Rimski car Commodus, Palazzo Massimo

Rimski car Commodus, Palazzo Massimo



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Rimski car Commodus, Palazzo Massimo - Povijest

Kapitolinski muzej najstarija je javna umjetnička zbirka na svijetu, započela je 1471. godine, i po meni je apsolutno najbolji muzej u Rimu. Ako vas zanimaju artefakti i skulpture od starog Rima do otprilike 1700 -ih, svidjet će vam se i to. Ispunjen je drevnom rimskom poviješću i rimskim kopijama starogrčkih skulptura. Ispričat ću vam svoje iskustvo kako bih vam procijenio koliko ćete vremena morati provesti u ovom muzeju. Proveo sam oko dva sata u muzeju kad sam prvi put otišao i potpuno uživao u vrhunskim detaljima (možda 50 predmeta), a da nisam imao nikakvo predznanje o Rimu osim onoga što mislim da većina ljudi ima. Nakon tog putovanja u Rim naučio sam dosta rimske povijesti pa sam tijekom drugog posjeta Rimu proveo oko 6 sati u muzeju. Nakon više proučavanja, moj treći posjet bio je cijeli dan. Što više razumijete i cijenite, više vremena možete provesti u muzeju. Ali ako ništa ne razumijete, ipak idite i uživajte u nekoliko sati prekrasnih skulptura.

Kapitolski muzej sastoji se od 3 zgrade koje okružuju Piazza del Campidoglio na brdu Capitol. Do tamo možete doći sa stanice metroa Colosseo hodajući niz Via dei Fori Imperiali do kraja Rimskog foruma, skrećući lijevo na ulicu prije nego što dođete do ogromnog bijelog spomenika Victor Emmanuel, te se popnete uz brdo do velikog piazza na desno. Ili, ako se približavate s druge strane spomenika Victor Emmanuel, prođite stubište koje vodi do crkve Santa Maria u Aracoeli i popnite se stepenicama (zapravo, više rampom) do piazze. Štand za ulaznice, iznajmljivanje audio vodiča i ulaz nalaze se u Palazzo dei Conservatori (1. fotografija ispod), zgradi najudaljenijoj od ogromnog bijelog spomenika Victor Emmanuel. U ovoj zgradi nalaze se i najpoznatija djela u muzeju. Zgrada preko puta trga (najbliže spomeniku Victor Emmanuel) je Palazzo Nuovo, u kojoj se nalaze skulpture, i vjerojatno će biti posljednji dio muzeja koji vidite. Zgrade su spojene podzemnim prolazom koji prolazi ispod treće zgrade na trgu, Palazzo Senatorio, i sadrži ogromnu zbirku natpisa. Nijedan muzej nije iznad zemlje u toj zgradi, ali u podzemnom prolazu je sporedni krak koji vodi pored drevnog hrama do Tabularija, zgrade javnih evidencija u starom Rimu, odakle ćete imati odličan pogled na rimski Forum. (Za kompletiste, Centralni muzej Montemartini, miljama udaljen, također je dio Kapitolinskog muzeja)

Nadam se da ću ovih dana ovdje stvoriti virtualni obilazak muzeja, detaljno opisujući svaki komad. Za sada sam ovo radio samo za nekoliko radova.

Još uvijek postoji jedanaest reljefa s trijumfalnog luka posvećenog Marku Aureliju. Osam ih je na Konstantinovom luku, a druga tri u Kapitolinskom muzeju.

Reljef 'žrtvovanja' (1. fotografija ispod) prikazuje Marka Aurelija u njegovoj ulozi pontifex maximus ili glavni svećenik, jedna od tradicionalnih uloga rimskog cara. August je u ovoj ulozi isklesan u Palazzo Massimo. Skulpture careva u ovoj ulozi obično nose togu s kapuljačom koja pokriva glavu i drže patera, jelo koje se koristilo tijekom žrtvovanja. S obzirom na to koliko su religija i tradicija bile važne za rimski narod, caru je bilo važno pokazati svoje uvjerenje prema tim idealima. Hram u pozadini ovog reljefa mogao bi biti Jupiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus koji se nalazi na vrhu Kapitolinskog brda.

Reljef "osvajanja i pomilovanja" (2. fotografija dolje) prikazuje Marka Aurelija obučenog u kirasu, na konju. Drveće u pozadini sugerira da pregledava bojište nakon pobjede. Barbari se predaju pod njegove noge i mole za milost. Poza Marka Aurelija na ovom reljefu podsjeća na carev konjički kip u Kapitolinskom muzeju.

Reljef 'Triumph' (3. fotografija dolje) prikazuje Marka Aurelija kako jaše na kolima s četiri konja i kako ga je okrunio Nike, prikaz Pobjede. Kola su ukrašena reljefima koji prikazuju figure Neptuna i Minerve uz lik Roma. U pozadini je prikazan hram, a s desne strane prikazan je slavoluk, vjerojatno luk kroz koji su careva kola upravo prošla dok je njegova trijumfalna povorka tek počela. Commodus je vjerojatno također bio izvorno u kolima, što sugerira velika veličina kola i lik Nike koji je vjerojatno bio centriran iznad dva lika i držao krune za oba. Nakon što je Commodus poludio, postao krajnje nepopularan i ubijen, sjećanje mu je prokleto (damnatio memoriae) od strane senata, zbog čega je uklonjen sa svih natpisa, kipova, frizova itd., kao da bi ga time mogli učiniti da nikada ne postoji.

Vrlo je teško suziti fundus u Kapitolinskom muzeju na nekoliko najboljih, ali oni ispod su moj ubod u to.


Rani život Edit

Faustina, koja je dobila ime po majci, bila je četvrto i najmlađe dijete njezinih roditelja, a druga kći, a bila je i njihovo jedino dijete koje je preživjelo punoljetnost. Rođena je i odrasla u Rimu.

Njezin veliki ujak, car Hadrijan, dogovorio je s njezinim ocem da se Faustina uda za Lucija Verusa. Dana 25. veljače 138, ona i Verus bili su zaručeni. Verusov otac bio je Hadrijanov prvi usvojenik i njegov namjeravani nasljednik, međutim, kada je Verusin otac umro, Hadrian je izabrao Faustininog oca za drugog posvojenog sina, i na kraju je postao Hadrijanov nasljednik. Faustinin je otac prekinuo zaruke između njegove kćeri i Verusa i dogovorio Faustinino zaručenje s njenim rođakom po majci, Marka Aurelija Aurelija također je usvojio njezin otac.

Carska nasljednica Edit

U travnju ili svibnju 145. [4] Faustina i Marko Aurelije vjenčali su se, kao što je bilo planirano od 138. Budući da je Aurelije, usvajanjem, bio sin Antonina Pija, prema rimskim zakonima koji se ženio za njegovu sestru Antonin morao je službeno otpustiti jedno ili drugo iz njegove očinske vlasti (njegova patria potestas) za održavanje svečanosti. [5] O ceremoniji se malo zna, ali se kaže da je bila "vrijedna pažnje". [6] Kovanice su izdavane s glavama para, a Antoninus, as Pontifex Maximus, bi služio. Marcus u svojim preživjelim pismima ne spominje brak, a štedi samo Faustinu. [7] Faustina je dobila titulu Augusta 1. prosinca 147. nakon rođenja svog prvog djeteta, Domitia Faustina. [8]

Carica Edit

Kad je Antonin umro 7. ožujka 161., Marko i Lucije Ver uskorili su na prijestolje i postali suvladari. Faustina je tada postala carica.

Od rimskih izvora o Faustininom životu nije ostalo mnogo, ali ono što je dostupno ne daje dobar izvještaj. Cassius Dio i nepouzdani Historia Augusta optužiti Faustinu za naređivanje smrti otrovom i pogubljenje, također je optužena za poticanje pobune Avidija Kasija protiv njezina muža. The Historia Augusta spominje preljub s mornarima, gladijatorima i uglednim ljudima, međutim čini se da su Faustina i Aurelius bili vrlo bliski i međusobno odani.

Faustina je pratila svog supruga u raznim vojnim pohodima i uživala u pretjeranoj ljubavi i poštovanju rimskih vojnika. Aurelije joj je dao titulu Mater Castrorum ili 'Majka logora'. Pokušala je svoj dom napraviti iz vojnog logora. Između 170. i 175. bila je na sjeveru, a 175. godine pratila je Aurelija na istoku.

