Wednesday" in the Archives' weekly feature of notable woman in science. The Women in Science Wednesday campaign was a way to make quick "secondary sources" for Wikipedia which editors rely on for the references in articles.

Women in Science Wednesday: Dr. Vicki Funk

I didn't meet Dr. Funk until we were both serving on AWHI's coordinating committee (the Smithsonian has over 6,300 employees). She approached me after one of those meetings and said, "You're the one who got my article written." She went on to describe how her niece saw the page and called her to say she was impressed her aunt was "on Wikipedia", and that she had gained a little "cred". That moment solidified for me the importance of being named and acknowledged, and additionally left me daunted by how much work we had to do with only 18% of biographies on Wikipedia about women.

Dr. Funk and I, along with Pam Henson and Tammy Peters at the Archives, hatched a plan to apply to the AWHI Curatorial Pool Fund to hire a digital curator to write a comprehensive history of women in science in America with Smithsonian women scientists as a case study. In the meantime, Dr. Funk got to work and reached out to her network of dozens of scientists to write down, in a shared spreadsheet, "female firsts and seconds" in their various disciplines, from astrophysics to zoology. She then had her summer intern write Wikipedia notability statements for this list of over 125 names.

This list of notable Smithsonian women in science was crowd-sourced by Dr. Vicki Funk with Smithsonian staff.

Today, the list, which I've referred to as the "spreadsheet of awesomeness", has grown to over 400 names due to the work of Dr. Elizabeth Harmon, a digital curator at our Smithsonian Institution Archives. The Smithsonian's data scientists in our Research Computing Division have already computed against this list to compile the "life's work" of these women, aggregating publications, collections, and archives across the Smithsonian. When it is complete, we will seed hundreds of Wikipedia articles.

It was started with Dr. Funk's spirit, can-do attitude, and the desire to highlight many other women who helped to build in-roads into the field of science. From today on, the list will be called "The Funk List".


Gledaj video: . PLUS - Ukrainian Funk. Vol 2