Povijest gladijatora - Povijest

Povijest gladijatora - Povijest


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Gladijator

Čovjek koji se borio smrtonosnim oružjem, kao u amfiteatru, za narodnu zabavu. Dakle, onaj tko se uključi u bilo kakvo duhovito natjecanje.

Ja

(Tegljač: t. 67; 1. 76'1 "; b. 19'4"; dr. 7'4 ".)

Prvi gladijator izgrađen je 1876. u St. Mary's, Gal, iznajmljen od Wilmington Towing Co., Wilmington, N.C., pušten u rad 19. travnja 1918 .; i dodijeljen 5. mornaričkoj oblasti. Dana 20. kolovoza 1918. tegljač Emily
B. u vlasništvu iste tvrtke, zamijenjena je Gladijatorom, a 20. prosinca 1918. Gladijatorica je prestala s radom i vraćena je njezinim vlasnicima.


Gladijator: lijepo ubojstvo, ali gdje su sve šišarke?

Gladijator je priča o rimskom vojniku koji je postao rob, obučen za gladijatora i ustao da izazove carstvo. Što je u osnovi Spartak, samo je Gladijator smješten 250 godina nakon Spartakove smrti. Russell Crowe je dva i pol sata usmjeravao čistu muškost kao Maximus, gladijator naslova. Rezultati su uključivali pet Oscara i zelena svjetla posvuda za mačeve i sandale, poput Troje, Aleksandra i 300.

Publika mu na tome možda neće zahvaliti, ali osam godina nakon objavljivanja Gladiator ostaje izvanredno gledljiv i o njemu se žestoko raspravlja. Unatoč Scottovoj legiji povjesničara na sceni, postoji nekoliko web stranica posvećenih mnogim navodnim manama.

U Njemačkoj je 180. godine naše ere, a gotovo mrtvi car Marko Aurelije promatra svoju vojsku kako uništava barbare. Njegov izmišljeni general, Maximus (Crowe), u oklopu i vučjim kožama pripije se uz ekran, režeći: "Na moj znak, oslobodite pakao." Plaža Bondi lagano se pomakne do naglaska, ali opet svi govore modernim engleskim jezikom. Slijedi umjereno vjerodostojna bitka.


Gladijator

Naši urednici će pregledati ono što ste podnijeli i odlučiti trebate li izmijeniti članak.

gladijator, profesionalni borac u starom Rimu. Gladijatori su prvotno nastupali na etruščanskim sprovodima, bez sumnje s namjerom da mrtvom čovjeku pruže naoružane pratioce na drugom svijetu pa su borbe obično bile do smrti. Na izložbama u Rimu ove su izložbe postale iznimno popularne i povećale su se s tri para na prvoj poznatoj izložbi 264. pne (na pogrebu Bruta) na 300 parova u vrijeme Julija Cezara (umro 44. pne). Stoga su se emisije s jednog dana proširile na stotinu, pod carem Titom, a car Trajan u svom trijumfu (107 ce) imao je 5000 parova gladijatora. Predstave su davane i u drugim gradovima Rimskog Carstva, što se može vidjeti iz tragova amfiteatra.

Postojale su različite klase gladijatora, koje su se razlikovale po oružju ili načinu borbe. The Samnite borio se s nacionalnim oružjem - velikim duguljastim štitom, vizirom, perjanom kacigom i kratkim mačem. The Trakije ("Tračani") imali su malu okruglu kopču i bodež zakrivljen poput kose, općenito su bili postavljeni uz mirmiloni, koji su na galski način bili naoružani kacigom, mačem i štitom, a nazvani su tako po imenu ribe koja im je služila kao grb kacige. Na sličan način, retiarius ("Net man") je uparen sa sekutor ("Progonitelj") prvi nije nosio ništa osim kratke tunike ili pregače i pokušao je uplesti svog progonitelja, koji je bio potpuno naoružan, s izlivenom mrežom koju je nosio u desnoj ruci ako je uspio, poslao ga je s trozupcem koji je nosio u svom lijevo. Bilo je i andabatae, za koje se vjeruje da su se borili na konjima i da su nosili kacige sa zatvorenim štitnicima - odnosno da su se borili s povezom na očima dimachaeri ("Ljudi s dva noža") kasnijeg carstva, koji su u svakoj ruci nosili kratki mač essedarii ("Ljudi iz kola"), koji su se borili s kočija poput starih Britanaca hoplomachi ("Borci u oklopu"), koji su nosili kompletno oklopno odelo laquearii (“Lasso men”), koji su pokušali lasso svoje antagoniste.

Emisije su najavljene nekoliko dana prije nego što su se održale putem računa pričvršćenih na zidove kuća i javnih zgrada, a kopije su se također prodavale na ulicama. Ovi računi sadržavali su imena glavnih parova natjecatelja, datum nastupa, ime davaoca i različite vrste borbi. Spektakl je počeo povorkom gladijatora kroz arenu, a postupak je otvoren lažnom tučom (praelusio, prolusio) s drvenim mačevima i kopljima. Signal za pravu borbu dao je zvuk trube, a one koji su pokazivali strah tjerali su u arenu bičevima i užarenim peglama. Kad je gladijator bio ranjen, gledatelji su uzvikivali "Habet”(“ On je ranjen ”) ako je bio na milost i nemilost svog protivnika, podigao je kažiprst da moli milost ljudi, kojima je (u kasnijim vremenima Republike) darovatelj ostavio odluku o svojoj život ili smrt. Ako su gledatelji bili za milost, mahali su rupcima ako su htjeli smrt osvojenog gladijatora, okrenuli su palčeve prema dolje. (Ovo je popularno gledište. Drugi stav je da su oni koji su htjeli smrt poraženog gladijatora okrenuli palčeve prema svojim grudima kao signal da ga ubode, a oni koji su htjeli da ga poštede okrenuli su palce prema dolje kao signal da ispuste mač.) Nagrada za pobjedu sastojala se od grana palme, a ponekad i novca.

Ako je gladijator preživio brojne borbe, mogao bi biti otpušten iz daljnje službe koju bi, međutim, mogao vratiti nakon otpusta.

Povremeno su gladijatori postali politički važni, jer su mnogi od turbulentnijih javnih ljudi imali tjelesne čuvare. To je naravno dovelo do povremenih sukoba s krvoprolićem s obje strane. Gladijatori koji su djelovali na vlastitu inicijativu, kao u usponu koji je predvodio Spartak u 73. - 71. pr. Kr., Smatrani su još većom prijetnjom.

Gladijatori su izvučeni iz različitih izvora, ali uglavnom su bili robovi i kriminalci. Disciplina je bila stroga, ali uspješan gladijator ne samo da je bio poznat, već je, prema satirama Juvenala, uživao naklonosti žena u društvu. Zanimljiv dodatak redovima gladijatora nije bio neuobičajen u Carstvu: uništeni čovjek, možda visokog društvenog položaja, mogao bi se angažirati kao gladijator, čime bi dobio barem sredstva za život, koliko god bio nesiguran. Jedna od posebnosti cara Domicijana bila je da ima neobične gladijatore (patuljke i žene), a poluludi Komod osobno se pojavio u areni, naravno pobijedivši u njegovim borbama.

Biti voditelj škole (ludus) gladijatora bilo je poznato, ali sramotno zanimanje. Posjedovanje gladijatora i njihovo unajmljivanje bila je, međutim, redovna i legitimna grana trgovine.

Dolaskom kršćanstva gladijatorske emisije počele su padati u nemilost. Car Konstantin I. zapravo je ukinuo gladijatorske igre 325. godine, ali očito bez velikog učinka, budući da ih je ponovno ukinuo car Honorije (393–423), a možda su se čak nastavile i stoljeće nakon toga.

Urednici Encyclopaedia Britannica Ovaj članak je posljednji put revidirao i ažurirao Adam Augustyn, glavni urednik, referentni sadržaj.