Pobuna Avidija Kasija i smrt Edit

Iste godine, 175., Aurelijev general Avidije Kasije proglašen je rimskim carem nakon pogrešne vijesti o Markovoj smrti [9] izvori ukazuju da je Kasija ohrabrila Markova supruga Faustina, koja je bila zabrinuta zbog narušenog zdravlja svog muža, vjerujući da je on na na rubu smrti, te je osjetio potrebu da Cassius u ovom slučaju djeluje kao zaštitnik, budući da je njezin sin Commodus, star 13 godina, bio još mlad. [9] [10] Također je željela nekoga tko bi djelovao kao protuteža tvrdnjama Tiberija Klaudija Pompejana, koji je bio u snažnoj poziciji preuzeti dužnost Princepsa u slučaju Markove smrti. [11] Dokazi, uključujući i Marcusove Meditacije, podržava ideju da je Marko doista bio prilično bolestan, [11] ali do trenutka kada se Marko oporavio, Kasija su već u potpunosti priznale egipatske legije II Traiane Fortis i XXII Deiotariane. [ potreban je citat ]

"Nakon što je san o carstvu trajao tri mjeseca i šest dana", Kasija je ubio stotnik [12], a njegovu je glavu poslao Marku Aureliju, koji ga nije htio vidjeti i naredio ga pokopati. [10] Egipat je ponovno priznao Marka za cara do 28. srpnja 175. [12]

Činjenice o Faustininoj smrti nisu konačne. Umrla je u zimu 175. godine u vojnom kampu u Halali (gradu u planinama Taurus u Kapadokiji). Uzroci njezine smrti su nagađanja znanstvenika, a kreću se od smrti prirodnim uzrocima, samoubojstva, nesreće ili čak moguće atentata u znak odmazde zbog navodne afere s Kasijem ranije te godine, ovisno o izvoru. [ potreban je citat ]

Aurelije je mnogo tugovao za svojom ženom i pokopao je u Hadrijanovom mauzoleju u Rimu. Bila je obožena: njezin je kip postavljen u Venerin hram u Rimu i hram joj je posvećen u njenu čast. Ime Halala promijenjeno je u Faustinopolis a Aurelius je otvorio dobrotvorne škole za djevojčice siročad zvane Puellae Faustinianae ili 'Djevojke iz Faustine'. [13] Faustinine terme u Miletu nazvane su po njoj.


Intriga, ludilo i vladavina Commodusa

(Slika: Palazzo Massimo alle Terme/Javno vlasništvo)

Za tako razboritog i opreznog vladara kao što je Marcus, to se pokazalo katastrofalnim izborom. Momak je pokazao zabrinjavajuće sklonosti: svidjelo mu se njegovo pjevanje, ples i grube šale. Volio je nastupati (privatno, pretpostavlja se) kao gladijator. S 11 godina bio je toliko bijesan zbog nedovoljne topline kupke da je naredio kupaču da ga živog ubace u peć. Umjesto toga, na vatru je bačena ovčja koža, a zatim je, zavaran mirisom zapaljene kože, Commodus vjerovao da je njegova podla naredba izvršena.

Zašto je Marcus bio toliko slijep za ove značajke karaktera svog sina, ostaje nejasno. Možda je to bilo oklijevanje smatrati svog sina divljakom. U ožujku 180. godine nitko nije bio u mogućnosti osporiti Commodusov pristup, posebno nakon što su vojske na licu mjesta izrazile svoju podršku. Novi car odmah je poništio svaki plan o pripajanju prekodunavskog teritorija carstvu (ako je to doista bio Markov plan). Utvrde i ceste iza rijeke su napuštene, sklopljen je mir s Iazygesima, a pogranični sustav je ojačan.

Udobnosti Rima

Izvori sugeriraju da se Commodus želio vratiti rimskim užicima, što je možda i bilo točno, ali također je moguće da je prepoznao očev plan da pripoji sjeverni teritorij jer je Rim bio pogrešno vođen. Promjenjive struje seoba plemena u gustim šumama Njemačke učinile su aneksiju novog teritorija dodatnim teretom za carstvo. Osim povremenih nemira u mjestima poput Britanije i Afrike, godine Commodusove vladavine bile su relativno mirne u provincijama. Car je sa svoje strane imao svoje prioritete.

Ovo je prijepis iz video serijala Carevi iz Rima. Gledajte sada, na Velikim tečajevima.

Komod je bio besposlen i isprazan. Obje karakteristike vjerojatno su bile reakcije na njegovog vrijednog, skromnog oca. Kasnije u svojoj vladavini, Commodus je čak promijenio službeno ime kako bi izbrisao svaki spomen Marka ili Antonina. To sugerira snažnu želju da se oslobodi očeve sjene. Dio nam je, predstavljajući Commodus, rekao da nije sam po sebi zao, ali da je bio neinteligentan, nije imao lukavstva i lako se njime manipuliralo. Neinteligentni i lako manipulirani vladar opasan je, imao je tek 19 godina kada je pristupio. Unatoč tome što je većinu svojih posljednjih godina bio na Marcusovoj strani, Commodus je imao malo iskustva u administraciji ili zapovijedanju, pa čak ni u promatranju imperijalne moći na djelu.

Zavjera, moć i atentat

Ove okolnosti ostavile su polje širom otvorenim za nesavjesne podređene, a glavni među njima bio je čovjek po imenu Aelius Saoterus, grčki savjetnik. Saoterus je na kraju bio uništen, a zamijenili su ga pretorijanski prefekti, Sextus Tigidius Perennis i Marcus Aurelius Cleander, oboje vjerojatno oko 182. godine.

Cleander je nešto poput neo-Sejanusa. Bio je niskog roda (bio je bivši rob), ambiciozan i lukav-i za vrijeme svog uzdizanja, koje se protezalo od otprilike 182. do 189. godine, bio je praktički car, dok se Komod odavao privatnim poslovima. Perennis i Cleander također su pali od milosti i poginuli u okolnostima koje su ostale nejasne, nakon čega je Commodus presudio na vlastitu inicijativu. Da je ovo razdoblje njegove vladavine, od 189. do 192., bilo katastrofa, pokazuje da je Komod bio duboko neprikladan za vlast.

Drugi ljudi su do tog zaključka došli mnogo ranije za vrijeme njegove vladavine. 181. ili 182. godine otkrivena je zavjera u kojoj su sudjelovali Commodusova sestra Lucilla i njezin suprug Tiberije Klaudije Pompejan. Ako vjerujemo našim izvorima, Zavjetu je Komodus otkrio zapanjujuća glupost njegovog glavnog agenta, čovjeka po imenu Pompeianus Quintianus.

Zavjerenici su izabrali Quintianusa za ubojicu zbog njegovog hrabrog temperamenta, ali njegovo obiteljsko ime sugerira neku nejasnu vezu s Lucillinim mužem. Quintianus se pokazao kao kreten. Skrivajući bodež ispod haljine, čekao je Commodusa na mračnom ulazu u amfiteatar. No, umjesto iznenadnog napada, Quintianus je mahao oružjem i vikao da ga je cijeli Senat poslao da ubije Commodusa, kada je uhićen i ubijen. Lucilla je protjerana na Capri i kasnije pogubljena. Njezin suprug Pompeianus, što je čudno, preživio je neozlijeđen.

Taj je Quintianus tvrdio da je agent cijelog Senata koji je pokvario odnose između cara i tog tijela. Sada su započeli poznati i strašni krugovi inkvizicije i osude koji su senatora sukobili sa senatorom. Mnogi su stradali u Commodusovim rukama, a njihova je imovina oduzeta.

Prevladavajuća sumnja i strah otkriveni su u čudnoj priči o Sextusu Condianusu, sinu senatora ubijenog po Commodusovoj naredbi. Shvativši svoju vjerojatnu sudbinu, Condianus je lažirao svoju smrt, a zatim je prerušen lutao zemljom. Commodus je bio toliko željan uhvatiti ga da su mnogi ljudi uhićeni i ubijeni samo zato što su izgledali kao Condianus. Glave su im bile izložene u Rimu.

Kondijanova konačna sudbina nije zabilježena nigdje, ali činjenica da je car ciljao ljude jer su izgledali kao netko drugi govori o Commodusovoj vladavini. Zapisane su još najmanje dvije neuspješne spletke protiv Commodusa, čiji su detalji nejasni i sporni, no jedan je očito uključivao župana Perennisa i doveo ga do smrti 185.

