Hawker Tempest

Hawker Tempest


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Hawker Tempest

Hawker Tempest je razvijen u pokušaju rješavanja problema koji su se dogodili kada je Typhoon postigao vrlo velike brzine, posebno u zaronu. Sidney Camm, glavni dizajner u Hawkeru, proizveo je novo tanje krilo, polu-eliptičnog oblika koji pomalo podsjeća na ona koja se koriste na Spitfireu. Radovi na novom dizajnu, prvotno označenom kao Typhoon II, započeli su u ožujku 1940.

U studenom 1941. Hawker je dobio narudžbu za dva prototipa. Početkom 1942. taj se broj povećao na šest, koristeći pet različitih motora, u slučaju da se razviju dodatni problemi s motorom Napier Sabre. Svakom od ovih motora dodijeljen je broj oznake. Mk I pokretao je Sabre IV, Mk II radijalni motor Centaurus IV, Mk III Rolls Royce Griffon IIB, Mk IV Griffon 61 i Mk V malo poboljšana verzija Sabre II koristi u Tajfunu. Ova oznaka prototipova s ​​više brojeva oznaka razlog je što je Mk V prva verzija Tempest koja je ušla u službu.

Prototip Tempest Mk V, sa svojim poznatim motorom, prvi je uzletio u zrak 2. rujna 1942. Novi zrakoplov bio je vrlo sličan Typhoonu, koji je koristio istu nadstrešnicu u kokpitu kao i rani Typhoons, i istu prepoznatljivu bradu. radijator. Tankom krilu nedostajalo je mjesta za spremnike goriva, pa je između kokpita i motora postavljen nastavak dug 22 cm kako bi sadržao novi spremnik goriva. Od tada do kraja godine uslijedio je niz manjih izmjena, a prototip je zabilježio brzinu od 466 km / h na 24.500 stopa.

Iako je Mk V bio najmanje ambiciozan od svih prototipova Tempest -a, njegove performanse bile su dovoljno impresivne da se može naručiti u proizvodnju. Od ostale četiri izvorne inačice, samo bi Mk II ušao u proizvodnju.

Prvi proizvodni pogon Tempest V napravio je prvi let 21. lipnja 1943. Kad je bio naoružan s četiri topa od 20 mm, Tempest je postigao najveću brzinu od 432 km / h na 18 400 stopa. Za usporedbu, Spitfire Mk XII s Griffon -om imao je najveću brzinu od 397 km / h na 18.000 stopa.

Još dvije varijante Tempest -a ušle bi u proizvodnju, ali prekasno za aktivnu uslugu. Tempest II pogonio je radijalni motor Centaurus V, koristeći iskustvo stečeno ispitivanjem poklopca motora zarobljenih Fw 190. Tempest II vidio bi službu protiv Japana da je bila potrebna invazija. Tempest II koristile su okupatorske snage u Njemačkoj. Tempest VI koristio je motor Sabre V, a koristilo ga je pet eskadrila RAF -a sa sjedištem na Bliskom istoku.

Prva eskadrila koja je primila Tempest Mk V bila je broj 486, koja je počela primati zrakoplove u siječnju 1944. zamijenivši svoje tajfune. Zajedno s eskadrilom broj 3, počela je s radom u travnju 1944. Dvije eskadrile, zajedno s brojem 56, formirale su prvo krilo oluje u Newchurchu u Kentu (iako je za početak broj 56 zadržalo svoje Spitfire IX -e), pod zapovjedništvom Zapovjednik krila Roland Beamont.

Nakon kratkog perioda koji je djelovao iznad Francuske u tjednu nakon Dana D, Tempest Wing je povučen kako bi se pozabavio letećom bombom V-1. Leteća bomba uletjela je nisko i brzo, na otprilike 2000 stopa i 400 km / h. Procijenjeno je da Tempest ima najveće šanse uhvatiti ovo novo oružje, sposobno uskladiti njegovu brzinu na niskoj razini. U razdoblju od lipnja do kolovoza 1944. piloti Tempest-a zahtijevali su 800 od 1.771 V-1 koje je srušio RAF, od kojih je 638 samo krilo Newchurch.

Nakon što je savezničko napredovanje zaustavilo kampanju V-1, eskadrile Tempest su se mogle slobodno vratiti napadima na kontinent. Za razliku od Typhoona, koji se specijalizirao za ulogu kopnenog napada, Tempest se mogao održati u borbi zrak-zrak. Sedam eskadrila Tempest 2. taktičkog zrakoplovstva zahtijevalo je 240 potvrđenih i trinaest vjerojatnih ubojstava. Među njima je bilo najmanje 20 Me 262, određeni broj Arado Ar 234 i jedan He 162. Eskadrile Tempest su letjele prilično dobrim dijelom misija kopnenog napada, osobito onog što je bilo poznato kao oružano izviđanje, ili misija pretraživanja i uništavanja.

Statistika

1.401 proizvedeno, nešto poslije rata

Oluja V
Motor: Napier Sabre IIB 24-cilindrični čahurasti ventil u obliku slova H
Konjske snage: 2.200
Raspon: 41ft 0in
Duljina: 33ft 8in
Maksimalna brzina: 392 km / h na razini mora, 426 km / h na 18 500 stopa
Strop: 36.500 stopa
Domet: 1.580 milja s spremnicima za ispuštanje, 740 milja na unutarnjem gorivu
Naoružanje: Četiri topa kalibra 20 mm
Korisni teret: dvije bombe od 1000 lb ili osam raketa od 60 lb


Hawker Tempest - Povijest

Tempest Mk II trebao je biti pogonjen inlinearnim inženjeringom sa hladnjakom Sabre Mk IVA od 2.250 KS. Sir Sydney Camm smatrao je da će Tempest Mk II s radijalnim motorom ponuditi vrhunske performanse za liniju Typhoon/Tempest te je kao rezultat toga učinjen znatan napor za poboljšanje učinkovitosti zračnog hlađenja Centaurus s 2.210 KS.


Tijekom probnog leta motora u Tornadovom prototipu (HG641) temperatura motora i ulja ostala je konstantno blizu najveće dopuštene, a u kokpitu je bila velika količina plina ugljičnog monoksida. Tehničari RAF -a, proučavajući zarobljeni Fw 190, otkrili su da su Nijemci riješili problem hlađenja usko zatvorenog radijalnog motora. Koristili su prstenasti hladnjak ulja koji je ugrađen u prednji rub poklopca i hlađen ventilatorom na motor. Ispušni sustav motora izbjegao je upotrebu kolektorskog prstena, a plinovi su se ispuštali kroz pojedinačne ispušne cijevi postavljene ispred izlaznih otvora sa svake strane trupa.


Inženjeri Hawkera redizajnirali su Tempest II s modificiranim Centaurusom IV, koji je uključio veći dio njemačke tehnologije. To je rezultiralo vjerojatno najčišćim lovcem s radijalnim motorom u Drugom svjetskom ratu. Prototip (LA602) je prvi put poletio 28. lipnja 1943. Imao je repnu jedinicu u stilu Typhoona (kasnije promijenjenu za standardnu ​​jedinicu Tempest) i novu jednodijelnu nadstrešnicu.
Test s LA602 pokazao je da je zrakoplov trpio vibracije motora. To je riješeno ugradnjom motora na šest nosača s gumom nabijenih amortizera. Ovi nosači spriječili su ugradnju motora Centaurus XII (koji je izvorno bio namijenjen za pogon proizvodnje Tempest II), a Centaurus V odabran je kao proizvodna elektrana.


Drugi prototip, LA607, poletio je 18. rujna 1943. Prvo je bio opremljen Centaurusom IV, a kasnije Centaurom V. LA607 je od početka bio opremljen povećanom leđnom perajom i kliznom nadstrešnicom te je bio namijenjen za ispitivanja i razvoj pogonskih postrojenja. . MAP je velike količine naručio već u rujnu 1942. Zrakoplov Mk II trebao se graditi u Glostersu, ali je zbog proizvodnje Typhoona izabran Bristol Airplane Co. Dok su pripreme za proizvodnju u Bristolu bile u tijeku, Hawker je prešao na vlastitu proizvodnju. Prvi Hawker izgrađen Mk II dovršen je u listopadu 1944. godine.