Gladijatori nisu uvijek bili robovi

Glavni mediji često opisuju Gladijatore kao robove koji nisu imali izbora, pa su bačeni u bitke i zamoljeni da čekaju svoju konačnu smrt u areni. Istina je da je većina Gladijatora koji su se borili bili robovi, mnogi su slobodni ljudi također sudjelovali u dvobojima i voljno postali Gladijatori. Nakon što je popularnost Gladijatora porasla, mnogi su pojedinci željeli isto uzbuđenje koje su igre pružile i prijavile. Ti su pojedinci također činili značajan dio pripravnika Gladijatora, a kaže se da je 1 od 5 muškaraca bio slobodan muškarac koji se dobrovoljno bavio sportom. Zapravo, u jednom je trenutku prestiž sporta bio toliko velik da su čak i vitezovi i viši državni dužnosnici voljno postali gladijatori.


Drevni rimski gladijatori: podrijetlo i povijest

Gladijatori koji su često smatrani herojima radničke klase u rimskom društvu zasigurno su vidjeli dobar dio ekranskog vremena u našim modernim popularnim medijima. Međutim, osim velikih spektakla i krvavih podviga, sama priroda gladijatorskih natjecanja aludirala je na 'institucionalizaciju nasilja' ukorijenjenu u rimsko društvo od njegovih plemenskih dana. Dakle, bez daljnjih razmatranja, pogledajmo podrijetlo i povijest rimskih gladijatora koji nadilaze područje sjajne fikcije radi objašnjenja brutalne stvarnosti.

Munera - pogrebna natjecanja koja su dala put gladijatorskim borbama

U onome što je moglo biti preteča današnjih gladijatorskih borbi, plemić po imenu Brutus Pera učinio je 264. godine prije Krista smrtnu želju da njegova dva sina plate borbe koje su se trebale odigrati na tržnici kako bi obilježili njegov sprovod. Za manje od sto godina takvi su natječaji postali prilično uobičajeni, a borci su općenito bili robovi organizatora. Zapravo, 174. godine prije Krista, jedan od munera (ritualna služba posvećena mrtvima) uključivala je 74 muškarca nasukana jedan protiv drugog u jezivom događaju koji se dogodio tijekom tri dana.

I kako je vrijeme prolazilo, munera proširen opsezima tako da uključuje naočale poput venatio - koji je uključivao lov više od stotine egzotičnih životinja diljem rimskih zemalja od strane obučenih venatores. Ova grozna afera imala je simboličku stranu, a životinje poput lavova, tigrova i drugih grabežljivaca aludirale su na divljake i 'barbare' svijeta koje je moćni Rim potčinio (zanimljivo je da su i Mongoli imali sličnu vrstu lovačkog rituala) koji je uključivao 'taktičko' ubijanje nedužnih zvijeri).

I kako je Rimska republika rasla u sjaju i veličini, njezini su plemići smišljali novije i veličanstvenije načine obilježavanja svoje ostavštine - čak su u svojim oporukama odredili odredbe za takva pogrebna natjecanja. U suštini, pogrebna služba postala je više politička izjava (u kombinaciji s krvavim spektaklima) koja je navodno zagovarala veličinu pokrovitelja. Zbog toga je škrtost u vezi s takvim 'očekivanim' natjecanjima često izazivala negodovanje običnih građana. Jedan poseban incident primjereno ilustrira takve hedonističke stavove - za vrijeme vladavine Tiberija mještani su nasilno prekinuli pogrebnu službu centuriona koji su zahtijevali pogrebne igre. Situacija se ubrzo pretvorila u pobunu, pa je car morao poslati svoje trupe kako bi ugušio smetnju.

Nesreća koja je navodno ubila 50.000 ljudi!

Popularnost takvih pogrebnih natjecanja među Rimljanima eksponencijalno je porasla-toliko da su pokrovitelji morali prirediti različite spektakle na specijaliziranim mjestima izgrađenim za cilj, što je kulminiralo konačnom 'evolucijom' gladijatorskih igara. Ovi amfiteatri uglavnom su nastali unutar Rima (grada) pored Foruma, a u početku su bili izgrađeni od drveta s pješčanim podovima.

Zapravo, sama riječ harena - što znači ‘pijesak’, ustupilo je mjesto terminu arena. Dovoljno je reći da je prenapučenost bila veliki problem za inženjere, pa je kao takva jedna od slučajnih nezgoda rezultirala urušavanjem cijele nadgradnje amfiteatra u Fidenaeu. Prema Tacitu, broj poginulih dosegao je više od 50.000 ljudi - što je moglo biti i autorovo pretjerivanje, ali ipak nagovješćuje golemi porast popularnosti takvih gladijatorskih natjecanja koja su se zahvatila diljem Rima.

Priroda nevjerojatne potražnje za gladijatorskim borbama mogla bi se mjeriti i stvarnim brojem amfiteatra unutar rimskih zemalja. Prema arhitektu i arheologu Jean-Claudeu Golvinu, ova brojka odnosi se na 186 mjesta rasprostranjenih po carstvima Rima, dok je dodatno nadopunjena s 86 drugih mogućih lokacija koje su mogle imati neku vrstu arena za gladijatore i njihove krvave naočale.

The Hoplomachi - Profesionalni zabavljači/borci dana

Dok su gladijatorske borbe imale svoje preteče u pogrebnim natjecanjima između slabo opremljenih robova, naočale u njihovom krvavom zenitu 'napajale' su profesionalni ratnici tzv. hoplomachi (ili oklopljeni borbeni ljudi - uglavnom inspirirani grčkim hoplitima) i njihovo umijeće u krvavoj areni. U tu su svrhu ti ljudi bili stvarni 'gladijatori' za koje smo navikli da ih prikazuju u popularnim filmovima i televizijskim programima. Vješti u rukovanju svojim kratkim mačevima (gladija), borci su bili obučeni za ‘zabavu’ gomile, bilo u pojedinačnim borbama ili u insceniranim borbama unutar arene.

Takvi oblici zabave koja se sviđa publici aludirali su na spektakl dugotrajnog sukoba za razliku od brzih krvavih događaja. S tim u vezi, hoplomachi bili stručnjaci za produljenje patnje svojih protivnika koja je uključivala vađenje krvi i njezino prolijevanje po pijesku. Jednostavno rečeno, bili su daleko od loše pripremljenih kriminalaca koji su otišli u arenu da umru. Umjesto toga, na njih se više gledalo kao na odvažne hrabrosti, koji su dijeleći svoju lošu sreću kao prvotno oduzetu, živjeli kako bi ugodili uzbudljivim i često nemilosrdnim rimskim gledateljima.

Paradoks niske klase i velike slave -

Prirodno se nameće pitanje - odakle su došli takvi profesionalni gladijatori? Pa, u većini slučajeva muškarci (i nekoliko žena) su kupljeni na uspješnom tržištu robova. Neke od njih su njihovi gospodari jednostavno prodali zbog svojih prošlih zločina ili prijestupa, dok su drugi bili ratni zarobljenici.

Međutim, izvan opsega oduzetih robova i žrtava rata, čak su se i slobodni ljudi pridružili redovima gladijatora - neki koji su izgubili nasljedstvo, a neki koji su jednostavno bili ovisni o uzbuđenju borbe i osvajanju priznanja od gomile. Prema modernim procjenama, oko 20 posto gladijatora priznalo je ludi gladiatori (gladijatorske škole) bili su slobodni ljudi rimskog društva.

A kad je osoba označena kao gladijator, na nju se gledalo kao na društveni ekvivalent prostitutke - s izrazom 'gladijator' koji se čak koristio kao zlostavljanje u raznim rimskim krugovima. To je izravno u suprotnosti s njihovom pompom i popularnošću među građanima, osobito tijekom velikih gladijatorskih spektakla koji su bili slični velikim sportskim događajima u našem modernom svijetu.