Zabavljajući cara

Sa svoje strane, Commodus se predao svojim privatnim strastima, uglavnom gladijatorskim borbama i utrkama kočija. Ovo posljednje vježbao je privatno, jer ga je sram spriječio u javnim utrkama. No, kako Dio bilježi iz osobnih zapažanja, car je izveo gladijatorske borbe i lov na zvijeri u areni prije nego što je obožavao mnoštvo.

Čini se da je bio prilično dobar. Privatno se borio oštrim oružjem, ubijao i osakaćivao svoje protivnike, ali u javnosti se borio samo tupim oružjem - mogućnost da će rimski car umrijeti na pijesku pred očima svog naroda bila je previše grozna čak ni za Komoda kontemplirati. Dio napominje da je Commodus bio ljevoruki gladijator, na što je bio vrlo ponosan. Čini se da je pobijedio u svakoj borbi.

Ne samo da su senatori i vitezovi bili prisiljeni prisustvovati kad god je Commodus išao na pijesak, već su morali i pjevati: „Vi ste gospodar i vi ste prvi, od svih ljudi koji imaju najviše sreće. Pobjeđuješ i pobjeđuješ vječno ćeš, amazonski, pobjeđivati. ”

Jednom, nakon što je ubio noja, Commodus se šepao oko mahanja nojevom glavom i svojim krvavim mačem, prijeteći se cereći senatorima. Dio kaže da su on i njegove kolege smatrali da ovaj prizor nije prijeteći, već blesav, te su se nasmijali - ali kako bi izbjegli rizik od smrti, prikrili su svoju radost žvačući lovorike vijenaca koje su nosili.

U jednom bizarnom prizoru, Commodus je prikupio gradske ljude koji su izgubili stopala, te im je oblikovao zmijske repove za potkoljenice tako da su nalikovali mitološkim divovima.

Zatim im je dao spužve umjesto kamenja da ga bace prije nego što ih je sve nasmrt izbio batinom.

Ja sam Herkul

Ove su emisije pomogle u stvaranju i jačanju božanskih veza s Commodusom u javnosti. Istaknuti Rimljani od republike su se svi povezivali s bogovima, a carevi nisu bili iznimka. U 2. stoljeću Jupiter, glavni bog rimske države, bio je omiljen, kao i Herkul.

Herkul je bio grčki polubog, Zeusov sin (ili Jupiter, za Rimljane), koji je, boreći se za dobro protiv zla, običnog čovjeka oslobodio opasnosti i na kraju je smrću nadgrađen u potpuni božanski status. Heraklovu privlačnost carskim umovima stoga nije daleko tražiti. Ubijajući velike i prijeteće životinje u areni, a kamoli izmišljene divove izravno iz mita, Commodus je otjerao udrugu s Herkulom.

Razlika od ostalih istaknutih Rimljana je u tome što je, barem pred kraj, Komod mislio da je on zapravo Herkul. Identifikacija nadilazi jednostavnu evokaciju, do te mjere da je "Hercules Commodianus" proglašen na kovanicama. Imajte na umu da je u tom obliku Herkul primarno ime, a Commodianus pridjev koji mu je pridružen.

Komod je na svojim portretima prikazan izravno kao Herkul, kompletan s lavljom kožom i batinom, a uspostavljen je i kult štovanja cara kao Herkula. Promijenio je Neronov kolos da liči na Herkula, s dodatkom natpisa: "Ja sam Jupiterov sin, pobjednički Herkules, a ne Lucije, iako je prisiljen nositi to ime."

Preimenovanje Carstva

Sve to, naravno, otkriva ogromnu i visoku megalomaniju. Na samom kraju svog života čak je Rim preimenovao u “Colonia Lucia Aelia Nova Commodiana”, što znači nešto poput “Nova kolonija Commodusa”. Također je imao sve mjesece u godini nazvan po sebi, a volio je da ga oslovljavaju ili kao Amazonius ili Exsuperatorius, dva naslova koja je teško prevesti na engleski, ali nose konotacije borilačkih vještina i transcendentne superlativnosti.

Senat je preimenovan u "sretni komodijski senat", rimski narod je preimenovan u "komodijski narod", a sve legije trebale su dobiti naziv "komodijski". Komod je proglašen "zlatnim", a njegova vladavina "zlatnim dobom". Sve je to učinilo Commodus duboko nepopularnim u senatorskim krugovima, ali je zabavljao mase do kraja. Njegova herkulovska osoba obećala im je zaštitu, dok su njegova ekstravagantna velikodušnost (gotovina se objavljuje za devet izdanja kovanica) i njegove fine naočale, koje je postavljao, a ponekad i sam sudjelovao, sve to pridonijelo njegovoj popularnosti.

Smrt luđaka

Na kraju su ipak njegovu smrt izvršili njegovi najbliži. Novi savjetnici, poput novog pretorijanskog župana Aemilija Laeta ili njegovog komornika Eklekta, strahovali su za svoje živote. Vidjeli su što se dogodilo s Commodusovim prethodnim savjetnicima, poput Cleandera. Čini se da je umiješana i njegova dugogodišnja ljubavnica, Marcia.

Kad se pojavio zastrašujući plan da bi Commodus, 1. siječnja 193., trebao ubiti oba nova konzula, a zatim izaći iz gladijatorske vojarne odjeven u opremu svog borca ​​da preuzme mjesto konzula, ova je skupina odlučila djelovati. U drugoj verziji, grupa je otkrila popis smrti s njihovim imenima.

Damnatio memoriae of ‘Commodus ’ na natpisu u Muzeju rimske povijesti Osterburken. Kratica “CO ” kasnije je obnovljena bojom. (Slika: DerHexer/Javna domena)

Bez obzira na to kako je došlo do zavjere, Commodus je bio hranjen otrovanom govedinom, ali ju je povratio i tako se spasio. Tada je poslan sportaš po imenu Narcis da zadavi cara u njegovoj kadi. To je učinjeno 31. prosinca 192. Komod je imao 31 godinu i vladao je gotovo 13 godina. S Komodom je umrla dinastija Antonina, jer su za nasljedstvo bile predviđene minimalne odredbe. Od Nerve, Antonini su predsjedavali stabilnošću i prosperitetom bez presedana. Ali dobre godine su prošle, a sjena građanskog rata ponovno se nadvila nad područje.

Uobičajena pitanja o Commodusu

Među najokrutnijim rimskim carevima bili su paranoični Tiberije, koji je pogubio svakoga tko je izazvao njegove sumnje, Neron, koji je progonio kršćane i nije samo ubijao članove svoje obitelji, već i korumpirani Komod, koji je dao dati pogubiti građane zbog pogrešnih obrazloženja kako bi mogao ukrasti im bogatstvo.

Iako u stvarnom životu Commodus nije ubio svog oca Marka Aurelija, kao što to čini u filmu Gladijator, film je sličan stvarnoj priči jer oboje prikazuju pokušaj atentata na Commodusovu sestru, nakon čega slijedi Commodusovo silazak u ludilo i način na koji je njegov ego doveo do bezobzirnosti i besmislenog nasilja.

Commodus je ubijen davljenjem, čime je okončana njegova kaotična i brutalna vladavina.


Sadržaj

Gaj Julije Cezar (imenovan u čast svog poznatog rođaka) rođen je u Antiumu (današnji Anzio i Nettuno [2]) 31. kolovoza 12. godine, treće od šestoro preživjele djece rođene od Germanika i njegovog drugog rođaka Agripine Starije, [3 ] koja je bila kći Marka Vipsanija Agripe i Julije Starije što ju je učinilo Augustovom unukom. [3] Gaj je imao dva starija brata, Nerona i Druza, [3] kao i tri mlađe sestre, Agripinu mlađu, Juliju Drusillu i Juliju Livillu. [3] [4] Također je bio nećak Klaudija, Germanikinog mlađeg brata i budućeg cara. [5]

Kao dječak od samo dvije ili tri godine, Gaj je pratio svog oca, Germanika, u kampanjama na sjeveru Germanije. [6] Vojnicima je bilo zabavno što je Gaj bio odjeven u minijaturnu vojničku odjeću, uključujući čizme i oklope. [6] Ubrzo je dobio ljubazan nadimak, Kaligula, što znači "mala (vojnička) čizma" na latinskom, nakon malih čizama (caligae) koje je nosio. [7] Gaj je, međutim, navodno postao nesklon ovom nadimku. [8]

Svetonije tvrdi da je Germanika u Siriji otrovao agent Tiberije, koji je Germanika smatrao političkim suparnikom. [9] Nakon očeve smrti, Kaligula je živio s majkom sve dok se njezini odnosi s Tiberijem nisu pogoršali. [10] Tiberije nije dopustio da se Agrippina ponovno oženi iz straha da će joj suprug biti rival. [11] Agrippina i Kaligulin brat, Neron, protjerani su 29. godine pod optužbom za izdaju. [12] [13]