Narudžbe su podignute na 330 za Bristol i 1800 za Hawker. No, na kraju rata većina ih je otkazana. Hawker je uspio dovršiti 402 zrakoplova, dok je Bristol dovršio samo 50 zrakoplova. Svi serijski zrakoplovi bili su opremljeni motorom Centaurus V, kratkocijevom Hispano Mk. V topova i standardnu ​​repnu jedinicu Mk V. Svi zrakoplovi Bristols i prva serija Hawkersa napravljeni su kao lovci, dok je ostatak proizvodnje Hawkersa napravljen kao lovački bombarder s ojačanim krilima. Prvi su kasnije preinačeni u FB standard. Prototipovi i rani zrakoplovi izgrađeni od Hawkera nisu imali usisne filtere za zrak u gornjem dijelu trupa iza poklopca motora. Kasnije proizvodne Mk IIs također su pitotove glave premjestile ispod lučkog krila do vrha lučkog krila.

MW742 rane proizvodnje Hawkera: Nema ulaza filtera zraka u gornji dio trupa iza poklopca motora i pitotove glave ispod krila.

Kasnija proizvodnja MkII, PR806: Ulazi filtera zraka i pitotova glava na vrhu krila. Obratite pažnju na police za bombe.

Raspon krila: 41 ft 0 inča
Područje krila: 302 četvornih metara
Duljina: 34ft 5in
Visina (rep prema dolje): 14ft 6in
Težina (prazna): 8,900 lb
Težina (opterećeno): 11,800 lb
Maksimalna brzina: 442 km / h pri 15.200ft
Vrijeme do visine: 4,5 minute do 15.000 stopa
Elektrana: Bristol Centaurus Mk V
Maksimalna snaga: 2.520 KS
Promjer propelera: 4 oštrice 12ft 9in
Izgrađeni brojevi: 452

Izvori:
Hawker Tempest (publikacija 4+)
Tajfun/Oluja na djelu (Eskadrila/Signalne publikacije br. 102)
Priča o tajfunu i buri (Chris Thomas i Christopher Shores)
Alec Blyth


Sjevernoamerički P-51 Mustang vs Hawker Tempest

Topovi Hispano-Suiza duge cijevi 4 x 20 mm u krilima (dva topa na krilo).
2 x 0,50 teških strojnica Browning M2 u nosu (A-36).
Teški mitraljezi Browning M2 kalibra 4 x 0,50 u krilima (dva pištolja na krilo).

P-51D:
6 x 0,50 cal teških strojnica Browning M2 (HMG) u krilima (tri topa na krilo).

NEOBVEZNO:
Ispod krila se nosi do 454 kg konvencionalnih bombi, raketa ili spremnika za ispuštanje goriva.

STANDARD:
4 x 20 mm topa Hispano Mk V

NEOBVEZNO:
Vanjske bombe do 2.000 funti koje se sastoje od bombi ili raketa.


Varijante [uredi | uredi izvor]

Hawker Tempest II, RAF muzej, Hendon.

Tegljač meta Tempest TT Mk.5, 1948.

  • Tajfun Mk II : Originalna oznaka Hawker Tempest.
  • Oluja Mk I : Prototip opremljen klipnim motorom Napier Sabre IV s hladnjacima ulja i radijatorima postavljenim u krilo radi smanjenja otpora, jedan zrakoplov.
  • Oluja Mk III : Prototip opremljen klipnim motorom Rolls-Royce Griffon.
  • Oluja Mk IV : Prototip Tempest Mk III ponovno je opremljen klipnim motorom Rolls-Royce Griffon 61.
  • Oluja Mk V : Lovac s jednim sjedištem, lovački bombarder, pogonjen klipnim motorom Napier Sabre II, 801 izgrađen u Langleyju.
    • Rane serije Tempest Mk V : Prvih 100 proizvodnih zrakoplova bili su opremljeni s četiri topova duge cijevi 20   mm (.79  in) Mark II Hispano i nastavili su koristiti neke komponente Typhoon.
    • Srednja do kasna serija Tempest Mk V : Ostali zrakoplovi 701 bili su opremljeni s četiri kratka cijevi topova 20 i#160 mm Mark V Hispano i drugim izmjenama proizvodne linije.
    • Oluja TT Mk 5 : Nakon Drugog svjetskog rata, brojni Tempest Mk V su pretvoreni u tegljače.
    • Oluja FB Mk II : Lovački bombarder s jednim sjedištem s potpornim stupovima za bombe i rakete.

    Leteći časnik Ted Kosh ’s Hawker Tempest V od br. 3 eskadrile, RAF, srpanj 1944.

    Oluja V – JF-K (JN765) br.3 m2 RAF je u srpnju 1944

    Oficir za ribolov Ted Kosh, eskadrila broj 3, RAF

    Leteći časnik Ted Kosh poginuo je u srpnju 1944. kada se njegova Hawker Tempest srušila u zemlju blizu Ryea u istočnom Sussexu tijekom izleta za presretanje bombi V1 ciljanih na London. P/O Kosh bio je mlad, relativno neiskusan pilot i kao pripadnik eskadrile broj 3 u ljeto 1944. njegova je misija bila pokušati oboriti ili prevrnuti što više V1.

    Najstarija eskadrila RAF -a, No 3 eskadrila, Kraljevski leteći korpus, nastala je u Larkhillu 13. svibnja 1912. iz tvrtke 2 (zrakoplov). S izbijanjem rata 1939. opremljen je uraganima na brdu Biggin. Nakon kratkog boravka u sklopu BEF-a u Francuskoj, uslijedilo je preseljenje u Škotsku radi noćnih patrola. Tijekom 1943. eskadrila je zamijenila uragane tajfunima i prebacila se na uloge protiv otpreme i uljeza. Prelaskom na Tempests 1944. godine broj 3 Sqn uništio je 288 letećih bombi V1.

    Iako to nije bio vrlo glamurozan posao, preuzimati jurišnu južnu Englesku V1 gotovo svaki dan bilo je još uvijek vrlo opasno. Prevrtanje bi moglo oštetiti krilo, a obaranje leteće bombe moglo bi dovesti do vrlo opasne situacije za strijelca. Dolje se nalaze neke fotografije snimljene snimkama V1 “kill ” kamerom s pištoljem.

    Izvanredno, postoji video zapis P/O Kosh’s Tempest taksiranja za misiju, njegov zrakoplov JF-K je drugi od dva Tempesta koji taksiraju pored kamere. Ovo je fotografija iz filma i iako je teško priznati “K ”, jasno je u originalu. Moguće je da je ovo drugačiji JF-K, pa čak i jest, da Ted nije upravljao ovdje, ali volim misliti da jest.

    Uzrok Tedove nesreće nije bio poznat i nije zabilježen, ali čini se vrlo vjerojatno da je uzrok mogao biti eksplodirajući V1 - zasigurno je njegov zrakoplov opisan kao “ srušen u plamenu ”, a druga objašnjenja izgledaju manje vjerojatna.

    Ted je u vrijeme svoje smrti imao tri zaslužne pobjede. Tedova obitelj pokopala ga je na groblju Hawkinge u Kentu.

    1995. godine istraženo je mjesto nesreće P/O Kosha. Prijavljeno je (ali mi se čini čudno) da je većina posmrtnih ostataka P/O Kosha još uvijek bila u njegovoj srušenoj Tempest. Konačno je uklonjen iz njega i pokopan uz punu čast.