Zapravo, slava i ugled nekih gladijatora dosegli su tako vrtoglave visine da su se njihova imena pojavila na gradskim zidinama, dok su se rasprave o njihovim pobjedama, pa čak i seksualnoj privlačnosti, vodile u gostionicama, vilama, palačama i privatnim blagovaonicama. A ako rasprave nisu bile dovoljne, paradoksalno obožavanje gladijatora poprimilo je bizarne oblike - sa svojom masnom masnoćom, ostacima kože, pa čak i krvlju (premazanom nakitom) skupljalo se i prodavalo Rimljankama kao afrodizijak i opojni napitak.

‘Mi koji ćemo umrijeti’

Do sada smo razgovarali o "profesionalnoj" strani gladijatora i o tome kako su gladijatorska natjecanja činila sastavni dio uspješnog poslovnog modela koji je isprepleten s političkim sustavom Rima. No, osim takvog sjaja i slave, bilo je i drugih boraca koji su u osnovi bili prisiljeni u arenu proliti svoju krv.

To su bili noxii, kriminalci koji su uglavnom bili optuživani za pljačke, ubojstva i silovanja - i na taj su način osigurali potrošne 'borce' čija je jedina svrha bila smrt unutar arena, gotovo kao oblik jezivog javnog pogubljenja koje se pretvorilo u sadistički 'zabavni' oblik . Nakon što su bili okovani, gurnuti i prodefilirani unutar takvih gladijatorskih prstenova (osobito tijekom popodnevnih emisija) sa ismijavanom gomilom koja je tražila svoju krv, morali su mračno proglasiti pred rimskim carem - Ave Caesair, morituri te salutant! (Mi koji ćemo umrijeti, pozdravljamo cara).

Nakon ove izjave, oni su postali dio masovnog spektakla koji je ponekad uključivao međusobnu borbu sve dok posljednji čovjek nije stajao (ili su svi ubijeni). Međutim, u drugim prilikama, noxii jednostavno su korišteni kao živi rekviziti koji nisu bili oklopljeni (ili su ponekad bili odjeveni u "izložbeni" oklop), a zatim su proglašeni protivnicima protiv adepta postulati, veterani gladijatori naoružani buzdovanima. Slijedom toga, ti su iskusni gladijatori napravili krvavu demonstraciju polaganog odašiljanja zalutalih kriminalaca prolijevajući njihovu krv po pijesku arene. Još jednom, izvan samo Rimljana, takve su se 'lažne' borbe/pogubljenja prakticirala i u drugim ratničkim kulturama, naime u Astecima.

‘Uri, vinciri, verberari, feroque necari’ - Zakletva gladijatora

Sada dok je noxii klasa pripadala najnižim slojevima gladijatorskog opsega, stvarni gladijatori također su morali podnositi teškoće i nedaće, što dokazuju njihovi sacramentum gladiatorium (zakletva gladijatora) - ‘Uri, vinciri, verberari, feroque necari. 'Grubo prevedeno na -' izdržat ću, biti spaljen, vezan, tučen i ubijen mačem ', frazu su morali ponoviti muškarci prije nego što su uvedeni u gladijatorsku ambiciju.

Nakon izgovaranja ovih riječi, svečano su ih odveli do njihovih sićušnih ćelija koje su se mogle zaključati, a koje su bile raširene po obodu poligona - i tako su započeli njihovi brutalni životi kao "nepotrebnih" izlagača u Rimu. Srećom, slobodni ljudi koji su se voljno prihvatili opasne karijere i dalje su imali mogućnost 'odustajanja' gdje su morali platiti novčanu naknadu lanista (trener ili upravitelj stečenih gladijatora).

Dovoljno je reći da je užasno opasna priroda čestih borbi u areni (i kasniji teški životi unutar čuvanih vojarni) učinila svoj danak mnogim gladijatorima, ne samo na fizičkoj, nego i na psihološkoj razini. Zbog toga su u njihovim redovima bili povremeni slučajevi samoubojstava, toliko da su čak i posebni stražari bili na oprezu kako bi spriječili takve samouništavajuće aktivnosti koje bi potencijalno mogle omesti poslovanje lanista.

U tu svrhu dogodio se jedan incident kada se germanski gladijator sam gušio u materijalu spužve. Još jedan užasan scenarij uključivao je očito masovno samoubojstvo 29 franačkih zatvorenika, koji su se zadavili dok je zadnji čovjek koji je stajao razbio glavu-prije nego što su mogli krvavo debitirati u areni.

Sigurnosne mjere podržane preciznim dijetama -

Što se tiče onih gladijatora koji su nastavili živjeti, boriti se i izroniti pobjednički, imali su veće šanse da se proslave u bogatim rimskim krugovima. Zanimljivo je da se o takvim kandidatima pobrinulo i specijalizirano osoblje gladijatorskih škola, odražavajući tako naš današnji odnos prema sportašima i poznatim sportašima.

Na primjer, dok su same škole bile zaštićene ogradom i zidovima (kako bi se spriječile "provale u zatvor"), u prostorijama su poduzete stroge mjere sigurnosti. Takvi su aspekti uključivali zabranu izoštrenog oružja u većini slučajeva, pri čemu su drvene zamjene bile omiljeno oružje za obuku. Štoviše, kad se tijekom treninga dogodila slučajna ozljeda, liječnici su požurili na teren za liječenje takvih rana (svojom medicinskom opremom, poput skalpela, udica i pinceta).

Nevjerojatno, škole su također zapošljavale specijalizirane stručnjake za prehranu koji su gladijatorima diktirali vrste hrane i dnevni unos hranjivih tvari-zbog njihove dugotrajne zdrave i definiranog mišićnog razvoja. Na primjer, ponekad su gladijatori dobivali nadimak kao hordearii („Ječmeni muškarci”), budući da je konzumacija ječma pomogla u ublažavanju arterija masnoćom, sprječavajući tako obilno krvarenje koje je nastalo uslijed dubokih posjekotina i ozljeda.

Otmjeni oklop i nepoštivanje pravila -

Iako su različite oklopne sustave usvojile različite gladijatorske klase zbog svoje unutarnje praktičnosti, postojali su i ukrasni komadi oklopa kojima su se gladijatori samo razmetali zbog svog dramatičnog učinka na mjestima prepuna ljudi. Zapravo, mnogi kompleti oklopa koje su nanijeli gladijatori evocirali su slike rimskih "neprijatelja".

Takvi stereotipni prikazi (poput britanskog tipa, tipa Samnite i tračkog tipa) dodali su kazališni štih unutar arene gdje su obični Rimljani mogli navijati i ismijavati svoje omiljene frakcije. Kasniji razvoj također je uključivao različite tematske stilove s mitološkim i fantastičnim motivima - poput retiarius naoružan svojom mrežom i trozupcem (poput stiliziranog ribara), koji je često bio postavljen protiv murmillo sa svojom razmetljivom kacigom i odjećom polu-čovjek polu-riba.

Nažalost, status većine gladijatora bio je toliko nizak da nisu imali ni riječi kada je u pitanju značajna promjena pravila u velikim natjecanjima. Te su odluke i tematske izmjene obično donosile urednik prije početka gladijatorske utakmice. Međutim, bilo je i trenutaka kada su se pravila nepravedno iskorištavala kako bi jedan tip gladijatora imao prednost nad drugim. Na primjer, obično se vjeruje da je Caligula namjerno napravio murmillo gladijatori smanjuju svoj oklop jer je favorizirao njihove protivnike-gladijatore tračkog tipa.

Kazalište krvne požude, za razliku od kaotične borbe -

Kao što možemo zaključiti iz tematske prezentacije različitih vrsta gladijatora, ambicija gladijatorskih borbi unutar arene doista je krenula kazališnom rutom, za razliku od praktične borbe. Neki od nas mogu zamisliti takve mračne, ali krvave afere iz scena filma Gladijator (izmišljeni opseg koji inače nije bio povijestan u mnogim pogledima).