Tada je adolescent Kaligula poslan živjeti s prabakom (i Tiberijevom majkom) Livijom. [10] Nakon njezine smrti, poslan je živjeti s bakom Antonijom Minor. [10] Godine 30, njegov brat Drusus bio je zatvoren pod optužbom za izdaju, a njegov brat Nero umro je u izgnanstvu zbog gladi ili samoubojstva. [13] [14] Suetonius piše da su nakon protjerivanja svoje majke i braće Kaligula i njegove sestre bile ništa više nego zarobljenici Tiberija pod pomnom stražom vojnika. [15]

Kaligula je 31. godine vraćen na osobnu skrb Tiberiju na Kapriju, gdje je živio šest godina. [10] Na iznenađenje mnogih, Kaligulu je poštedio Tiberije. [16] Prema povjesničarima, Kaligula je bio izvrstan prirodni glumac i, prepoznavši opasnost, sakrio je sve svoje ogorčenje prema Tiberiju. [10] [17] Promatrač je rekao za Caligulu: "Nikada nije bilo boljeg sluge ili lošijeg gospodara!" [10] [17]

Kaligula je tvrdio da je planirao ubiti Tiberija bodežom kako bi osvetio svoju majku i brata: međutim, nakon što je unio oružje u Tiberijevu spavaću sobu, nije ubio cara, već je bacio bodež na pod. Navodno je Tiberije znao za to, ali se nikada nije usudio učiniti ništa po tom pitanju. [18] Suetonius tvrdi da je Kaligula već bio okrutan i poročan: piše da je, kad je Tiberije doveo Kaligulu na Kapri, njegova svrha bila dopustiti Kaliguli da živi kako bi "dokazao propast sebe i svih ljudi i da je uzgajao poskok za rimski narod i Faethon za svijet. " [19]

Godine 33. Tiberije je Kaliguli dao počasnu kvestoriju, na kojoj je dužnosti bio sve do svog uspona na cara. [20] U međuvremenu su i Caligulina majka i njegov brat Drusus umrli u zatvoru. [21] [22] Caligula je nakratko bila u braku s Junijom Claudilla 33. godine, iako je sljedeće godine umrla pri porodu. [18] Kaligula je proveo vrijeme družeći se s pretorijanskim prefektom, Naevius Sutorius Macro, važnim saveznikom. [18] Makro je Tiberiju dobro govorio o Kaliguli, pokušavajući ugušiti svaku lošu volju ili sumnju koju je Car osjećao prema Kaliguli. [23]

Godine 35. Kaligula je proglašen zajedničkim nasljednikom Tiberijevog posjeda zajedno s Tiberijem Gemelom. [24]

Rana vladavina Edit

Kad je Tiberije umro 16. ožujka 37. godine poslije Krista, njegovo imanje i naslovi principata bili su prepušteni Kaliguli i Tiberijevu unuku Gemelu, koji su trebali služiti kao zajednički nasljednici. Iako je Tiberije imao 77 godina i bio je na samrti, neki stari povjesničari i dalje pretpostavljaju da je ubijen. [18] [25] Tacit piše da je Makro jastukom ugušio Tiberija kako bi ubrzao pristupanje Kaligule, na veliku radost rimskog naroda, [25] dok Suetonije piše da je Kaligula možda izvršio ubojstvo, iako to nije zabilježeno bilo koji drugi antički povjesničar. [18] Seneka stariji i Filon, koji su pisali za vrijeme Tiberijeve vladavine, kao i Josip Flavije, bilježe Tiberija kao umiruću prirodnom smrću. [26] Uz potporu Makroa, Kaligula je poništio Tiberijevu oporuku u vezi s Gemelom na temelju ludila, ali je u suprotnom ispunio Tiberijeve želje. [27]

Senat je 18. ožujka proglasio Caligulu za cara. [28] Prihvatio je ovlasti principata i ušao u Rim 28. ožujka usred gomile koja ga je, među ostalim nadimcima, hvalila kao "našu bebu" i "našu zvijezdu". [28] [29] Kaligula je opisan kao prvi car kojemu su se divili svi u "cijelom svijetu, od izlaska do zalaska sunca". [30] Mnogi su Kaligulu voljeli zbog toga što je bio voljeni sin popularnog Germanika, [29] i zato što nije bio Tiberije. [31] Suetonius je rekao da je tijekom tri mjeseca javnog veselja žrtvovano više od 160.000 životinja kako bi se uvela nova vladavina. [32] [33] Filon opisuje prvih sedam mjeseci Kaliguline vladavine kao potpuno blaženo. [34]

Za Kaligulina prva djela govorilo se da su velikodušni, iako su mnogi bili političke prirode. [27] Da bi dobio potporu, dodijelio je bonuse vojsci, uključujući Pretorijansku gardu, gradske trupe i vojsku izvan Italije. [27] Uništio je Tiberijeve dokumente o izdaji, izjavio da su suđenja za izdaju prošlost i prisjetio se onih koji su poslati u progonstvo. [35] Pomagao je onima koji su bili oštećeni carskim poreznim sustavom, protjerao je određene seksualne devijante i postavio raskošne naočale za javnost, uključujući gladijatorske igre. [36] [37] Kaligula je prikupio i vratio kosti svoje majke i svoje braće i položio njihove ostatke u Augustovu grobnicu. [38]

U listopadu 37. Caligula se ozbiljno razbolio ili se možda otrovao. Ubrzo se oporavio od svoje bolesti, ali mnogi su vjerovali da je bolest okrenula mladog cara prema đavolskom: počeo je ubijati ili protjerivati ​​one koji su mu bili bliski ili koje je smatrao ozbiljnom prijetnjom. Možda ga je bolest podsjetila na njegovu smrtnost i na želju drugih da napreduju na njegovo mjesto. [39] Dao je izvršiti svog rođaka i usvojenog sina Tiberija Gemela - čin koji je razbjesnio Kaligulinu i Gemelovu zajedničku baku Antoniju Malu. Kaže se da je počinila samoubojstvo, iako Svetonije nagovještava da ju je Kaligula zapravo otrovao. On je dao pogubiti i svog tasta Marka Junija Silana i šogora Marka Lepida. Njegov ujak Klaudije bio je pošteđen samo zato što ga je Kaligula radije držao za smijeh. Njegova omiljena sestra, Julia Drusilla, umrla je u 38. godini od groznice: njegove druge dvije sestre, Livilla i Agrippina mlađa, bile su prognane. Mrzio je biti Agripin unuk i oklevetao je Augusta ponavljajući laž da je njegova majka zapravo začeta kao rezultat incestuozne veze između Augusta i njegove kćeri Julije Starije. [40]

Javna reforma Uredi

Godine 38. Caligula je svoju pozornost usmjerio na političke i javne reforme. Objavio je račune javnih sredstava koji nisu objavljeni za vrijeme vladavine Tiberija. Pomagao je onima koji su izgubili imovinu u požarima, ukinuo određene poreze i dijelio nagrade za javnost na gimnastičkim priredbama. Dopustio je nove članove u konjičke i senatorske redove. [41]

Možda najvažnije, vratio je izbornu praksu. [42] Cassius Dio je rekao da je ovaj čin "iako je oduševio mnoštvo, rastužio razumne, koji su zastali razmisliti, ako bi uredi ponovno pali u ruke mnogih, rezultirat će mnogim katastrofama". [43]

Tijekom iste godine, međutim, Caligula je bio kritiziran zbog pogubljenja ljudi bez potpunih suđenja te zbog prisiljavanja pretorijanskog župana Makra na samoubojstvo. Makro je pao u nemilost cara, vjerojatno zbog pokušaja da se udruži s Gemelom kada se pokazalo da bi Kaligula mogao umrijeti od groznice. [44]

Financijska kriza i glad Edit

Prema Cassiusu Diou, financijska kriza pojavila se 39. godine. [44] Suetonius početak ove krize stavlja u 38. [45] Kaligulina politička plaćanja za potporu, velikodušnost i rasipništvo iscrpila su državnu blagajnu. Drevni povjesničari navode da je Kaligula počeo lažno optuživati, kažnjavati, pa čak i ubijati pojedince u svrhu oduzimanja imanja. [46]