    Razvoj Hawker Tempest V

    Hawker Typhoon rezultat je Hawker -ovog glavnog dizajnera, tima Sydney Camm -a#8217s koji je radio na specifikaciji F.18/37 već 1937. za potpuno novog lovca (s uragana). U početku je trebao imati motor od 1491 kW (2000 KS), bilo Rolls-Royce Vulture ili Napier Sabre. Kako su se događaji odigravali, tajfun s lešinarima (kako je ta varijanta postala poznata) bio je neuspješan, ali je tajfun sa sabljama na kraju postao veliki lovac/bombarder niske razine.

    Kratki dolasci Typhoona bili su njegova izvedba na nadmorskoj visini, što se očitovalo problemima s motorom i krilom sklonim šokiranju i prekidu protoka čak i pri skromnim brzinama. Problem motora vjerojatno je riješen potencijalom Bristol Centaurusa koji je već testiran u Tornadovom prototipu HG641. U ožujku 1940. Camm je odobrio rad na novom krilu sa smanjenim omjerom debljine/tetive i kasnijim profilom aeroprofila tipa zvanog “laminarni ”, s najvećom debljinom znatno dalje od krme nego prije.

    U novo krilo mogla bi se smjestiti četiri topa kalibra 20 mm, za razliku od strojnica Typhoon#8217s, a kako su oni bili instalirani dalje nego u Typhoon MkIB s probojima i spremnicima iza stražnjeg ramena, u ovom je trenutku bio potreban veliki akord. Sydney Camm kasnije je rekao kako "zračno osoblje ne bi kupilo ništa što nije izgledalo kao Spitfire", šalio se ili ne, novo krilo poprimilo je izrazito eliptičan oblik koji podsjeća na proizvod Supermarine. Krilo je završilo, nakon što su mu vrhovi izrezani, s kraćim rasponom od Typhoona, ali s većom površinom.

    Ključna i inovativna značajka krila bila je upotreba integriranog hladnjaka na prednjem rubu motora Sabre. Međutim, u kombinaciji s tanjim krilom ovo je ozbiljno smanjilo kapacitet goriva pa je za rješavanje problema trup trupa produžen za 21 inč ispred kokpita. Dodana duljina trupa značila je da se okomiti rep morao povećati. Dizajn je bio gotovo dovršen do listopada 1941., oko njega je napisana specifikacija F.10/41, a 18. studenog sklopljen je ugovor za dva prototipa, HM595 i HM599. Izvorno poznat kao Typhoon MkII, novi je zrakoplov u siječnju 1942. službeno nazvan Tempest, a ugovor se produžio na još pet prototipova. U ovom trenutku program je bio sljedeći:

    LA594 – [Sada] otkazan Typhoon MkII (motor Centaurus)
    HM595 – Tempest MkV (Sablja motor u instalaciji tipa Typhoon
    HM599 – Tempest MkI (Saber IV motor i krilni radijatori)
    LA602 & amp 607 – Tempest MkII (motor Centaurus)
    LA610 & amp 614 – Tempest MkIII ili IV (Odnosno Griffon IIB ili 61 motor)

    U svakom slučaju, LA594 nikada nije izgrađen, a LA610 i 614 preusmjereni su na kasniji program. HM599 je trebao biti prvi, ali nastavak rada na novom postavljanju motora/radijatora potaknuo je Camm da progura HM595 kao praktički Typhoon (uključujući kokpit “automobila ”) s novim krilom te je kao takav prvi poletio na 2. rujna 1942. godine.

    Mjesec dana prije toga Hawker je dobio ugovor za 400 Tempest MkI. Svi piloti iz Hawkera su smatrali da je HM595 veliko poboljšanje u odnosu na Typhoon i što je prije moguće ugrađena je nadstrešnica s mjehurićima, povećana je akorda repne ploče i dodan je leđni file. S tako obećavajućim početkom, svi u Hawkeru nestrpljivo su očekivali prvi probni let “realnog ” Tempest MkI HM599 s motorom Sabre IV i vrhunskim radijatorima. To je čekanje trebalo trajati do 24. veljače 1943. zbog zastoja motora. HM599 je letio kao u osnovi modificirani Typhoon, ali se pokazao vrlo dobro, postavši najbrži lovac Hawker do sada sa brzinom od 466 km / h. Camm je prisiljen proizvodnjom novog krila u Langleyju, ali Sabre IV i dalje je bio nedostupan, a kao posljednje sredstvo Camm je proizveo “proizvedeni ” Tempest V temeljen na HM595, ali s pravilno dizajniranim repom. Proizvodnja Tempest MkV -a prema prvotno izdanom ugovoru za 400 Tempest Mk -a započela je u lipnju 1943., s prvim silaskom s linija 21. lipnja. Ironično, na isti način RAF je dobio Spitfire MkIX kao rezultat improvizacije (Merlin 61 motor u Spit MkV) umjesto definitivnog Spitfire MkVIII, dobili su Tempest MkV umjesto MkI.

    Prvih 100 proizvedenih bili su naoružani topom Hispano MkII i nazvani su Tempest MkV Series 1, a kasnija proizvodnja uvela je kratki cijev MkV top s njuškama unutar prednjeg ruba. Pilotu je bilo važnije dodavanje opružnih jezičca eleronima, prvi u RAF zrakoplovima, dajući svu snagu kotrljanja koja je bila potrebna pilotu.


    Hawker Tempest - Povijest

        Tri prototipa Tornada i jedan proizvodni model bili su sljedeći:

    P5219. Prototip. Vulture motor s ventralnim radijatorom.
    P5224. Prototip. Vulture motor s radijatorom za bradu.
    HG641. Prototip. Bristol Centaurus C.E.4S radijalni motor s hladnjakom za ulje ispod nosa.
    R7936. Avioni za proizvodnju. Vulture motor s radijatorom za bradu.

        Prvi prototip Typhoon N bio je P5212 s motorom Napier Sabre s radijatorom za bradu.

        Prvi prototip Tornada (P5219) poletio je 6. listopada 1939. i nosio je radijator ventralnog tipa sličan uraganu. Zbog problema sa stišću i stabilnosti pri velikoj brzini, ventralni radijator promijenjen je u tip brade kao na Typhoonu. Pokretao ga je motor Vulture II, a naoružanje se sastojalo od dvanaest strojnica Browning .303. Međutim, ovaj Tornado prototip letio je tek toliko da ukaže na blagotvorne rezultate promjene prije nego što je potpuno uništena. 3

        Drugi prototip Tornada (P5224) poletio je 5. prosinca 1940. i također je bio pogonjen motorom Vulture II i imao je Rotolov propeler s konstantnom brzinom. Naoružanje se sastojalo od četiri Hispano topa kalibra 20 mm. I prvi i drugi prototipni motori nadograđeni su na Vulture Vs, motor namijenjen za proizvodnju zrakoplova.

    Prvi prototip Tornada (P5219) s ventralnim radijatorom.
    Ovaj zrakoplov je uništen tijekom ispitivanja.

        Paralelno se razvijala proizvodnja i N i R tipova, a početna letna ispitivanja prototipova bila su obećavajuća, a proizvodna narudžba za 500 Tornada poslana je početkom studenog. Predloženo je da bi novi lovac trebali izgraditi i Hawker i A.V. Srna u Woodfordu.

        U međuvremenu, 30. prosinca 1939., prvi motor Napier Sabre isporučen je Hawker Aircraft -u, a prvi N prototip Typhoon (P5212) pojavio se iz eksperimentalne trgovine kako bi letio 24. veljače 1940. godine. Dobio je narudžbe od 250, a postat će odgovornost Gloster Aircraft, čije su montažne linije praznile dvoglave avione Gladiator, unatoč tome što je njegov dizajnerski ured već bio uronjen u razvoj Gloster Meteora, prvog britanskog turboreaktivnog zrakoplova.

        Oblik "X" Tornadovog Vulture motora nije dopuštao ugradnju iznad prednjeg ramena, kao što je to bila Typhoon's Sabre. Posljedično, ukupna duljina Tornada bila je 32 stope 6 inča u usporedbi s Typhoonom od 31 stope 10 inča.