U tu svrhu, gladijatori nisu bili samo odjeveni tako da izgledaju zamamno i egzotično, već je i način na koji su se borili imao koreografski element koji je produžio opseg borbe, umjesto brzog i učinkovitog slanja njihovih protivnika. No, u tome je lagao paradoksalni opseg takvih natjecanja, gdje su fantazijski sklopovi odigrali svoju ulogu u zabavi publike, dok je stvarnost smrti i teških ozljeda odigrala svoju ulogu u utjecaju na borce.

The Naumachia - Borba brodova ‘Gladijatorija’

Budući da smo donijeli opseg fantastičnih elemenata, nijedan spektakl nije premašio rimsku sklonost prema veličini i kasapljenju od naumachia (doslovno ‘pomorska borba’). Vjeruje se da ga je osnovao sam Julije Cezar, prvi od ovih masivnih angažmana izveden je na posebno iskopanom jezeru kraj Marsovog polja (u Rimu).

Kad se ovo jezero napunilo vodom, čitavo je područje lako moglo primiti 16 velikih ratnih galija s više od 4000 veslača. Na tim ogromnim brodovima organizatori su natjerali više od 2000 zatvorenika - koji su bili tematski odjeveni u rimske neprijatelje, a zatim su naredili da se međusobno bore do smrti. Neki od ovih grandiozno zamišljenih događaja naumachia dobili su toliko pompe da su kasniji carevi povremeno morali isprazniti zatvore kako bi nadoknadili ogroman broj 'boraca' na brodovima.

Prema jednom posebnom incidentu (kako je spomenuo Suetonius), kada su zatvorenici na brodovima uobičajeno proglasili 'mi koji ćemo umrijeti, pozdravljamo vas', car Klaudije je napravio tešku pogrešku odgovorivši 'ili možda ne!'. To je ulijevalo novi osjećaj nade među zatvorenicima, koji su se udaljili od svojih plovila jedan od drugog. Takvi 'miroljubivi' potezi potaknuli su publiku gladnu spektakla da počne nerede.

Na to je Klaudije pobjesnio i morao je zaprijetiti masakrom ovih zaluđenih gledatelja slanjem svojih trupa. Na sreću, preživjelima iz lažne pomorske bitke omogućen je život. Slijedom toga, kasnije naumachiae provedene su pod strogim nadzorom rimskih trupa koje su štitile periferiju jezera, a bile su podržane opsadnim oružjem poput ballistae i drugi katapulti. Još jednom, popularnost takvih događaja potvrđena je astronomskim brojevima - poput jedne prilike 500.000 prijavljenih ljudi koji su prisustvovali naumachia na jezeru Fucine koje je bilo 60 milja istočno od Rima.

Šanse za preživljavanje -

Svi ovi ozbiljni incidenti, bizarni zakoni i veliki spektakli prirodno nas dovode do pitanja - koliko je šanse prosječni gladijator imao da preživi proces? Sada, prema munera tradicije, najbolje borbe imale su za posljedicu žrtve. U fazi Republike trendovi krvavih susreta bili su zapravo prilično česti, a neke su borbe već najavljene sine missus (gdje bi gubitnik umro).

Međutim, u prvoj fazi Rimskog Carstva takve su borbe bile zabranjene (po nalogu Augusta Cezara) - čime je omogućena 'plemenitija' praksa u kojoj je izgubljeni gladijator često bio pomilovan ako je pokazao hrabrost tijekom borbi. Ove promjene društvenih vrijednosti odražavaju broj žrtava nađenih u dokazima.

Na primjer, prema povjesničaru Georgeu Villeu, u stotinu analiziranih dvoboja iz 1. stoljeća poslije Krista umrlo je samo oko 19 gladijatora od proučenih 200 primjeraka. No takve su se brojke pogoršale u narednim godinama rimskog imperija nastalim unutarnjim sukobima i oštrijim mjerama. S tim u vezi, procjenjuje se da je do 3. stoljeća poslije Krista barem jedan od gladijatora poginuo ili podlegao ozljedama u svakom alternativnom scenariju borbe.

Rudis - simbolični drveni mač ‘slobode’

Uz sve rečeno i učinjeno, još je postojala nada da će stvarni gladijatori (za razliku od kriminalaca) steći slobodu od izrabljivačkog ropstva. Takve mjere pseudoslobode nudile su se gladijatorima koji su pokazali iznimnu hrabrost i borbenost u svom dugom gladijatorskom stažu. To je simboliziralo rudis - drveni mač koji je sudioniku davan u tako rijetkim prilikama.

Sada smo upotrijebili izraz 'pseudo-sloboda' jer se, po samoj prirodi odvojenih rimskih zakona, gladijatori nisu mogli doista označiti kao slobodni ljudi. Međutim, slava i bogatstvo koje su se mogli steći njihovim hrabrim podvizima u areni i dalje su nadahnuli mnoge gladijatore u borbi za rudis - čime se naizgled aludira na temeljnu prirodu čovjeka i njegovu jednostavnu slobodu.

*Bilješka - Članak je ažuriran 3. siječnja 2020.

Reference knjiga: Gladijatori 100. pr. Kr. - 200. godine poslije Krista (Autor Stephen Wisdom) / Gladijatori i cezari: Moć spektakla u starom Rimu (Autor: Eckart Köhne, Cornelia Ewigleben)


Go-To Festival Shoe ima drevne korijene

Da biste ponovo vidjeli ovaj članak, posjetite Moj profil, a zatim Pogledajte spremljene priče.

Da biste ponovo vidjeli ovaj članak, posjetite Moj profil, a zatim Pogledajte spremljene priče.

Proljetno neoklasično oživljavanje sandala neizbježno je, stoga se nemojte iznenaditi ako se nađete u liftu s moćnom amazonkom ili čekate u redu u Starbucksu s božicom posljednjih dana. Prepoznat ćete je po cipelama, sandalama sa gladijatorskim vezicama koje prelaze preko gipkih, golih nogu ili proviruju ispod tekućeg midija.

Sandala, koja je započela kao najosnovnija i najutilitarnija vrsta obuće - nešto čvrsto pričvršćeno za stopalo koje je nudilo zaštitu - brzo je postala oznaka spola, statusa, ranga i mode. Kad su prikazani u drevnoj (i modernoj) umjetnosti, često ih nose bogovi. A u starom Rimu ulicu kordonara identificirao je kip Apolona, ​​njihovog božanstva zaštitnika.

Među plebejcima, obuća je postala marker statusa. Dama s činom mogla bi biti u pratnji na izletu sa sluškinjom koja nosi sandaltika, ili tepih posebno dizajniran za nošenje raznih cipela za različite prigode. Baš kao i danas, sandale mogu biti složene, svijetle boje, visoke ili niske.

Isabeli Fontana Patrick Demarchelier Vogue

Fotografirao Patrick Demarchelier, Vogue, Rujna 2008

Iako popularna plaža, cipela za odmaralište - kakvu biste mogli pokupiti od lokalnog zanatlije dok ste na odmoru u primorskom gradu i dragocjeno je za uspomenu na sunčani bijeg - gladijator nije doista dobio potpuni modni tretman sve do ministara šezdesete. Veselje je skrenulo pozornost na stalno rastuće porublje i novootkrivene noge, a prisvojili su ga Space Age i utopijski dizajneri hipija koji su iz različitih razloga privukli njegove klasične korijene.

Godine 1968. Vogue, koja je ranije dodala futurističku modu ** Paca Rabannea ** sandalama s "vezanim cijelim putem", posvetila je nekoliko stranica "Ganimedu-izgled grčkog dječaka". U časopisu, ovo je prevedeno u dizajnerske minidress -e i staklenike na ulici. Vibracija je bila malo više boho. Paparazzi su pukli Patti "Ja sam s bendom" Boyd, kao prvo, vraćajući se iz San Frana u sandalama vezanim do koljena s ljuljajućim resama.