Povjesničari opisuju brojne druge Kaliguline očajničke mjere. Da bi dobio sredstva, Caligula je zatražio od javnosti da državi posudi novac. [47] On je naplaćivao poreze na tužbe, vjenčanja i prostituciju. [48] ​​Caligula je počeo prodavati živote gladijatora na izložbama. [46] [49] Oporuke koje su predmete prepustile Tiberiju reinterpretirane su kako bi predmete prepustile Kaliguli. [50] Centurioni koji su stekli vlasništvo pljačkom bili su prisiljeni predati plijen državi. [50]

Sadašnji i bivši povjerenici autocesta optuženi su za nesposobnost i pronevjeru i prisiljeni vratiti novac. [50] Prema Suetoniju, u prvoj godini Kaliguline vladavine on je rasipao 2,7 milijardi sestercija koje je Tiberije prikupio. [45] Njegov nećak Neron zavidio je i divio se činjenici da je Gaj prošao kroz ogromno bogatstvo koje mu je Tiberije ostavio u tako kratkom vremenu. [51]

However, some historians have shown scepticism towards the large number of sesterces quoted by Suetonius and Dio. According to Wilkinson, Caligula's use of precious metals to mint coins throughout his principate indicates that the treasury most likely never fell into bankruptcy. [52] He does point out, however, that it is difficult to ascertain whether the purported 'squandered wealth' was from the treasury alone due to the blurring of "the division between the private wealth of the emperor and his income as head of state." [52] Furthermore, Alston points out that Caligula's successor, Claudius, was able to donate 15,000 sesterces to each member of the praetorian guard in 41, [25] suggesting the Roman treasury was solvent. [53]

A brief famine of unknown extent occurred, perhaps caused by this financial crisis, but Suetonius claims it resulted from Caligula's seizure of public carriages [46] according to Seneca, grain imports were disrupted because Caligula re-purposed grain boats for a pontoon bridge. [54]

Construction Edit

Despite financial difficulties, Caligula embarked on a number of construction projects during his reign. Some were for the public good, though others were for himself.

Josephus describes Caligula's improvements to the harbours at Rhegium and Sicily, allowing increased grain imports from Egypt, as his greatest contributions. [55] These improvements may have been in response to the famine. [ potreban je citat ]

Caligula completed the temple of Augustus and the theatre of Pompey and began an amphitheatre beside the Saepta. [56] He expanded the imperial palace. [57] He began the aqueducts Aqua Claudia and Anio Novus, which Pliny the Elder considered engineering marvels. [58] He built a large racetrack known as the circus of Gaius and Nero and had an Egyptian obelisk (now known as the "Vatican Obelisk") transported by sea and erected in the middle of Rome. [59]

At Syracuse, he repaired the city walls and the temples of the gods. [56] He had new roads built and pushed to keep roads in good condition. [60] He had planned to rebuild the palace of Polycrates at Samos, to finish the temple of Didymaean Apollo at Ephesus and to found a city high up in the Alps. [56] He planned to dig a canal through the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece and sent a chief centurion to survey the work. [56]

In 39, Caligula performed a spectacular stunt by ordering a temporary floating bridge to be built using ships as pontoons, stretching for over two miles from the resort of Baiae to the neighbouring port of Puteoli. [61] [62] It was said that the bridge was to rival the Persian king Xerxes' pontoon bridge crossing of the Hellespont. [62] Caligula, who could not swim, [63] then proceeded to ride his favourite horse Incitatus across, wearing the breastplate of Alexander the Great. [62] This act was in defiance of a prediction by Tiberius's soothsayer Thrasyllus of Mendes that Caligula had "no more chance of becoming emperor than of riding a horse across the Bay of Baiae". [62]

Caligula had two large ships constructed for himself (which were recovered from the bottom of Lake Nemi around 1930). The ships were among the largest vessels in the ancient world. The smaller ship was designed as a temple dedicated to Diana. The larger ship was essentially an elaborate floating palace with marble floors and plumbing. [64] The ships burned in 1944 after an attack in the Second World War almost nothing remains of their hulls, though many archaeological treasures remain intact in the museum at Lake Nemi and in the Museo Nazionale Romano (Palazzo Massimo) at Rome. [65]

Feud with the senate Edit

In 39, relations between Caligula and the Roman Senate deteriorated. [66] The subject of their disagreement is unknown. A number of factors, though, aggravated this feud. The Senate had become accustomed to ruling without an emperor between the departure of Tiberius for Capri in 26 and Caligula's accession. [67] Additionally, Tiberius' treason trials had eliminated a number of pro-Julian senators such as Asinius Gallus. [67]

Caligula reviewed Tiberius' records of treason trials and decided, based on their actions during these trials, that numerous senators were not trustworthy. [66] He ordered a new set of investigations and trials. [66] He replaced the consul and had several senators put to death. [68] Suetonius reports that other senators were degraded by being forced to wait on him and run beside his chariot. [68]

Soon after his break with the Senate, Caligula faced a number of additional conspiracies against him. [69] A conspiracy involving his brother-in-law was foiled in late 39. [69] Soon afterwards, the Governor of Germany, Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus, was executed for connections to a conspiracy. [69]

Western expansion Edit

In 40, Caligula expanded the Roman Empire into Mauretania and made a significant attempt at expanding into Britannia. (Due to the novel I, Claudius, it is commonly believed that Caligula attempted war against Neptune at this time. This is not mentioned in any ancient source, however.) [3] The conquest of Britannia was later achieved during the reign of his successor, Claudius.

Mauretania Edit

Mauretania was a client kingdom of Rome ruled by Ptolemy of Mauretania. Caligula invited Ptolemy to Rome and then suddenly had him executed. [70] Mauretania was annexed by Caligula and subsequently divided into two provinces, Mauretania Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis, separated by the river Malua. [71] Pliny claims that division was the work of Caligula, but Dio states that in 42 an uprising took place, which was subdued by Gaius Suetonius Paulinus and Gnaeus Hosidius Geta, and the division only took place after this. [72] This confusion might mean that Caligula decided to divide the province, but the division was postponed because of the rebellion. [73] The first known equestrian governor of the two provinces was Marcus Fadius Celer Flavianus, in office in 44. [73]

Details on the Mauretanian events of 39–44 are unclear. Cassius Dio wrote an entire chapter on the annexation of Mauretania by Caligula, but it is now lost. [74] Caligula's move seemingly had a strictly personal political motive – fear and jealousy of his cousin Ptolemy – and thus the expansion may not have been prompted by pressing military or economic needs. [75] However, the rebellion of Tacfarinas had shown how exposed Africa Proconsularis was to its west and how the Mauretanian client kings were unable to provide protection to the province, and it is thus possible that Caligula's expansion was a prudent response to potential future threats. [73]

Britannia Edit

There seems to have been a northern campaign to Britannia that was aborted. [74] This campaign is derided by ancient historians with accounts of Gauls dressed up as Germanic tribesmen at his triumph and Roman troops ordered to collect seashells as "spoils of the sea". [76] The few primary sources disagree on what precisely occurred. Modern historians have put forward numerous theories in an attempt to explain these actions. This trip to the English Channel could have merely been a training and scouting mission. [77] The mission may have been to accept the surrender of the British chieftain Adminius. [78] "Seashells", or conchae in Latin, may be a metaphor for something else such as female genitalia (perhaps the troops visited brothels) or boats (perhaps they captured several small British boats). [79]

Claims of divinity Edit

When several client kings came to Rome to pay their respects to him and argued about their nobility of descent, he allegedly cried out the Homeric line: [80] "Let there be one lord, one king." [57] In 40, Caligula began implementing very controversial policies that introduced religion into his political role. Caligula began appearing in public dressed as various gods and demigods such as Hercules, Mercury, Venus and Apollo. [81] Reportedly, he began referring to himself as a god when meeting with politicians and he was referred to as "Jupiter" on occasion in public documents. [82] [83]

A sacred precinct was set apart for his worship at Miletus in the province of Asia and two temples were erected for worship of him in Rome. [83] The Temple of Castor and Pollux on the forum was linked directly to the imperial residence on the Palatine and dedicated to Caligula. [83] [84] He would appear there on occasion and present himself as a god to the public. Caligula had the heads removed from various statues of gods located across Rome and replaced them with his own. [85] It is said that he wished to be worshipped as Neos Helios, the "New Sun". Indeed, he was represented as a sun god on Egyptian coins. [86]

Caligula's religious policy was a departure from that of his predecessors. According to Cassius Dio, living emperors could be worshipped as divine in the east and dead emperors could be worshipped as divine in Rome. [87] Augustus had the public worship his spirit on occasion, but Dio describes this as an extreme act that emperors generally shied away from. [87] Caligula took things a step further and had those in Rome, including senators, worship him as a tangible, living god. [88]

Eastern policy Edit

Caligula needed to quell several riots and conspiracies in the eastern territories during his reign. Aiding him in his actions was his good friend, Herod Agrippa, who became governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis after Caligula became emperor in 37. [89]

The cause of tensions in the east was complicated, involving the spread of Greek culture, Roman law and the rights of Jews in the empire.