        U svibnju 1940. teška ratna situacija dovela je do ukidanja svih prioriteta za razvoj Typhoona i Tornada kako bi se omogućilo ulaganje svih napora u proizvodnju prijeko potrebnih uragana, ali je razvoj dizajna dopušten da se nastavi . 4 Međutim, tijekom 1940. predložene su tri alternativne instalacije motora za Tornado - Fairey Monarch, Wright Twic Cyclone i Bristol Centaurus - te su dovršeni eksperimentalni crteži za instalaciju Centaurus. Međutim, do listopada 1940. entuzijazam je ponovno oživljen, a proizvodnja Tornada i Typhoona obnovila je isporuku obaju za iduću godinu.

    Treći prototip (HG641) s motorom Bristol Centaurus bio je probni poligon za brojne kombinacije motora Centaurus/propelera. Kanal za hladjenje ulja vodio je prema naprijed, a dvostruki ispuh izašao je na stražnju stranu kroz kanalski kanal ispod trbuha.

        U veljači 1941. Hawker će dobiti ugovor za treći prototip za uzimanje radijalnog motora Bristol Centaurus C.E.4S. HG641 sastavljen je od dva nepotpuna zrakoplova Tornado (R7937 i R7938), a prvi put je poletio 23. listopada 1941. Prva instalacija Centaurusa imala je prsten kolektora ispušnih plinova ispred motora iz kojeg je vodila jedna vanjska cijev za ispušne cijevi koja je vodila natrag ispod korijena lučkog krila. Ovaj raspored ubrzo se pokazao nezadovoljavajućim, a kanal hladnjaka za ulje je povećan i vođen prema naprijed, dok su dvostruke ispušne cijevi vodile natrag od prstena prednjeg kolektora kroz ovaj premaz kako bi ispušni plinovi mogli izaći ispod trbuha. S Centaurus-Tornadom postignuta je razina brzine od 421 km / h. Ovaj bi zrakoplov služio kao poligon za testiranje brojnih kombinacija motora Centaurus/elisa i bio je prethodnik Hawker Typhoona II, a potom i Tempest.

        Prazna težina Tornada bila je 8,377 lbs. i 10,668 lbs. napunjen. Njegova najveća brzina bila je 425 km / h na 23.000 stopa. A.V. Roe je pripremio proizvodnu liniju u Woodfordu, a prvi proizvodni Tornado (R7936) letio je 29. kolovoza 1941. No, to je bilo osuđeno da bude jedini proizvodni Tornado, jer su poteškoće s supom rezultirale odlukom o uklanjanju ove elektrane iz programa razvoja zrakoplovnih motora. Ovom odlukom također je otkazana proizvodnja Avro Manchester. Jedini proizvodni pogon Tornado (R7936) kasnije je odigrao korisnu ulogu kao testno mjesto za deHavilland i Rotol kontrapropere.

    Tehnički podaci:
    Hawker Tornado
    Dimenzije:
    Raspon krila: 41 ft 11 in (12,78 m)
    Duljina: 10,01 m (32 ft)
    Visina: 14 ft 8 inča (4,47 m)
    Težine:
    Prazan: 8.377 lb. (3.800 kg)
    Učitano: 9.320 lb (4.318 kg)
    Maksimum: 4.639 kg
    Izvođenje:
    Maksimalna brzina: 641 km/h za Vulture V na 7.102 m.
    Centarus 407 km/h (647 km/h) na 5 486 m (18 000 ft)
    Servisni strop: 34.900 ft. (10.640 m)
    Elektrana:
    Jedan motor Rolls-Royce Vulture II od 1.760 KS (1.312 kW) ili
    Lešinar V motor od 1.980 KS (1.476) ili
    Bristol Centaurus C.E.4S radijalni motor od 2.210 KS (1.648 kW).
    Naoružanje:
    Dvanaest Browning .303 in. Mitraljeza (P5219) ili
    Četiri topa Hispano od 20 mm (P5224, HG641).

    Napomene:
    1. Francis K. Mason. Hawker Aircraft Od 1920. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991. 311.
    2. William Green. Poznati borci Drugog svjetskog rata. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1967. 100.
    3. Isto. 100.
    4. Francis K. Mason. Zrakoplov u profilu, svezak 4. Surrey, England Profile Publications Ltd., 1968. 4.

    ©Larry Dwyer. Mrežni muzej povijesti zrakoplovstva. Sva prava pridržana.
    Kreirano 21. svibnja 2011. Ažurirano 20. listopada 2013.


    Hawker Tempest

    Hawker Tempest razvijen je iz zrakoplova Typhoon. Imao je duži trup i tanja krila laminarnog toka za poboljšani uspon i performanse na velikoj nadmorskoj visini. Predloženo je pet verzija Hawker Tempest -a za ispitivanje različitih instalacija motora. Tri su verzije na kraju došle u službu. Bili su to Mk II, Mk V i Mk VI.

    Prva Hawker Tempest koja je podigla nebo bila je verzija Mk V. Prvi put je poletio 2. rujna 1942. Pokretao ga je motor Napier Sabre II i imao je isti osebujni hladnjak ispod motora kao i njegov prethodnik. Bio je to jedini zrakoplov Tempest koji je vidio akciju tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata.

    Prvo krilo RAF Tempest osnovano je u travnju 1944. U početku je zrakoplov korišten u ulozi kopnenog napada, vadeći tenkove, topništvo i vojne željezničke vlakove. Zrakoplov je tada korišten za presretanje letećih bombi V-1. Istakao se u ulozi. Njegova mala visinska brzina bila je najbrža od svih zrakoplova RAF -a.

    Hawker Tempest je zaslužan za obaranje ukupno 638 letećih bombi V-1 od 13. lipnja do 5. rujna 1944. Godine 1944. zrakoplovi Hawker Tempest činili su trećinu svih oborenih bombi V-1. Srušili su gotovo 900 letećih bombi prije završetka rata.

    Zrakoplovi Hawker Tempest podržali su savezničke kopnene trupe u njihovom maršu prema Berlinu. Tijekom svojih prvih 30 dana rada srušili su 52 zrakoplova Luftwaffe.

    U operacijama kopnenog napada zrakoplovi Tempest raznijeli su i bombardirali vitalne njemačke vodove opskrbe, čime je gotovo 100 lokomotiva prestalo s radom.

    Kao dio 2. taktičkog zrakoplovstva, zrakoplovi RAF Hawker Tempest zaslužni su za obaranje oko 20 mlaznih zrakoplova Luftwaffe Me-262. Umjesto izravnog presretanja zrakoplova, zrakoplovi Tempest preletjeli su zračne luke na kojima su bili smješteni. Nasrnuli su na mlaznice kad su usporili slijetanje i nisu mogli brzo ubrzati.

    Nakon Drugog svjetskog rata zrakoplovi Hawker Tempest Mk V premješteni su na dužnost kao tegljači.

    Hawker Tempest Mk VI postao je primarni lovac RAF -a na Bliskom istoku sve dok ih 1949. nisu zamijenili mlazni avioni.

    Hladnjak Tempest Mk II premješten je s nosa aviona, ispod motora, na prednji rub krila. Spremnici goriva premješteni su s krila na trup. Imao je najmanje sličnosti od svih zrakoplova RAF Tempest sa svojim prethodnikom.

    Tempest Mk II koji je u službu RAF -a stupio u studenom 1945. pokretao je motor Centaurus snage 2.520 KS. Trebao se koristiti u operacijama protiv Japanaca na Pacifiku. Međutim, rat je završio prije nego što je mogao biti raspoređen kao dio planiranih Tigrovih snaga.