Iako nikada nije izašla iz mode, sandala s remenima ponovno ima renesansu za proljeće. Čini se više nego slučajnošću da bi se trebali ponovno pojaviti kao, _Vogue’_ Sarah Mower piše: "feministička svijest probija granice modnih revija." (Kadrovski kadar modela protesta Cue Chanel.) Drago, na kraju krajeva, ima nevjerojatne transformacijske moći. Dok bi ravna sandala na naramenicu mogla privući nečiju unutarnju Xenu ili biti najbolji način za ukrašavanje festivalskog izgleda, par s visokim potpeticama može dati trenutni status božice, što je presedan doslovno davno stvorio starogrčki pjesnik Eshil koji je razvio podigao klin kako bi „dao dodatno veličanstvo“, izvještava Wilcox, „bogovima i herojima svojih drama“.

Fotografirao Franco Rubartelli, Vogue, 1. lipnja 1968. godine

Dok pojačavate igru ​​sandala, predstavljamo vizualnu povijest gladijatorske sandale sa stranica Vogue na srebrni ekran. Ovdje ćete za 30 sekundi ugledati šest stopa visine Veruschka povratak prirodi u pustinji, Raquel Welch u epu o sandali i maču, i Raquel Zimmermann upadajući u grčku pozu za Vogue.


GLADIJATOR: Prava priča

Ova web stranica pruža povijesni uvid u stvarne likove i događaje prikazane u filmu Gladijator Ridleyja Scotta. Raspravlja o radnji filma i njegovom završetku, pa ako niste još gledali film, možda ćete se htjeti vratiti kasnije! Ne bih vam ga htio pokvariti!

JE RIDLEY SCOTT ’S FILM GLADIJATOR ISTINITA PRIČA?

Iako je očito da su filmaši proveli impresivnu količinu povijesnih i znanstvenih istraživanja, veliki dio radnje je fikcija. Čini se da je fikcija inspirirana stvarnim povijesnim događajima, što će biti prikazano u odgovarajućim odjeljcima u nastavku. U tom smislu, film se možda najbolje vidi kao kolaž ili umjetnički prikaz drevne povijesti, a ne kao točna, kronološka rekonstrukcija događaja. Iako je sam po sebi vrlo originalan, radnja filma neobično podsjeća na film iz 1964. godine Pad Rimskog Carstva godine u režiji Anthonyja Manna.

Čini se da Scott pokušava prezentirati ne samo rekonstrukciju empirijskih činjenica, već nam i hrabro prezentirati svoju viziju kulture starog Rima, duh njegova vremena i psihološki pogled karakterističan za njegovo razdoblje. Jednom riječju, duh vremena, a za psihologiju likova, njihove mentalite.

Ovo područje filma, iako nesavršeno, ipak je jače od njegove stvarne povijesne točnosti. Fellini je na svoj način pokušao učiniti nešto slično u svom remek -djelu iz 1969. godine Satirikon, temeljeno na antičkom djelu Petronius Arbiter, koje istražuje psihologiju antičkog vremena, uz njegovu povijest. Scott, iako historiografski nesavršen, zbog ovog stvaralačkog napora u karakterizaciji, u određenoj mjeri izbjegava anakronizme psihologije prisutne u takvim filmovima kao što su Spartak, Kleopatra i Ben Hur, gdje se čini da likovi misle i djeluju isključivo poput modernih osoba, dok je nosio neiskvarenu antičku nošnju.

▼ Woodburytype, Jean-Léon Gérôme in his Studio with Large Model of The Gladiators,(1877), The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, digital image courtesy of the Getty’s Open Content Program.

Clearly it would seem, director Scott, and screenwriter David Franzoni, believe that history, at least as they present it, is not a regurgitation of empirical data, but instead an attempt to understand the psychology and culture of its characters, however, the greater purpose of the film is simply to tell a good story. Nevertheless, the film does emphasize Maximus’s worship of his family and ancestors, his obsessive compulsion for virtue and duty, and the stoical elements ever present in his character, which seem to be learned and informed, on the part of those who created this character. The film is inspired by real events, but should, and can not, be taken as an accurate historical source for true events, many of which are known to be different, and with certainty.

WHAT WAS MARCUS AURELIUS REALLY LIKE?

Marcus Aurelius was, as well as emperor from 161 to 180 CE, a stoic philosopher. He really did wage battles along the fr ontier as depicted in the film, and is remembered by historians of his time as a competent ruler, whom they favour. His name in full was Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, and these are the titles to which he would have been referred, not the anachronistic “sire” and “my lord” as in the film.

His work The Meditations, although more a compilation of existing stoical thought than a work of great originality, remains a highly readable classic in philosophy.

▼ Title pages from The Emperor Marcus Antoninus : his conversation with himself (The Meditations), Marcus Aurelius, London: (1701), Duke University Libraries.

An interesting fact omitted in the film, was that his adoptive brother and husband to daughter Lucilla, Lucius Verus, was made co- emperor with Marcus. In the time of the Republic, Rome was not ruled by emperors, but rather by two consuls. These consuls, with equal power, were to guard against dictatorship. So, perhaps Marcus really did have Republican inclinations, as attested to in the film, or perhaps this was a Machiavellian maneuver undertaken in an attempt to avoid the fate of the perceived dictator Julius Caesar. This was the first time in history that the Roman Empire had two joint emperors of formally equal constitutional status and powers, although in reality, Marcus was clearly the ruler of Rome.

▼ Bronze bust of Lucius Verus, Roman, (Ca. 170 – 180 CE), The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, digital image courtesy of the Getty’s Open Content Program.

WHAT WAS COMMODUS REALLY LIKE?

If the ancient sources can be trusted, Commodus was even more bizarre in real life than he was in the film.

Commodus, whose full name was Caesar Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus, was proclaimed Caesar at age 5 and joint emperor (co-Augustus) at the age of 17, in 177 CE, by his father, Marcus Aurelius. Reality was very different than the film in this instance. Commodus was, as depicted in Gladiator, present with his father during the Danubian wars, and yes, this is where Marcus Aurelius died. As for the actual circumstances of his father’s death, see below.

Historians from the time of Commodus have not been kind to him. As aristocratic intellectuals, they were not amused by his crude antics. Hence, our present day historiography still reflects, rightly or wrongly, this ancient bias. His father, possessing the virtues seen as noble by the literate aristocracy, was, and often still is, regarded as a great man, while his son was hated by the Senate and ridiculed by historians. Yet it is said that the army and the lower classes loved him. Cassius Dio, a senator and historian who lived during the reign of both Commodus and his father wrote, in regards to the accession of Commodus, that “our history now descends from a kingdom of gold to one of iron and rust, as affairs did for the Romans of that day.”

▼ Coin of Commodus Ca. 180 CE, Obverse: Laureate Bust of Commodus, facing right, COMMODVS ANT AVG TR P II, Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins.

Indeed, some historians even question his sanity. Commodus, in his own time, was accused of being a megalomaniac. He renamed Rome Colonia Commodiana, the “Colony of Commodus”, and renamed the months of the year after titles held in his honour, namely, Lucius, Aelius, Aurelius, Commodus, Augustus, Herculeus, Romanus, Exsuperatorius, Amazonius, Invictus, Felix, and Pius. The Senate was renamed the Commodian Fortunate Senate, and the Roman people were given the name Commodianus.

Historian Aelius Lampridius tells us that “Commodus lived, rioting in the palace amid banquets and in baths along with 300 concubines, gathered together for their beauty and chosen from both matrons and harlots… By his orders concubines were debauched before his own eyes, and he was not free from the disgrace of intimacy with young men, defiling every part of his body in dealings with persons of either sex.”

Commodus went so far as to declare himself the new founder of Rome, a “new Romulus”. In attempting to boast a new “Golden Age” of Rome, he was clearly emulating his father. But the effect was to make him the laughing stock of the aristocratic class.

DID COMMODUS REALLY KILL HIS FATHER?

Some sources suspect that he did. The fact that he was present at the time, made a hasty peace with the enemy, and a quick retreat back to Rome in a victory triumph, has fueled speculation. The official story is that Marcus Aurelius died of plague.