Caligula did not trust the prefect of Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus. Flaccus had been loyal to Tiberius, had conspired against Caligula's mother and had connections with Egyptian separatists. [90] In 38, Caligula sent Agrippa to Alexandria unannounced to check on Flaccus. [91] According to Philo, the visit was met with jeers from the Greek population who saw Agrippa as the king of the Jews. [92] As a result, riots broke out in the city. [93] Caligula responded by removing Flaccus from his position and executing him. [94]

In 39, Agrippa accused Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, of planning a rebellion against Roman rule with the help of Parthia. Herod Antipas confessed and Caligula exiled him. Agrippa was rewarded with his territories. [95]

Riots again erupted in Alexandria in 40 between Jews and Greeks. [96] Jews were accused of not honouring the emperor. [96] Disputes occurred in the city of Jamnia. [97] Jews were angered by the erection of a clay altar and destroyed it. [97] In response, Caligula ordered the erection of a statue of himself in the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem, [98] a demand in conflict with Jewish monotheism. [99] In this context, Philo wrote that Caligula "regarded the Jews with most especial suspicion, as if they were the only persons who cherished wishes opposed to his". [99]

The Governor of Syria, Publius Petronius, fearing civil war if the order were carried out, delayed implementing it for nearly a year. [100] Agrippa finally convinced Caligula to reverse the order. [96] However, Caligula issued a second order to have his statue erected in the Temple of Jerusalem. In Rome, another statue of himself, of colossal size, was made of gilt brass for the purpose. The Temple of Jerusalem was then transformed into a temple for Caligula, and it was called the Temple of Illustrious Gaius the New Jupiter. [101]

Scandals Edit

Philo of Alexandria and Seneca the Younger, contemporaries of Caligula, describe him as an insane emperor who was self-absorbed, short-tempered, killed on a whim, and indulged in too much spending and sex. [102] He is accused of sleeping with other men's wives and bragging about it, [103] killing for mere amusement, [104] deliberately wasting money on his bridge, causing starvation, [54] and wanting a statue of himself in the Temple of Jerusalem for his worship. [98] Once, at some games at which he was presiding, he was said to have ordered his guards to throw an entire section of the audience into the arena during the intermission to be eaten by the wild beasts because there were no prisoners to be used and he was bored. [105]

While repeating the earlier stories, the later sources of Suetonius and Cassius Dio provide additional tales of insanity. They accuse Caligula of incest with his sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla, and Livilla, and say he prostituted them to other men. [106] They state he sent troops on illogical military exercises, [74] [107] turned the palace into a brothel, [47] and, most famously, planned or promised to make his horse, Incitatus, a consul, [108] [109] and actually appointed him a priest. [83]

The validity of these accounts is debatable. In Roman political culture, insanity and sexual perversity were often presented hand-in-hand with poor government. [110]

Assassination and aftermath Edit

Caligula's actions as emperor were described as being especially harsh to the Senate, to the nobility and to the equestrian order. [111] According to Josephus, these actions led to several failed conspiracies against Caligula. [112] Eventually, officers within the Praetorian Guard led by Cassius Chaerea succeeded in murdering the emperor. [113] The plot is described as having been planned by three men, but many in the senate, army and equestrian order were said to have been informed of it and involved in it. [114]

The situation had escalated when, in 40, Caligula announced to the Senate that he planned to leave Rome permanently and to move to Alexandria in Egypt, where he hoped to be worshipped as a living god. The prospect of Rome losing its emperor and thus its political power was the final straw for many. Such a move would have left both the Senate and the Praetorian Guard powerless to stop Caligula's repression and debauchery. With this in mind Chaerea convinced his fellow conspirators, who included Marcus Vinicius and Lucius Annius Vinicianus, to put their plot into action quickly.

According to Josephus, Chaerea had political motivations for the assassination. [115] Suetonius sees the motive in Caligula calling Chaerea derogatory names. [116] Caligula considered Chaerea effeminate because of a weak voice and for not being firm with tax collection. [117] Caligula would mock Chaerea with names like "Priapus" and "Venus". [118]

On 24 January 41, [120] Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen accosted Caligula as he addressed an acting troupe of young men beneath the palace, during a series of games and dramatics being held for the Divine Augustus. [121] Details recorded on the events vary somewhat from source to source, but they agree that Chaerea stabbed Caligula first, followed by a number of conspirators. [122] Suetonius records that Caligula's death resembled that of Julius Caesar. He states that both the elder Gaius Julius Caesar (Julius Caesar) and the younger Gaius Julius Caesar (Caligula) were stabbed 30 times by conspirators led by a man named Cassius (Cassius Longinus and Cassius Chaerea respectively). [123] By the time Caligula's loyal Germanic guard responded, the Emperor was already dead. The Germanic guard, stricken with grief and rage, responded with a rampaging attack on the assassins, conspirators, innocent senators and bystanders alike. [124] These wounded conspirators were treated by the physician Arcyon.

The cryptoporticus (underground corridor) beneath the imperial palaces on the Palatine Hill where this event took place was discovered by archaeologists in 2008. [125]

The senate attempted to use Caligula's death as an opportunity to restore the Republic. [126] Chaerea tried to persuade the military to support the Senate. [127] The military, though, remained loyal to the idea of imperial monarchy. [127] Uncomfortable with lingering imperial support, the assassins sought out and killed Caligula's wife, Caesonia, and killed their young daughter, Julia Drusilla, by smashing her head against a wall. [128] They were unable to reach Caligula's uncle, Claudius. After a soldier, Gratus, found Claudius hiding behind a palace curtain, he was spirited out of the city by a sympathetic faction of the Praetorian Guard [129] to their nearby camp. [130]

Claudius became emperor after procuring the support of the Praetorian Guard. Claudius granted a general amnesty, although he executed a few junior officers involved in the conspiracy, including Chaerea. [131] According to Suetonius, Caligula's body was placed under turf until it was burned and entombed by his sisters. He was buried within the Mausoleum of Augustus in 410, during the Sack of Rome, the ashes in the tomb were scattered.

Historiography Edit

The facts and circumstances of Caligula's reign are mostly lost to history. Only two sources contemporary with Caligula have survived – the works of Philo and Seneca. Philo's works, On the Embassy to Gaius i Flaccus, give some details on Caligula's early reign, but mostly focus on events surrounding the Jewish population in Judea and Egypt with whom he sympathizes. Seneca's various works give mostly scattered anecdotes on Caligula's personality. Seneca was almost put to death by Caligula in AD 39 likely due to his associations with conspirators. [132]

At one time, there were detailed contemporaneous histories on Caligula, but they are now lost. Additionally, the historians who wrote them are described as biased, either overly critical or praising of Caligula. [133] Nonetheless, these lost primary sources, along with the works of Seneca and Philo, were the basis of surviving secondary and tertiary histories on Caligula written by the next generations of historians. A few of the contemporaneous historians are known by name. Fabius Rusticus and Cluvius Rufus both wrote condemning histories on Caligula that are now lost. Fabius Rusticus was a friend of Seneca who was known for historical embellishment and misrepresentation. [134] Cluvius Rufus was a senator involved in the assassination of Caligula. [135]

Caligula's sister, Agrippina the Younger, wrote an autobiography that certainly included a detailed explanation of Caligula's reign, but it too is lost. Agrippina was banished by Caligula for her connection to Marcus Lepidus, who conspired against him. [69] The inheritance of Nero, Agrippina's son and the future emperor, was seized by Caligula. Gaetulicus, a poet, produced a number of flattering writings about Caligula, but they are lost.

The bulk of what is known of Caligula comes from Suetonius and Cassius Dio. Suetonius wrote his history on Caligula 80 years after his death, while Cassius Dio wrote his history over 180 years after Caligula's death. Cassius Dio's work is invaluable because it alone gives a loose chronology of Caligula's reign.

A handful of other sources add a limited perspective on Caligula. Josephus gives a detailed description of Caligula's assassination. Tacitus provides some information on Caligula's life under Tiberius. In a now lost portion of his Annals, Tacitus gave a detailed history of Caligula. Pliny the Elder's Prirodna povijest has a few brief references to Caligula.