    Većina zrakoplova Hawker Tempest Mk II služila je izvan Velike Britanije. Tri eskadrile bile su smještene u Njemačkoj od 1946. do 1949. Tijekom Berlinskog zračnog prijevoza, zrakoplovi RAF Tempest broj 33 eskadrile bili su smješteni u RAF Gatowu u Berlinu kako bi demonstrirali moć britanskih lovaca u tom području. Kasnije je eskadrila broj 33 preselila svoje operacije na Daleki istok gdje su vidjeli ograničene akcije protiv malajskih terorista 1950. i 1951. godine.

    Proizvedeno je ukupno preko 1.700 zrakoplova svih vrsta Hawker Tempest.

    RC Hawker Tempest

    RC Hawker Tempest Mk. V by Dynam ima raspon krila 49 inča i dugačak je 40 inča. To je PNP i uključuje motor BM3720A 600Kv koji okreće trokraku elisu, uvlači se i navigacijska svjetla. Težina spremna za let je oko 53 oz.

    Nick Ziroli Planovi imaju u prodaji Vailly Aviation Scale planove RC Hawker Tempest. Može se graditi kao Mk. II, Mk. V ili Mk. VI. Raspon krila je 96 inča, a duljina 81 1/2 inča. Preporučena snaga može iznositi od 3,7 do 4,2 c.i.d. motorima. Ukupna težina može varirati od 30 do 40 kg.

    Jerry Bates Plans ima RC Hawker Tempest Mk. V. planovi. Izrađuju do raspona krila 87 inča i duljine 72 inča. Preporučeni motori su ST3250 ili G45. Leteća težina je oko 23 kg.

    RC Hawker Tempest Mk. V s rasponom krila od 123 inča i dužinom od 102 inča također je dostupan u Jerry Bates Planovima. Preporučena snaga može doći od dvotaktnih plinskih motora od 120 ccm ili većih. Težina bi trebala biti oko 55 kg.


    Hawker Tempest-kasna generacija britanskih lovaca na klip (1. dio)

    Tempest je bio treći i posljednji od lovaca koje je Sydney Camm projektirao za ulazak u operativnu službu u Drugom svjetskom ratu i, iako možda nije bio toliko poznat kao prethodni uragan i tajfun, ipak je bio izvrstan ratni avion koji se pokazao vrlo prilagodljivim u smislu proizvodnja u varijantama s motorima hlađenim zrakom i tekućinom. Tempest je također bio jedan od strojeva koji je karakterizirao sam vrhunac dizajna lovaca s motorom na klip, te je bio jedan od rijetkih ratnih aviona koji su projektirani i stavljeni u funkciju tijekom rata.

    Rad na konceptu koji će sazrijeti kao Tempest započeo je u ožujku 1940. u sklopu općih studija Hawkerovog dizajnerskog ureda radi poboljšanja osnovnog dizajna Typhoona, čiji je prototip započeo svoja probna leta u prethodnom mjesecu. Jedan aspekt jezgrenog koncepta koji je osigurao početnu pozornost bio je je li poželjno uvesti krilo smanjenog omjera debljine/akorda i smanjene površine. Kako su se procjenjivali početni rezultati programa letačkog testiranja Typhoona, dizajnerski tim odlučio je da je malo i tanje krilo apsolutno neophodno za uspjeh novog lovca kao visokoučinkovitog tipa. Krilo Typhoona imalo je u korijenu omjer debljine/akorda 18%, uglavnom kao posljedicu potrebe za značajnim kapacitetom goriva i snabdijevanja teškim naoružanjem sa značajnim opterećenjem streljivom, i odmah je bilo jasno da je to primarni razlog za indiferentne performanse Typhoona na srednjim i velikim nadmorskim visinama, kao i sklonost buffetingu i preokrenu elerona u ronjenju velikom brzinom.

    Dizajnerski tim sukladno tome odlučili su se za mnogo tanje krilo i s vremenom su to spojili s rezultatom analize koja je sugerirala prednosti radijatora rashladnog sredstva motora i ulja smještenih u korijenima krila (i koristeći zrak izvučen kroz prednji rub), a ne u vrsti velike brade koja je predstavljala jedno od najizrazitijih obilježja izgleda Typhoona.

    Teorijski radovi na aerodinamici željenog krila nastavili su se tijekom 1940. godine, ali je malo praktičnog dizajna bilo moguće zbog iznimno visokog prioriteta koji je u svibnju 1940. dodijeljen proizvodnji i daljnjem razvoju uragana u skladu s naredbama lorda Beaverbrooka, Ministre proizvodnje zrakoplova, taj bi se projektni i proizvodni napor trebao koncentrirati na samo pet britanskih ratnih zrakoplova (ostala četiri su Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, Bristol Blenheim, Supermarine Spitfire i Vickers Wellington) u ovom trenutku krize nakon invazije njemačkih snaga na Nizozemska, Belgija i Francuska 10. svibnja. Ova je odluka usporila razvoj brojnih važnih, ali nadolazećih, a ne odmah vrijednih ratnih zrakoplova, uključujući Typhoon, no opsežni rad na naprednijim projektima nastavljen je nakon što je kriza prošla britanskom pobjedom u bitci za Britaniju. Do kasnog ljeta 1941. stoga je dizajn vodećih radijatora za originalno krilo Typhoon dovršen s oznakom projektnog ureda P.1012 za ono što je svojedobno bilo projicirano kao Typhoon Mk II.

    Tada je uvaženo da je radijatorska instalacija ukopana u izvorni tip debelog krila otišla samo dio puta do prevladavanja unutarnjeg problema krila ovog tipa. Nakon rasprava između Camma i Uprave za tehnički razvoj pri Ministarstvu zrakoplovne proizvodnje, Hawker je u ožujku 1941. dobio ovlaštenje da krene u cjeloviti razvoj naprednijeg tankog krila za Typhoon Mk II. Za predloženi novi lovac izvučena je specifikacija F.10/41, koja je u projektnom uredu i dalje bila poznata kao P.1012, a radovi na detaljnom projektiranju novog krila započeli su u rujnu 1941. godine.

    The Hurricane and Typhoon had each employed a wing based on an American aerofoil created by the NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics), but for the new wing Hawker designed its own aerofoil with its point of maximum thickness moved considerably to the rear (37.5% chord). The root thickness of the new wing was 5 in (0.127 m) less than that of the Typhoon, and as a result of the need to carry the planned armament of four 20 mm Hispano cannon in the leading edges outboard of the disc swept by the propeller, the wing was given considerable chord, which resulted in a semi-elliptical planform with a thickness/chord ratio that decreased from 14.5% at the root to 10% at the tips. These last were originally quite pointed, resulting in a span of 43 ft 0 in (13.11 m), but it was later seen that little area would be lost but the rate of roll considerably enhanced by the adoption of cut-off tips that trimmed the span to 41 ft 0 in (12.50 m). Calculation also revealed that the buffet threshold for the new wing would be Mach 0.73 compared with the Typhoon’s figure of 0.64.

    The main disadvantage of the thin wing was, of course, its reduced volume, and this translated into the limitation of the wing’s fuel tankage to a single small tank in the inboard section behind each wheel well. The need to provide adequate range therefore required that volume had to be provided in the fuselage for an additional tank, and the volume demanded near the centre of gravity position could be provided only by a lengthening of the fuselage: thus a new bay was inserted between the engine and the cockpit, increasing the length forward of the centre of gravity by 1 ft 9 in (0.53 m), and this had in turn to be balanced by an enlargement of the tail unit’s horizontal and vertical areas, although the new type was originally flown with the Typhoon’s standard tail unit.

    A useful by-product of the removal of much of the fuel tankage from the wing to the fuselage was the provision of volume for the installation of the wing-root radiators, and it was with such a coolant installation that the type was schemed at the time that Hawker received the November 1941 order for two F.10/41 prototypes each with a powerplant of one Napier Sabre liquid-cooled H-type engine that was to be known in service as the Sabre IV.