DID COMMODUS REALLY FIGHT AS A GLADIATOR?

In this case, the truth is even stranger than the fiction. Commodus claimed to be descended from the God Hercules, and even began to dress like him, wearing lion skins and carrying a club.

The historian Herodian wrote that “in his gladiatorial combats, he defeated his opponents with ease, and he did no more than wound them, since they all submitted to him, but only because they knew he was the emperor, not because he was truly a gladiator.”

▼ Oil on Canvas, Pollice Verso, Jean-Léon Gérôme, (1872), Phoenix Art Museum.

He also fought wild beasts. Dio Cassius wrote that Commodus killed five hippopotami at one time. He also killed two elephants, several rhinoceroses, and a giraffe “with the greatest of ease”. Herodian tells us further that Commodus had a special platform constructed which encircled the arena, from which he would display his skills as a hunter. He is recorded to have kil led one hundred leopards with one hundred javelins. As a theatrical treat, he would slice the heads off of ostriches with crescent-headed arrows, which would then run around the amphitheater headless.

Dio Cassius reveals that Senators were m ade to attend these spectacles, and that on one occasion Commodus killed an ostrich and displayed the severed head in one hand, his sword dripping with blood in the other, thus implying that he could treat them the same way.

▼ Ippolito Caffi (Italian, 1809 – 1866 ), Interior of the Colosseum, , watercolor and gouache over graphite on wove paper, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

DID COMMODUS REALLY DIE IN THE ARENA?

However he was assassinated, and, by an athlete. There were numerous plots and attempts upon his life, but the one which finally succeeded was carried out by a wrestler named Narcissus, while Commodus was in his b ath. The plot was orchestrated by his closest advisors, and apparently even included his mistress, Marcia.

It occurred on the very last day of the year 192 CE, and indeed, exactly when the rest of Rome was preparing festivities for the New Year, 193 CE. However, it was feared and believed by insiders that Commodus planned to kill the consuls-elect, who by both tradition and jurisprudence were to begin their terms upon New Year’s Day, and be sworn in as consul himself, instead. This he reportedly was going to do even outfitted as a gladiator, in his lion skins, with appropriate weapons. This was the final outrage, according to our ancient sources, and thus, his fate was sealed.

▼ Terracotta lamp illustrating gladiators in combat, North Africa, (late 1st – early 2nd century CE), The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, digital image courtesy of the Getty’s Open Content Program.

Commodus ruled for 12 years, a much longer period than alluded to in the film. Dio Cassius wrote that Commodus was “a greater curse to the Romans than any pestilence or any crime.”

WAS THE REPUBLIC RESTORED AFTER THE DEATH OF COMMODUS?

The film is very wrong on this count. A republic is a system of government which does not have a hereditary monarch. An emperor is a monarch. The United States for instance is a republic, and England is not.

Rome was not founded as a republic, as was stated erroneously by a senator, who would have known better, as all educated Romans would hold this as basic knowledge, in the film. Legend has it that Rome was originally ruled by Etruscan kings. The first king was Romulus. The kings were overthrown in a revolution, which was sparked by the rape of Lucretia, in 509 BCE, by Sextus Tarquin, the son of the seventh and last king, Tarquinius Superbus.

Dictators and kings were thereafter despised by Romans, hence, the ideological adulation of a republican system of government, which was a central theme of Roman history, and thus correctly emphasized in the movie, and unlikely by accident, it should be noted.

After Commodus was murdered, the Senate met before daybreak, and declared sixty-six year old Pertinax, who was the son of a former slave, emperor. Pertinax thus became emperor on January 1st, but he was murdered by a group of soldiers the following March, after less than three months in power.

▼ Etching, Rome Ancienne, Jean Daullé, (1759), The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, digital image courtesy of the Getty’s Open Content Program.

WHAT WAS MAXIMUS REALLY LIKE?

Maximus Decimus Meridius (his full name is stated only once in the film) is a fictitious character!

Although he did not exist, he seems as if he could be be a composite of actual historical figures. In the film, Maximus was Marcus Aurelius’ general. There was in fact a general by the name of Avidius Cassius, who was involved in the military campaign shown in the film, and, upon hearing a rumor of Marcus Aurelius’ death, declared himself emperor. He however, was assassinated by his own soldiers. It is true that there was, in the later Empire, a General by the name of Maximus who appears to have had revolutionary intentions. He is most likely an inspiration as well.

Maximus also reminds one of the emperor Diocletian. Remember that in the film, Marcus Aurelius names Maximus as his heir. Diocletian, who ruled Rome from 284 to 305 CE, was born in the lower cl asses, like Maximus. He eventu ally became his emperor’s trusted favourite and bodyguard, and later became a general. Finally he was named heir, and thus became emperor.

▼ Marble Sculpture, Bust of Emperor Commodus, (Ca. 180 – 185 CE), The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, digital image courtesy of the Getty’s Open Content Program.

Commodus, in reality, was not murdered in the arena by Maximus. He was however murdered by a wrestler. So the character Maximus, whil e fictitious, is not that far-fetched. He appears credibly, as if he could perhaps be inspired by a collage of other, real, historical figures that have been researched, even if not one himself.

As for his personality, he was definitely a stoic, as evidenced by his sense of obligation to the state, and concern for duty and virtue. This makes sense, given his admiration for Marcus Aurelius, who was a stoic philosopher. One difficulty is, even though many Romans (and not just Christians) believed in an afterlife, stoics usually did not. So this is problematic pertaining to his mentalite in the film, as it is a glaring inconsistency with his other somewhat more correctly presented stoical beliefs .

DID SENATOR GRACCHUS REALLY EXIST?

The ideology which he represents is however, somewhat authentic. Senator Gracchus appears to be based upon Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus. During the Republic, these two brothers, were, one after the other, plebeian tribunes (not senators). They were champions of the common people, and paid the cost with their lives.

Tiberius Gracchus was elected tribune of the people in 133 BCE, and fought for reforms of benefit to the plebeians. He was murdered by opponents. His brother Gaius was elected tribune of the people in 123 BCE, and attempted the continuation of popular reforms. He was also murdered. It is problematic that in the film Gracchus was a senator, in the sense that it was the senatorial class which opposed Gauis and Tiberius, and even participated in their murder.

The political infrastructure of ancient Rome evolved over time, and was actually more complex than portrayed in the film. Other important political entities, along with the Senate, were the Plebeian Tribunate, as well as the Comitia Centuriata. These, along with two Consuls who would rule jointly, are the basic Republican institutions so cherished by Romans, and which emperors would claim to restore.

DID LUCILLA REALLY PLOT AGAINST HER BROTHER?

Commodus really did have a sister Lucilla, and she hated her brother. Lucilla was at one time married to Lucius Verus, as her son tells Maximus in the film. What is not said is that Verus was co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius. Lucilla conspired against Commodus, and attempted to have him assassinated in 182 CE. Commodus banished Lucilla to the island of Capreae as punishment, and ordered her execution shortly after. So then, the film portrayal is actually entirely backwards, as Commodus not only outlived Lucilla, he was responsible for her death, and not the other way around, as Hollywood would have it.

▼ Coin of Lucilla Ca. 180 CE, Obverse: Bust of Lucilla, facing right, LVCILLA AVGVSTA, Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins.

▼ Coin of Lucilla Ca. 180 CE, Reverse: Juno standing left, raising hand and holding baby, IVNONI LVCINAE, Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins.

Incidentally, ancient historians are not too shy to reveal details, such as it was his other sisters, not Lucilla, that Commodus reputedly enjoyed having degrading sexual relations with.

DID WOMEN REALLY FIGHT IN THE ARENA?

Some criticism by film reviewers has been levied towards Scott for having a female gladiator. However, the ancient sources are clear they did in fact exist. Tacitus, for instance, wrote that Nero staged “a number of gladiatorial shows, equal in magnificence to their predecessors, though more women of rank and senators disgraced themselves in the arena”. Petronius, in The Satyricon, wrote of female charioteers. Dio Cassius explained how some women performed as venatores, that is gladiators who fought wild beasts. The Emperor Domitian staged games in which women battled pygmies.