There are few surviving sources on Caligula and none of them paints Caligula in a favourable light. The paucity of sources has resulted in significant gaps in modern knowledge of the reign of Caligula. Little is written on the first two years of Caligula's reign. Additionally, there are only limited details on later significant events, such as the annexation of Mauretania, Caligula's military actions in Britannia, and his feud with the Roman Senate. According to legend, during his military actions in Britannia Caligula grew addicted to a steady diet of European sea eels, which led to their Latin name being Coluber caligulensis. [136]

Health Edit

All surviving sources, except Pliny the Elder, characterize Caligula as insane. However, it is not known whether they are speaking figuratively or literally. Additionally, given Caligula's unpopularity among the surviving sources, it is difficult to separate fact from fiction. Recent sources are divided in attempting to ascribe a medical reason for his behavior, citing as possibilities encephalitis, epilepsy or meningitis. [137] The question of whether Caligula was insane (especially after his illness early in his reign) remains unanswered. [137]

Philo of Alexandria, Josephus and Seneca state that Caligula was insane, but describe this madness as a personality trait that came through experience. [95] [138] [139] Seneca states that Caligula became arrogant, angry and insulting once he became emperor and uses his personality flaws as examples his readers can learn from. [140] According to Josephus, power made Caligula incredibly conceited and led him to think he was a god. [95] Philo of Alexandria reports that Caligula became ruthless after nearly dying of an illness in the eighth month of his reign in 37. [141] Juvenal reports he was given a magic potion that drove him insane.

Suetonius said that Caligula suffered from "falling sickness", or epilepsy, when he was young. [142] [143] Modern historians have theorized that Caligula lived with a daily fear of seizures. [144] Despite swimming being a part of imperial education, Caligula could not swim. [145] Epileptics are discouraged from swimming in open waters because unexpected fits could lead to death because a timely rescue would be difficult. [146] Caligula reportedly talked to the full moon: [68] Epilepsy was long associated with the moon. [147]

Suetonius described Caligula as sickly-looking, skinny and pale: "he was tall, very pale, ill-shaped, his neck and legs very slender, his eyes and temples hollow, his brows broad and knit, his hair thin, and the crown of the head bald. The other parts of his body were much covered with hair . He was crazy both in body and mind, being subject, when a boy, to the falling sickness. When he arrived at the age of manhood he endured fatigue tolerably well. Occasionally he was liable to faintness, during which he remained incapable of any effort". [148] [149] Based on scientific reconstructions of his official painted busts, Caligula had brown hair, brown eyes, and fair skin. [150]

Some modern historians think that Caligula suffered from hyperthyroidism. [151] This diagnosis is mainly attributed to Caligula's irritability and his "stare" as described by Pliny the Elder.

Possible rediscovery of burial site Edit

On 17 January 2011, police in Nemi, Italy, announced that they believed they had discovered the site of Caligula's burial, after arresting a thief caught smuggling a statue which they believed to be of the emperor. [152] The claim has been met with scepticism by Cambridge historian Mary Beard. [153]

Quadrans celebrating the abolition of a tax in AD 38 by Caligula. [154] The obverse of the coin contains a picture of a Pileus which symbolizes the liberation of the people from the tax burden. Caption: C. CAESAR DIVI AVG. PRON[EPOS] (great-grandson of) AVG. / PON. M., TR. P. III, P. P., COS. DES. RCC. (probably Res Civium Conservatae, i.e. the interests of citizens have been preserved)

Roman gold coins excavated in Pudukottai, India, examples of Indo-Roman trade during the period. One coin of Caligula (AD 37–41), and two coins of Nero (AD 54–68). Britanski muzej. Caption: C. CAESAR AVG. PON. M., TR. POT. III, COS. III. - NERO CAESAR. AVG. IMP. - NERO CAESAR AVG. IMP.


The Wonders of the Horti Lamiani

The Horti Lamiani (Lamian Gardens) was a luxurious complex of an ancient Roman villa with large gardens and outdoor rooms located on the Esquiline Hill in Rome, in the area around the present Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. They were created by the consul Lucius Aelius Lamia, a friend of Emperor Tiberius, and they soon became imperial property. Along with other ancient Roman horti on the Quirinal, Viminal and Esquiline hills, they were discovered during the construction work for the expansion of Rome at the end of 1800s.

The villa and gardens were scenically divided into pavillions and terraces adapted to the landscape, on a model of Hellenistic tradition. They were eventually filled with exceptional works of art, from original ancient Greek sculptures to exquisite frescoes and marble floors. A museum of the nymphaeum excavations is planned to open in 2021.

The land for the horti Lamiani was originally a cemetery just outside the ancient Servian Wall but was purchased by Lucius Aelius Lamia, the Roman consul in 3 CE, who developed the property. He seems to have bequeathed the property to the emperor probably during the reign of Tiberius, and it became imperial state property. Emperor Caligula loved the place so much he established his residence there and further developed the property. In an evocative eyewitness account, the philosopher Philo visited the gardens in 40 CE and accompanied Caligula inspecting the elaborate residence ordering them to be made more sumptuous. After his assassination, Caligula was briefly buried at the site.

The Horti Lamiani adjoined the Gardens of Maecenas and the Gardens of Maiani. Under Claudius (41-54 CE) the Horti Lamiani and Maiani were united and administered by a special superintendent (procurator hortorum Lamianorum et Maianorum).

The property survived until at least the Severan dynasty (193-235 CE) when it became the emperor's private property as shown by a stamped lead water pipe. By the 4th c. the gardens were no longer in use as evidenced by the statuary found broken in pieces and used in the foundations of a number of spas.


Povijest

Campitelli district is one of the oldest Roman neighborhoods. It takes its name after the Capitoline hill it resides on (Capitolium), where once Rome’s major temple dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus stood. Despite this, this Roman neighborhood is the least populated, amounting to 600 residents. This is due to the fact of many governmental buildings and historical sites being located on its territory.

Modern history

Today, in Campitelli district tourists will find tons of historical attractions. As it was mentioned before, this district hosts the largest number of historical sites on its territory. Therefore, be ready to immerse yourself into a real Roman holiday.


Caligula’s Garden of Delights, Unearthed and Restored

Relics from the favorite hideaway of ancient Rome’s most infamous tyrant have been recovered and put on display by archaeologists.

The fourth of the 12 Caesars, Caligula — officially, Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus — was a capricious, combustible first-century populist remembered, perhaps unfairly, as the empire’s most tyrannical ruler. As reported by Suetonius, the Michael Wolff of ancient Rome, he never forgot a slight, slept only a few hours a night and married several times, lastly to a woman named Milonia.

During the four years that Caligula occupied the Roman throne, his favorite hideaway was an imperial pleasure garden called Horti Lamiani, the Mar-a-Lago of its day. The vast residential compound spread out on the Esquiline Hill, one of the seven hills on which the city was originally built, in the area around the current Piazza Vittorio Emanuele II.

There, just on the edge of the city, villas, shrines and banquet halls were set in carefully constructed “natural” landscapes. An early version of a wildlife park, the Horti Lamiani featured orchards, fountains, terraces, a bath house adorned with precious colored marble from all over the Mediterranean, and exotic animals, some of which were used, as in the Colosseum, for private circus games.

When Caligula was assassinated in his palace on the Palatine Hill in 41 A.D., his body was carried to the Horti Lamiani, where he was cremated and hastily buried before being moved to the Mausoleum of Augustus on the Campus Martius, north of the Capitoline Hill. According to Suetonius, the elite garden was haunted by Caligula’s ghost.

Historians have long believed that the remains of the lavish houses and parkland would never be recovered. But this spring, Italy’s Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Cultural Activities and Tourism will open the Nymphaeum Museum of Piazza Vittorio, a subterranean gallery that will showcase a section of the imperial garden that was unearthed during an excavation from 2006 to 2015. The dig, carried out beneath the rubble of a condemned 19th-century apartment complex, yielded gems, coins, ceramics, jewelry, pottery, cameo glass, a theater mask, seeds of plants such as citron, apricot and acacia that had been imported from Asia, and bones of peacocks, deer, lions, bears and ostriches.

“The ruins tell extraordinary stories, starting with the animals,” said Mirella Serlorenzi, the culture ministry’s director of excavations. “It is not hard to imagine animals, some caged and some running wild, in this enchanted setting.” The science of antiquities department of the Sapienza University of Rome collaborated on the project.