    The new fighter was clearly a development of the Typhoon, but as a succession of alterations were worked into the design, covering the full range of internal details, structure and external mould line, it became sensible to introduce a new name, and in January 1942 the designation Tempest Mk I was adopted for the F.10/41 fighter with the Sabre IV engine and leading-edge radiator installation, although it should be noted that Hawker was by this time seriously considering other powerplants as a result, largely, of the cancellation of the production programme for the Tornado, which was in essence a counterpart of the Typhoon with the powerplant of one Rolls-Royce Vulture liquid-cooled X-type engine.

    At the time of the Tornado programme’s cancellation, Hawker had been contracted for additional Tornado prototypes with the alternative powerplant of one Bristol Centaurus air-cooled 18-cylinder two-row radial engine, with less advanced studies already under way for possible use of other engines, including the Wright R-3350 Duplex Cyclone air-cooled 18-cylinder two-row radial unit and the Fairey P.24 Monarch liquid-cooled H-24 engine comprising two vertically opposed 12-cylinder units. Only one Centaurus-engined prototype was built in addition to three Sabre-engined Tornado aircraft in the form of two prototype and one production machines.

    The sole production aeroplane made its maiden flight on 23 October 1941, just before the placement of the Tempest Mk I prototype contract, and it was now decided that five more airframes should be included in the F.10/41 development programme. Three of these five prototypes were to have the powerplant of one Centaurus IV radial engine, but one of them (originally known somewhat prosaically as the Typhoon Mk II with Centaurus) was deleted before the name Tempest was adopted, thus leaving two prototypes to undergo development as Tempest Mk II machines. The other two prototypes were intended to have the Rolls-Royce Griffon liquid-cooled V-12 piston engine in the form of either the Griffon IIB, in which guise they would be Tempest Mk III machines, or the Griffon 61 in a ‘power egg’ installation to become Tempest Mk IV machines. Neither of these prototypes was built as a Tempest, although one did later fly as part of the development effort for Hawker’s next-generation fighter, the Fury designed to meet Specification F.2/43.

    In structural terms the Tempest followed the Hawker concept, updated in a number of respects, that had been proved in the Hurricane and Typhoon. The Tempest was therefore a cantilever low-wing monoplane of light alloy stressed-skin construction, and its core was the oval-section fuselage, which included a semi-monocoque rear section: from front to rear, this fuselage carried the powerplant (supported by bearers extending forward from the firewall that was the forward end of the fuselage structure proper), the oil and main fuel tanks, the cockpit with the pilot accommodated under a fixed canopy based on that of the Typhoon and therefore accessed by a car-type side door, and the tail unit. This last comprised single horizontal and vertical surfaces skinned with light alloy except on the rudder, which was covered with fabric. The horizontal surface included a tailplane and elevator halves each incorporating an inset trim tab controlled from the cockpit, while the vertical surface included a fin and a balanced rudder that also incorporated a trim tab controlled from the cockpit.

    The low-set wing was a two-spar structure with ribs and light alloy skins stiffened by spanwise stringers, and the main and rear spars constituted the front and rear members of the main structural torsion box, aft of which there was no primary structure in the area of the gun bays, allowing the guns to be installed and rearmed from a point behind the rear spar. As noted above, the wing was of semi-elliptical planform and this tapered in thickness and chord to its tips which were only slightly rounded. The centre section was flat, largely to reduce the length and therefore the weight of the main landing gear units, and its halves extended from the lower fuselage to a heavy outboard rib that supported the main landing gear units as well as the dihedralled outer panels. Virtually the full span of the wing’s trailing edge was occupied by outboard ailerons (each incorporating an inset trim tab that could be altered only on the ground) and inboard four-section split flaps that were operated hydraulically. The airframe was completed by the landing gear, which was of the tailwheel type with a single wheel on each unit: all three units were retractable by a hydraulic system, and while the tailwheel unit retracted forward into the underside of the rear fuselage, the main wheel units retracted inward into wells in the underside of the centre section, where they were fully enclosed by the fairing attached to each leg and two other fairings hinged to the inboard ends of the wells.

    As noted above, the powerplant was based on one Sabre H-type engine, and this was installed in the front of the fuselage inside a light alloy cowling, drove a four-blade propeller of the constant-speed type fitted with a neat spinner, and discharged its spent gases via a row of ejector exhaust stubs on each side.

    As work on the two Tempest prototypes continued during 1942, the development of the 2,500 hp (1864 kW) Sabre IV engine and its associated buried radiator installation was beset by problems. In these circumstances it was thought sensible to complete the first prototype with the powerplant of the Typhoon, namely the Sabre II engine rated at 2,180 hp (1625.5 kW), driving a four-blade de Havilland propeller of the constant-speed type with a diameter of 14 ft 0 in (4.27 m) and cooled by an undernose radiator installation. This expedient was adopted so that the airframe could be used for trials as soon as possible, and this machine recorded the type’s maiden flight on 2 September 1942 with the designation Tempest Mk V and, for the first two months of its trials, the original type of Typhoon tail unit. The second prototype first flew on 24 February 1943 with the nicely streamlined Sabre IV installation including the wing leading-edge radiator arrangement, and was otherwise similar to the first prototype including the early type of cockpit enclosure and the Typhoon tail unit.

    Early trials confirmed that the Tempest had considerably better performance and handling than the Typhoon and, as rightly predicted, that the second prototype offered better performance than the first as a result of its greater power and the lower drag of its cleaner powerplant installation. The better performance included a maximum speed of 405 kt (466 mph 750 km/h) at 24,500 ft (7470 m). Taking off in normally laden condition at a weight of 11,300 lb (5126 kg), the Tempest Mk I had a range of 669 nm (770 miles 1239 km), climb to 15,000 ft (4570 m) in 4 minutes 15 seconds, and service ceiling of 39,000 ft (11885 m).

    This was all very impressive, but the fly in the ointment for the Tempest programme was the fact that the Sabre IV was still beset by major problems, and this jeopardised the batch of 400 Tempest Mk I fighters that had been ordered in August 1942, one month before the first prototype’s maiden flight. The Typhoon was proving inadequate in the medium- to high-altitude interceptor role for which it had been designed, and only just starting to be seen as the highly capable low-level fighter-bomber for the ground-attack task that was to become its forte, and as a result the Royal Air Force had an urgent need for a fighter offering a genuinely effective medium- to high-altitude interceptor capability. It was therefore decided to forget the Sabre IV and its leading-edge radiator installation from short-term production plans and instead to start production with the Tempest Mk V with the Sabre IIA powerplant and radiator installation of the Typhoon.

    This decision made it possible for Hawker to start manufacture of the Tempest at its Langley plant, and the first Tempest Mk V from this production line made its maiden flight on 21 June 1943. Since the inboard ends of the wing no longer accommodated radiators, it became feasible to install an additional fuel tank in the leading edges of the port and starboard halves of the centre section (such a tank was in fact generally installed only in the port half of the centre section), and the production standard further differed from that of the prototypes in having a revised cockpit enclosure (fixed windscreen and rearward-sliding canopy section of the clear-view type) and the larger tail unit introduced during flight testing of the prototypes.

    The first 100 aircraft were completed to the Tempest Mk V Series 1 standard with a fixed forward-firing armament of four 20 mm Hispano II cannon with 200 rounds per gun and their muzzles projecting some 8 in (0.203 m) ahead of the leading edge, but all later aircraft were finished to the Tempest Mk V Series 2 standard with 20 mm Hispano V cannon whose shorter barrels did not protrude forward of the leading edge. There were also a number of minor structural modifications in the wing, spring tabs were fitted in the ailerons to replace the ground-set tabs, and the standard powerplant was the Sabre II in three sub-variants that changed from the Sabre IIA rated at 2,180 hp (1625 kW) in the first aircraft, via the Sabre IIB rated at 2,200 hp (1640 kW) in later aircraft and finally to the Sabre IIC rated at 2,260 hp (1685 kW) in the last aircraft.