▼ Image of the Roman Colosseum, The Continent by Queenboro’ via Flushing, A handbook for English and American tourists, (1894), The British Library, HMNTS 10097.c.31.

Women were forbidden from gladiatorial performances shortly after the time of Commodus, by the emperor Alexander Severus, in 200 CE.

WHAT’S WITH THE TATTOO WORN BY MAXIMUS?

S.P.Q.R., the letters of the tattoo worn by Maximus, was an abbreviation for an oft used Latin phrase whose English translation is “the Senate and People of Rome”.

The Latin word for “tattoo” was stigma, and our modern meaning of stigmatize, as a pejorative, has clearly evolved from the Latin. It was slaves, gladiators, criminals, and later, soldiers, who were tattooed, as an identifying mark.

Upper class Romans did not partake in tattooing, which they associated with either marginal groups, or foreigners, such as Thracians, who were known to tattoo extensively. The emperor Caligula is said to have forced individuals of rank to become tattooed as an embarrassment.

▼ Image of a Roman Legion’s Standard with SPQR, L’ Algérie Ouvrage Illustré (1885), The British Library, HMNTS 10097.c.31.

In late antiquity, the Roman army consisted largely of mercenaries, they were tattooed in order that deserters could be identified.

The sixth century Roman physician, Aetius, wrote that:

“Stigmates are the marks which are made on the face and other parts of the body. We see such marks on the hands of soldiers. To perform the operation they use ink made according to this formula: Egyptian pine wood (acacia) and especially the bark, one pound corroded bronze, two ounces gall, two ounces vitriol, one ounce. Mix well and sift… First wash the place to be tattooed with leek juice and then prick in the design with pointed needles until blood is drawn. Then rub in the ink.”

The Christian emperor Constantine, ca. 325 CE, decreed that individuals condemned to fight as gladiators or to work in the mines could be tattooed on the legs or the hands, but not on the face, because “the face, which has been formed in the image of the divine beauty, should be defiled as little as possible.”

▼ Engraved Gem, Warrior or Gladiator, European, (Ca. 1750 – 1850 CE), The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, digital image courtesy of the Getty’s Open Content Program.

In 787, Pope Hadrian the First prohibited tattooing altogether, due to its association with superstition, paganism, and the marginal classes.


Crassus

By the time Spartacus had reached the straits a new leader named Marcus Licinius Crassus had taken command of the Roman forces. Strauss notes that he was a wealthy individual, able to raise a large army and pay them, at least in part, out of his own pocket.

In his business dealings Plutarch said that he had a scheme where “he bought up the burning properties and the buildings in the neighborhood of those alight, as the owners would surrender them for a small sum of money out of fear and uncertainty.” (Translation from Roman Social History: A Sourcebook, Routledge, 2007).

In his military life he was even more ruthless. Among his forces were the remnants of legions belonging to Gellius and Lentulus that had been previously defeated by Spartacus. As a consequence “Crassus selected every tenth man from the consular legions by lot and had him executed,” wrote Appian. He also revived a practice called “decimation” where units that ran away from the enemy would draw lots and have a random number of soldiers killed by being clubbed or stoned to death.

Needless to say discipline tightened under Crassus. Still, knowing that many of Rome’s best soldiers were outside Italy, he proceeded carefully when moving against Spartacus. Rather than try and openly battle Spartacus in southern Italy he built a system of fortifications centred on the Melia Ridge in an effort to trap Spartacus and starve his troops.

Spartacus responded to the situation by offering Crassus a peace treaty which Crassus swiftly rejected. Perhaps seeing his own soldiers beginning to waver Spartacus stiffened their resolve by crucifying a Roman soldier where all could see. It served “as a visual demonstration to his own men of what would happen to them if they did not win,” wrote Appian. Spartacus eventually managed to break through Crassus’s trap by filling in one his trenches (allegedly with human bodies) and using his cavalry to punch through.

While Spartacus escaped Crassus’s trap he faced serious consequences. Ancient writers say that he lost thousands of soldiers in the break out. Furthermore a split emerged in the rebel camp. A dissident group led by Castus and Gannicus, which included many Celtic and German troops, broke away from Spartacus and set off on their own. Additionally Crassus’s force was still largely intact while another force, led by Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, was about to land at Brundisium and a third force, led by Pompey, was on its way to Italy from Spain.

Spartacus’s force was now divided and increasingly surrounded and the stage was set for the final battle.


Roman Gladiator

A Roman gladiator was an ancient professional fighter who usually specialised with particular weapons and types of armour. They fought before the public in hugely popular organised games held in large purpose-built arenas throughout the Roman Empire from 105 BCE to 404 CE (official contests).

As fights were usually to the death, gladiators had a short life expectancy and so, although it was in some respects a glamorous profession, the majority of fighters were slaves, former slaves or condemned prisoners. Without doubt, gladiator spectacles were one of the most-watched forms of popular entertainment in the Roman world.

Oglas

Etruscan Origins

The Romans were influenced by their predecessors in Italy, the Etruscans, in many ways. For example, in the use of animal sacrifice for divining the future, the use of the symbolic fasces and organising gladiatorial games. The Etruscans associated these contests with the rites of death and so they had a certain religious significance. Although the first privately organised Roman gladiator contests in 264 BCE were to commemorate the death of a father, the later official contests discarded this element. Vestiges of the religious origins did, however, remain in the act of finishing off fallen gladiators. In this case, an attendant would strike a blow to the forehead of the injured. The attendant would wear a costume representing Hermes the messenger god who escorted souls to the underworld or Charun (the Etruscan equivalent). The presence of the divine Emperor himself, accompanied by priests and the Vestal Virgins also lent a certain pseudo-religious air to the contests.

Kings of Entertainment

Roman gladiator games were an opportunity for emperors and rich aristocrats to display their wealth to the populace, to commemorate military victories, mark visits from important officials, celebrate birthdays or simply to distract the populace from the political and economic problems of the day. The appeal to the public of the games was as bloody entertainment and the fascination which came from contests which were literally a matter of life and death. Hugely popular events were held in massive arenas throughout the Roman Empire, with the Colosseum (or Flavian Amphitheatre) the biggest of them all. Thirty, forty or even fifty thousand spectators from all sections of Roman society flocked to be entertained by gory spectacles where wild and exotic animals were hunted, prisoners were executed, religious martyrs were thrown to the lions and the stars of the show, symbols of the Roman virtues of honour and courage, the gladiators, employed all their martial skills in a kill or be killed contest. It is a popular misconception that gladiators saluted their emperor at the beginning of each show with the line: Ave imperator, morituri te salutant! (Hail emperor, we who are about to die salute you!), whereas, in reality, this line was said by prisoners about to be killed in the mock naval battles (naumachia), also held in the arenas on special occasions.

Oglas

Gladiators most often came from a slave or criminal background but also many prisoners of war were forced to perform in the arenas. There were also cases of bankrupt aristocrats forced to earn a living by the sword, for example, Sempronius, a descendant of the powerful Gracchi clan. It is also of note that until their outlaw by Septimius Severus in 200 CE, women were permitted to fight as gladiators. There were special gladiator schools set up throughout the Empire Rome itself had three such barracks and Capua was particularly famous for the gladiators produced there. Agents scouted the empire for potential gladiators to meet the ever-increasing demand and fill the training schools which must have had a phenomenal turnover of fighters. Conditions in the schools were similar to any other prison, small cells and shackles for all, however, the food was better (e.g. fortifying barley), and trainees received the best possible medical attention they were, after all, an expensive investment.

Prijavite se za naš besplatni tjedni bilten putem e -pošte!