The objects and structural remnants on display in the museum paint a vivid picture of wealth, power and opulence. Among the stunning examples of ancient Roman artistry are elaborate mosaics and frescoes, a marble staircase, capitals of colored marble and limestone, and an imperial guard’s bronze brooch inset with gold and mother-of-pearl. “All the most refined objects and art produced in the Imperial Age turned up,” Dr. Serlorenzi said.

The classicist Daisy Dunn said the finds were even more extravagant than scholars had anticipated. “The frescoes are incredibly ornate and of a very high decorative standard,” noted Dr. Dunn, whose book “In The Shadow of Vesuvius” is a dual biography of Pliny the Elder — a contemporary of Caligula’s — and his nephew Pliny the Younger. “Given the descriptions of Caligula’s licentious lifestyle and appetite for luxury, we might have expected the designs to be quite gauche.”

The Horti Lamiani were commissioned by Lucius Aelius Lamia, a wealthy senator and consul who bequeathed his property to the emperor, most likely during the reign of his friend Tiberius from A.D. 14 to 37. When Caligula succeeded him — it is rumored that Caligula and the Praetorian Guard prefect Macro hastened the death of Tiberius by smothering him with a pillow — he moved into the main house.

In an evocative eyewitness account, the philosopher Philo, who visited the estate in A.D. 40 on behalf of the Jews of Alexandria, and his fellow emissaries had to trail behind Caligula as he inspected the sumptuous residences “examining the men’s rooms and the women’s rooms … and giving orders to make them more costly.” The emperor, wrote Philo, “ordered the windows to be filled up with transparent stones resembling white crystal that do not hinder the light, but which keep out the wind and the heat of the sun.”

Evidence suggests that after Caligula’s violent death — he was hacked to bits by his bodyguards — the house and garden survived at least until the Severan dynasty, which ruled from A.D. 193 to 235. By the fourth century, the gardens had apparently fallen into desuetude, and statuary in the abandoned pavilions was broken into pieces to build the foundations of a series of spas. The statues were not discovered until 1874, three years after Rome was made the capital of the newly unified Kingdom of Italy. With the Esquiline Hill in the midst of a building boom, the Italian archaeologist Rodolfo Lanciani nosed around freshly excavated construction sites and uncovered an immense gallery with an alabaster floor and fluted columns of giallo antico, considered the finest of the yellow marbles.

He later stumbled upon a rich deposit of classical sculptures that, at some point in the horti’s history, had been deliberately hidden to protect them. The treasures included the Lancellotti Discobolus, now housed at the National Museum of Rome the Esquiline Venus and a bust of Commodus depicted as Hercules, now at the Capitoline Museums. In short time, the sculptures were carted off, the foundation of an apartment building was laid, and the ancient ruins were reburied.


7. Caracalla And Citizenship

Portrait of Caracalla, 212-17, via The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Perhaps the most enduring legacy of Caracalla’s reign was not his palatial thermae, nor his bellicose reputation, nor even the stain on his reputation as a fratricide. Rather, it is to be found in a scrap of papyrus and in the single sentence of the Digest, the collection of Roman laws. There, it states: “All persons throughout the Roman world were made Roman citizens by an edict of the Emperor Antoninus Caracalla.” This edict, known as the Constitutio Antoniniana, issued on 11th July AD 212, transformed the Roman Empire. It declared that all free men within the Roman Empire were granted Roman citizenship, whilst all free women were granted the same status as their Roman counterparts.

The emperor’s motivation for this edict remains contested. One prevailing interpretation suggests that the emperor was compelled by financial pressures to enact the edict. This was the interpretation of Cassius Dio, the only historian to comment on the edict, who claimed that the edict was passed not so much to honor the inhabitants of the empire, but, “to increase his revenues… inasmuch as aliens did not have to pay most of these taxes.” This is a tempting interpretation – wars, the favored past time of Caracalla – are of course expensive.

Nevertheless, given that as emperor, Caracalla exercised total control over the finances of the empire, such a significant social and political development seems to extend beyond basic fiscal wants. Regardless of the emperor’s motivations, the impact is most clearly indicated in the epigraphic record. In the immediate aftermath of the edict, a whole host of ‘Marcus Aurelius’ appear on inscriptions around the empire, as the newly enfranchised men paid homage to their new patron by adopting his nomenclature.


Humans into gods

The Emperor Vespasian, as he was expiring, declared, "Oh, I think I am becoming a god."

But most Romans thought "no god arises from man." Julius Caesar, who thought he was descended from Venus, upset this stricture. He had politically powerful friends who declared him "divine."

First Julius Caesar. Next, his successor Augustus, whose wife Livia rewarded a senator with an outrageous fortune for stating he saw Augustus ascend to heaven. After that, divinity for any Emperor was almost a done-deal.

The slippery slope eventually included non-rulers: a wife or other female relative of an Emperor was often declared divine, "suggested" by the Emperor and declared so by the Senate.

What an augur did: augurs observed natural phenomena. T he flight and activity of birds, thunder and lightning, and feeding patterns of the sacred chickens held special status. The augur had to follow written instruction from his manual. The manuals contained the proper techniques for the ritual and how to interpret the results. Signs given by the gods to the augur were good only for one day.

Duoviri, decemviri, and quindecimiviri: a group of distinguished Senator-priests who advised the Senate on reports of prodigies. Prodigies were events which the Romans considered "unnatural," such as "rains of blood" or "monstrous births."

Epulones : specialized priests in charge of the rituals of the Roman games and of the feast of Jupiter, Rome's most important god. Along with the pontifices, the augurs, and the duoviri, the epulones made up the four major 'colleges' of priests.

Fetiales: Priests who prayed to the gods for success in war.

Flamines: a special group of pontifices. Originally flamines were individual priests for the Roman gods Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus. As a distinguishing mar k , the flamines wore a cap with a piece of olive wood projecting from its top.

Haruspex: A highly specialized prophet, commonly Etruscan. Prophets tended to communicate with the gods about more distant events in the future. The haruspex did his magic by inspecting the liver of the sacrificed animal, normally a sheep. After the slave who had killed the sheep handed its liver to the haruspex, the prophet held it in his left hand, with his left foot on a stone and his right foot on the ground , and "read" the liver in a clockwise direction. Haruspices could also be personal advisors--Julius Caesar had one.

Luperci: these priests ran the Festival of the Lupercalia, when near-naked young men ran around the City, striking the young women they met with a goat thong. A fertility rite? A purification ritual?

Ordinary priests: Their job was to lead the sacrificial process, initiate the sacrifice, and watch. Evidently, they weren't expected to know what to do, even the right form of prayer to offer. Their real role was to represent their aristocratic class, to show the Roman people that the aristocratic oligarchy was at the top of the social, political, and religious orders.

Pontifex, pontifices: Their original function was to look after Rome's first bridge across the Tiber, the City's most critical crossing point. From there, the pontifices assumed oversight over other major "crossing points," for example those between life and death, or communications between the humans and the gods.

One of the pontifices' most important authority was control of the calendar, which determined many aspects of Roman life. They could be powerful decision-makers, especially in moments of crisis. Less dramatically, they kept the annual record of public events and gave legal advice on family matters, such as wills, inheritances, family property, adoptions, and burials.

Prodigy: An event which the Romans considered "unnatural," such as "rains of blood" or "monstrous births." Would-be prodigies had to be reported to the Senate for evaluation and consultation with the priests.

Vestal Virgins: The only female priesthood in Rome, its six members were chosen in childhood. They lived in a special house next to the temple of Vesta in the Roman Forum and could ride in a wagon. Their various rituals connected the fertility of the earth, the safety of the flocks of animals, and human fertility. They were the guardians of ancient, ancient talismans, including it was said, sacred objects brought by Aeneas from Troy.

With special privileges went special responsibilities: if a Virgin let the sacred fire go out, or was unchaste, she could be buried alive.

Specialized or advanced

Boatwright,Mary, Hadrian and the City of Rome (Princeton UP, 1987)

Fox, Robin Lane, Pagans and Christians (Knopf, 1986)

Potter, David S., "Roman Religion: Ideas and Actions," in Potter, D.S. and Mattingly, D.J., Life, Death, and Entertainment in the Roman Empire (U of Michigan Press,
1999).

Price, Simon, The Birth of Classical Europe: A History from Troy to Augustine (Penguin, 2011)

Stamper, John, The Architecture of Roman Temples: the Republic to the Middle Empire (Cambridge U. Press, 2004)


Gledaj video: Commodus: Emperor, Gladiator, Madman