    The original contract for 400 aircraft (ordered as Tempest Mk I machines but then changed to Tempest Mk V fighters) had included 300 Typhoon airframes ordered from the Gloster company but manufactured by Hawker as Tempest aircraft. By the end of World War II Hawker had been contracted for an additional 749 Tempest fighters, but at this time 207 of these were cancelled and another 142 completed to Tempest Mk VI standard, resulting on a Tempest Mk V production total of 800.


    Hawker Tempest – a late-generation British piston-engined fighter (Part 2)

    In the second half of 1943 manufacture of the Tempest Mk V began to get into its stride and weapons trials resulted in the qualification of the type for the carriage on its two underwing hardpoints of loads that could comprise two 1,000 or 500 lb (454 or 227 kg) bombs, or two 45 Imp gal (54 US gal 204.6 litre) napalm tanks, or up to eight 3 in (76.2 mm) air-to-surface unguided rockets each carrying a 60 lb (27 kg) warhead a 90 Imp gal (108.1 US gal 409.1 litre) drop tank, better streamlined than the tank carried by the Typhoon, was also developed.

    The Tempest Mk V was cleared for service use in April 1944, and in that month 50 Tempest Mk V Series 1 fighters were delivered to RAF Newchurch in Kent as the equipment of Nos 3 and 486 Squadrons, which were the constituent elements of No. 150 Wing led by Wing Commander Roland Beamont, who had earlier been instrumental in the evolution of the Typhoon as a fighter-bomber and then in the service trials of the Tempest Mk V. The wing’s third element was No. 56 Squadron, which did not receive its first Tempest Mk V fighters until July 1944. The task allocated to the first two squadrons was participation in the Allied tactical air force attacks on German communications and airfields in the period leading up to the Normandy invasion of North-West Europe on 6 June 1944, but two days after this the Tempest Mk V had its blooding in the air-to-air role, when aircraft of Nos 3 and 486 Squadrons tangled with a group of Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighters, of which they claimed four destroyed and two damaged for no loss to themselves.

    Only eight days later the two squadrons were diverted to another task, namely the interception of the Fieseler Fi 103 (otherwise V-1) flying bombs with which the Germans now started to bombard south-eastern England. The Tempest’s combination of good performance and manoeuvrability at low altitude made it ideal for this task: on their first day of operations against the V-1, Tempest fighters destroyed eight V-1 flying bombs, and as they gained experience the squadrons steadily improved their success rate. Another four Tempest squadrons were committed to the effort as they re-equipped, although the pace of such re-equipment was slowed by strike action in the Hawker plant, and by the end of the Germans’ main V-1 offensive in September 1944 the six squadrons had accounted for 638 of the 1,771 V-1 flying bombs destroyed by the RAF.

    At this time one unit, No. 501 Squadron, was kept in the UK to continue operations against the limited numbers of V-1 flying bombs still being launched, but the other five were transferred to European airfields from August 1944. The first two units to be moved were Nos 80 and 274 Squadrons that, together with a Spitfire unit, constituted No. 122 Wing. No. 150 Wing’s three squadrons moved in September to operate from airfields in Belgium and the Netherlands. The Tempest units were part of the 2nd Tactical Air Force, which was bolstered before the end of the war by two more Tempest units, Nos 33 and 222 Squadrons. During the period between August 1944 and May 1945, the European-based Tempest squadrons were highly successful in both of their main tasks, namely ground-attack work in support of the advancing Allied land forces and, when opposition was available, air combat against Germany’s rapidly declining air capability. The Tempest even proved successful against the Messerschmitt Me 262 turbojet-powered fighter, the pilots of No. 122 Wing claiming eight destroyed and 15 damaged.

    The Tempest Mk V was, in the event, the only version of the fighter to see operational service in World War II. As this conflict reached its closing stages, the Tempest Mk V was operational with eight units in the form of No. 501 Squadron in the UK and Nos 3, 33, 56, 80, 222, 274 and 486 Squadron in Europe. No. 501 Squadron was disbanded in April 1945, and of the seven other squadrons then grouped in Germany as part of the British commitment to the occupation forces, the only two that survived to 1948 – when the Tempest Mk V was withdrawn from service – were Nos 3 and 80 Squadrons.

    As the Tempest Mk V was entering production and service, Hawker was pressing ahead with the development of improved models, most especially the Tempest Mk II with the powerplant of one Centaurus radial engine. In September 1942, the month that the Tempest Mk V prototype first flew, the Ministry of Aircraft Production placed an order with Gloster (like Hawker a member of the Hawker Siddeley Group) for 500 examples of the Tempest Mk II. It was nine months before the first of the two Tempest Mk II prototypes recorded its maiden flight on 28 June 1943 with the powerplant of one rigidly mounted Centaurus IV engine and the standard Typhoon-type tail unit, although the newer one-piece sliding canopy was fitted. The rigid engine mounting proved problematical, and a five-blade Rotol propeller replaced the original four-blade unit for a time, while the use of a less-rigid six-point engine mounting was considered. The second prototype made its maiden flight on 18 September 1943, and was flown mainly for powerplant development, in its career flying with the Centaurus IV, V, XII, XV and XVIII engines.

    Gloster was preoccupied at this time with development and production of its own Meteor, which was the first and only Allied fighter of the turbojet-powered type to enter service in World War II, so production of the Tempest Mk II was transferred, by a decision of August 1943, to Bristol and the number specified was increased to 600, later supplemented by a further 30. The first of these Tempest Mk II fighters off the production line made its maiden flight at the airfield beside Bristol’s Filton plant on 4 October 1944 with a tail unit similar to that of the Tempest Mk V, short-barrelled Hispano V cannon, and the powerplant of one Centaurus V radial engine rated at 2,590 hp (1931 kW) for take-off, 2,530 hp (1886.5 kW) at 1,000 ft (305 m) and 2,225 hp (1659 kW) at 11,000 ft (3355 m), and driving a four-blade Rotol propeller of the constant-speed type with a diameter of 12 ft 9 in (3.89 m).

    In the event Bristol completed only 50 airframes including 20 sets of components for assembly by Hawker. The parent company itself had meanwhile received contracts for a total of 900 Tempest Mk II fighters and completed 402 (in addition to the 20 assembled from Bristol components) to make a Tempest Mk II total of 452. The last 300 or so of these aircraft were delivered after the end of World War II to a fighter-bomber standard with underwing hardpoints for bombs or rockets.

    The Tempest Mk II was generally superior to its Tempest Mk V half-brother as a fighter, as indicated by the fact that the machines completed in World War II were outfitted only for the interceptor role, and the other details of the mark included a fixed armament of four 20 mm Hispano Mk V cannon with 162 and 156 rounds per gun for the weapons of the inboard and outboard pairs respectively, disposable armament of up to 2,000 lb (907 kg) in the form of two 1,000 or 500 lb (454 or 227 kg) bombs or eight 80 lb (27 kg) air-to-surface unguided rockets, span of 41 ft 0 in (12.49 m) with an area of 302.00 sq ft (28.06 m ² ), length of 34 ft 5 in (10.49 m), height of 14 ft 6 in (4.42 m), wheel track of 14 ft 10.5 in (4.54 m), empty weight of 9,300 lb (4218 kg), normal take-off weight of 11,800 lb (5352 kg), maximum take-off weight of 13,900 lb (6305 kg), maximum speed of 382 kt (440 mph 708 km/h) at 17,000 ft (5180 m) declining to 348 kt (401 mph 645 km/h) at sea level, initial climb rate of 4,520 ft (1378 m) per minute, climb to 20,000 ft (6095 m) in 5 minutes 36 seconds, service ceiling of 37,000 ft (11280 m), maximum range of 1,476 nm (1,700 miles 2736 km) with drop tanks and typical range of 673 nm (775 miles 1247 km) with standard fuel.

    The Tempest Mk II entered service toward the end of 1945, when No. 54 Squadron became the first unit equipped with the improved fighter. Nos 54 and 247 Squadrons operated the Tempest Mk II only in the UK, but the mark saw more extensive service overseas, in Germany and the Far East. In the course of 1946, Nos 16 and 33 Squadrons in Germany traded in their mix of Tempest Mk V and Mk VI fighters for Tempest Mk II machines, and were supplemented by No. 26 Squadron that had just transitioned to the mark. Operational use of the Tempest Mk II in Germany continued briefly after the establishment in that occupied country of the 2nd Tactical Air Force, and ended in 1949 when No. 33 Squadron flew out to Hong Kong as part of the Far East Air Force. Transferring to Malaya, the squadron flew its Tempest Mk II warplanes on anti-terrorist missions, primarily with air-to-ground rockets, until 1951, being the last RAF unit to fly the Tempest operationally.

    Meanwhile, four RAF squadrons had been allocated the Tempest Mk II for service in India: these units were Nos 5, 20, 30 and 152 Squadrons. With the exception of the last-mentioned, which was No. 136 Squadron renumbered, these had been operating in Burma in the final stages of the war against Japan and transitioned to the Tempest Mk II after returning to India, but all had been disbanded or transferred to the UK by the late summer of 1947.

    The third and final development of the Tempest was the Tempest Mk VI, but this too arrived too late to see operational service in World War II. The Tempest Mk VI was a sub-variant of the Tempest Mk V featuring an uprated powerplant in the form of the Sabre V engine rated at 2,340 hp (1752 kW). Such an engine was first installed in the Tempest Mk V prototype, in which it first flew on 9 May 1944, and the installation could be distinguished by the inlets in the leading edges of the wing: a small inlet on each side supplied air to the carburettor, while a larger inlet in the starboard wing served the oil cooler, which was relocated in the wing from the centre of the nose radiator because the whole area of the latter was required for cooling the higher-powered Sabre V. A similar arrangement of carburettor air and oil cooler inlets had already been adopted in the Tempest Mk II.

    Of the total of 1,149 Sabre-engined Tempest fighter contracted from Hawker, the last 300 were specified to the Mk VI standard, but only 142 of these were completed and the outstanding balance of 158 was cancelled at the end of World War II. Before the start of production deliveries, two Tempest Mk V fighters were adapted in 1945 to the Tempest Mk VI standard for service trials.

    The data for the Tempest Mk VI included the same overall dimensions as the Tempest Mk V, normal take-off weight of 11,700 lb (5312 kg), maximum take-off weight of 13,740 lb (6238 kg), maximum speed of 380.5 kt (438 mph 705 km/h) at 17,800 ft (5425 m), climb to 15,000 ft (4570 m) in 4 minutes 45 seconds, service ceiling of 38,000 ft (11580 m), maximum range of 1,355 nm (1,560 miles 2510.5 km) with drop tanks, and typical range of 651 nm (750 miles 1207 km) with standard fuel.

    In its production form the Sabre V installation in the Tempest Mk VI was little different from that of the Tempest V, but Napier planned a more radical installation in the form of an annular radiator not dissimilar to that adopted for the Focke-Wulf Fw 190D that had a Junkers Juno 213 liquid-cooled V-12 engine in place of the earlier models’ air-cooled BMW 801 air-cooled 14-cylinder radial engine. Two Tempest Mk V machines were flown with this type of radiator installation, the second later being tested with a ducted spinner, bringing the air inlet forward of rather than behind the propeller blades. The experiments provided a basis for the later design of intakes for Napier turboprop engines but were not found to offer any advantages for the Tempest itself they were also the only major modifications flown on Tempest aircraft during World War II.

    The Tempest Mk VI entered service with a number of the RAF’s squadrons based in Germany, as either a replacement or a supplement to the Tempest Mk V. No. 39 Squadron flew the Tempest Mk VI briefly in India during 1949 before moving to the Middle East, where it also soon re-equipped. The Tempest Mk VI was operational with four units of the Middle East Air Force, namely Nos 6, 8, 213 and 249 Squadrons, between 1946 and 1950 at bases in the Middle East, including the Canal Zone and Aden, and the machines were committed in some of the skirmishes that occurred in that volatile area.

    Tempest operations in the RAF came to an end in 1953, the last aircraft in service being about 30 Tempest Mk V and Tempest Mk VI machines adapted for target towing at the RAF Armament Training Station located on the island of Sylt off the north German coast. For this purpose, the aircraft carried under the port wing an ML pod from which a target could be streamed and, by means of a slipstream driven winch, recovered targets could alternatively be snatched on take-off using a static tow line.

    Shortly after the end of World War II, however, Hawker conducted an experiment on a late-production example of the Tempest Mk V fitted with a long-barrelled 40 mm Type ‘P’ cannon with 38 rounds under each half of the wing. First flown on 19 October 1945, this was a considerably more effective ground-attack and anti-tank warplane than the similarly armed Hurricane Mk IID, but the type received no production order.

    During 1946 the Tempest was selected as the equipment for fighter squadrons of the Royal Indian Air Force. Sufficient examples of the Tempest Mk II were supplied from RAF stocks to equip first Nos 3 and 10 Squadrons, and then Nos 1, 4, 7, 8 and 9 Squadrons. These machines were supplemented by 89 ordered from Hawker, which supplied machines refurbished after service with the RAF. It is not certain, therefore, exactly how many Tempest Mk II fighters were delivered to the Royal Indian Air Force which, like the rest of the viceroyalty’s armed forces, were partitioned in August 1947 as India became independent and was divided into India and Pakistan. Nos 1 and 9 Squadrons were allocated to the newly created Royal Pakistan Air Force, which designated them as Nos 1 and 9 Squadrons. Pakistan then contracted with Hawker for a further 24 Tempest Mk II fighters, delivered as refurbished ex-RAF aircraft, and these were used to create No. 14 Squadron.

    The Tempest Mk II fighters in Indian and Pakistani service saw action against each other in 1947, and while India retired its surviving aircraft in 1953, Pakistan kept its machines operational to 1954, a year in which the Tempest Mk II saw its final operational service against dissident tribesmen on the North-West Frontier.

    Type: fighter and fighter-bomber

    Accommodation: pilot in the enclosed cockpit

    Powerplant: one Napier Sabre IIA, IIB or IIC liquid-cooled H-24 piston engine rated at 2,180 hp (1625.5 kW) for take-off, 1,830 hp (1364.5 kW) at 11,500 ft (3505 m) and 2,260 hp (1685 kW) at optimum altitude

    Performance: maximum level speed ‘clean’ 378 kt (435 mph 700 km/h) at 17,000 ft (5180 m) declining to 340 kt (392 mph 631 km/h) at sea level cruising speed, maximum 339.5 kt (391 mph 629 km/h) at 18,800 ft (5730 m) and economical 182 kt (210 mph 338 km/h) at 5,000 ft (1525 m) initial climb rate 4,700 ft (1433 m) per minute climb to 20,000 ft (6095 m) in 6 minutes 6 seconds service ceiling 36,000 ft (10975 m) maximum range 1,129 nm (1,300 miles 2092 km) with drop tanks typical range 712 nm (820 miles 1320 km) with standard fuel

    Weights: empty 10,700 lb (4854 kg) normal take-off 11,510 lb (5221 kg) maximum take-off 13,640 lb (6187 kg)

    Dimensions: span 41 ft 0 in (12.50 m) length 33 ft 8 in (10.26 m) height 16 ft 1 in (4.90 m) wheel track 14 ft 10.5 in (4.53 m) wing area 302.00 sq ft (28.06 m ² )

    Armament: four 20 mm Hispano Mk V fixed forward-firing cannon with 200 rounds per gun in the leading edges of the wing, and up to 2,000 lb (907 kg) of disposable stores carried on two hardpoints (both under the wing with each unit rated at 1,000 lb/454 kg), and generally comprising two 1,000 or 500 lb (454 or 227 kg) free-fall bombs or eight 60 lb (27 kg) air-to-surface unguided rockets