Armour & Weapons

The term gladiator derives from the Latin gladiatores in reference to their principal weapon the gladija or short sword. However, there was a wide range of other weapons employed in gladiator contests. The gladiators also wore armour and their helmets, in particular, were objects of great workmanship, richly embossed with decorative motifs and set with ostrich or peacock plumed crests. Weapons and armour though depended on which class a gladiator belonged to. There were four principal classes:

The Samnite class was named after the great Samnite warriors that Rome had fought and beaten in the early years of the Republic. Interestingly, the Romans, at least in the early days, used gladijator i Samnite as synonyms, suggesting an alternative origin to Etruscan for these contests. The most heavily armed, the Samnite had a sword or lance, a large square shield (štit) and protective armour on his right (sword) arm and left leg. The Thracian gladiator had a curved short sword (sica) and a very small square or round shield (parma) held in the fist to deflect blows. The Myrmillo gladiator was sometimes known as the fishman as he had a fish-shaped crest on his helmet. Like the Samnite, he carried a short sword and štit but had armour only of padding on arm and leg. The Retiarius had no helmet or armour other than a padded shoulder piece and he carried a weighted net. He would try to entangle his opponent by throwing the net and then stab with his trident.

Oglas

Gladiators fought in particular combinations, usually to provide a contrast between slower, more heavily armoured classes such as the Myrmillo against quicker, less protected gladiators such as the Retiarius. There were many other lesser types of gladiators with various combinations of weapons and armour and names changed over time, for example, 'Samnite' and 'Gaul' became politically incorrect when these nations became allies. Other types of combatants also included archers, boxers, and the bestiarii who fought animals in the wild beast hunts.

Winners & Losers

Those who lacked the enthusiasm to fight were cajoled by their manager (lanista) and his team of slaves who brandished leather whips or red-hot metal bars. No doubt the indignant roars from 40,000 spectators and the unrelenting attacks of one's opponent also convinced many to fight till the end. There were cases of refusal to fight: Perhaps one of the more famous was in the gladiator games organised by Quintus Aurelius Symmachus c. 401 CE when the Germanic prisoners who were scheduled to fight decided instead to strangle each other in their cells rather than provide a spectacle for the Roman populace.

The losing gladiator, if not killed outright, often appealed for mercy by dropping his weapon and shield and raising a finger. His adversary could then decide to be lenient, although, as there was a significant risk of meeting again in the arena, it was considered good professional practice to kill your opponent. If the emperor were present then he would decide, although the crowd would certainly try to influence his judgement by waving cloths or gesturing with their hands - raised thumbs and shouts of Mitte! meant 'let him go', thumbs down (pollice verso) i Iugula! meant 'execute him'.

Oglas

Victors in the contests, particularly those with many fights behind them, became darlings of the crowd and as surviving graffiti on Roman buildings indicates, they were particularly popular with women - cases of affairs with aristocratic ladies and even elopement were not unknown. Graffiti from Pompeii gives a fascinating insight into how the gladiators were seen by the general public: Oceanus 'the barmaid's choice' or another was described as decus puellarum, suspirium puellarum (the delight and sighed-for joy of girls) and also written were how many victories some attained: Petronius Octavius 35 (his last), Severus 55, Nascia 60. However, it should be noted that the average was much lower and there were even some games in which victors fought other winners until only one gladiator was left standing. More material rewards for winning one's contest included the prestigious palm branch of victory, often a crown, a silver dish heaped with prize money and perhaps, after years of victories, even freedom.

Famous Gladiators

Perhaps the most famous gladiator of all was Spartacus, who led an uprising of gladiators and slaves from Capua, the leading producer of gladiators, in 73 BCE. From Thrace, the former Roman soldier had become a bandit until his capture and forced training as a gladiator. He and seventy comrades escaped from their training school and set up a defensive camp on the slopes of Vesuvius. Besieged, they then fled their position and rampaged through the countryside of Campania, collecting followers as they went and moulding them into an efficient fighting force. Battling his way north to the Alps, Spartacus displayed great military leadership in defeating four Roman armies on no less than nine occasions. Far from being a saint though, when a friend died in battle, Spartacus, in the old custom, arranged for three hundred Roman prisoners to fight gladiator contests in honour of his fallen comrade. After two years of revolt, the armies of Marcus Licinius Crassus finally cornered and quashed the rebels in Apulia in the south of Italy. As a warning to others, 6,000 of the prisoners were crucified along the Appian Way between Capua and Rome. Another consequence of this disturbing episode was that from then on, the number of gladiators owned by private citizens was strictly controlled.

Another famous gladiator was, in fact, a non-professional. Emperor Commodus (r. 180-192 CE) was keen and mad enough to compete himself in the arena, indeed, there were even rumours that he was the illegitimate son of a gladiator. One might argue that Commodus was a professional as he made sure to draw a fantastic salary for his appearances in the Colosseum. However, it is unlikely that Commodus, usually dressed as Mercury, was ever in any real danger during the hundreds of contests he fought in the arena, and his most frequent participation was as a slaughterer of wild animals, usually from a protected platform using a bow.

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The End of the Show

Gladiator contests, at odds with the new Christian-minded Empire, finally came to an end in 404 CE. Emperor Honorius had closed down the gladiator schools five years before and the final straw for the games came when a monk from Asia Minor, one Telemachus, leapt between two gladiators to stop the bloodshed and the indignant crowd stoned the monk to death. Honorius in consequence formally prohibited gladiatorial contests, although, condemned criminals continued the wild animal hunts for another century or so. Many Romans no doubt lamented the loss of a pastime that was such a part of the fabric of Roman life, but the end of all things Roman was near, for, just six years later, the Visigoths led by Alaric would sack the Eternal City itself.


Is Gladiator Based on a True Story?

Hollywood is reputed for having a wholesale disregard for historical accuracy. Director Ridley Scott&rsquos historical flick ‘Gladiator’ was adored by critics and casual audience alike, and upon its release in 2000, the film broke box office records, became ridiculously popular, and was showered with awards and accolades. While Hans Zimmer was nominated for an Oscar for the background score, Russell Crowe&rsquos steely and soulful acting did not go unnoticed by the Oscar committee he bagged an Academy Award for the same.

Backed with Ridley Scott&rsquos atmospheric vision and stellar acting on the part of Russell Crowe as Maximus and Joaquin Phoenix as the ruthless king Commodus, it seemed as if nothing could go wrong with the film. And yet, some things did. So, how historically accurate is this epic masterpiece? Let&rsquos find out!

Is ‘Gladiator’ Based on a True Story?

‘Gladiator’ is partially based on a true story. But it fictionalizes history to make it look theatrical and sentimentally evocative. If Shakespeare can manipulate history to give us timeless tales of love, betrayal, and revenge, it seems unfair to be harsh on Ridley Scott for tweaking history for purposes of gripping storytelling. Also, in Ridley Scott&rsquos defense, he tries to portray the Roman culture and society more accurately than some of the early Hollywood depictions of Rome in films like ‘Ben-Hur’ and ‘Cleopatra.’

Scott even took his commitment to historical accuracy a step further by appointing several historians as consultants. However, the apple fell quite far from the tree. As per reports, a few of the historians withdrew their names or did not want to be associated with the project since the final version had many historical glitches. Although, on the brighter side, the film initiated a revival in the study of Roman history in the US, which has henceforth been dubbed as the “Gladiator Effect.”

Marcus Aurelius Was Not Slain by His Son

In one of the film&rsquos most shocking moments, Commodus (Joaquin Phoenix) kills his father and emperor, Marcus Aurelius, after getting to know that the emperor wishes to appoint not his son but his favorite General Maximus as the protector of the Roman Empire. The moment appropriately conveys the erratic disposition that the character of Commodus embodies as the audience begins to fathom the depths of the nature of his character. However, there is a slight problem. Marcus Aurelius was not murdered by his young heir.

According to history books, the philosopher-emperor bit the dust in 180 AD while leading his army in a conflict against a swarm of Germanic tribes from the North. While there remain debates among historians regarding the cause of his death, the most popular consensus is that he died of the Antonine Plague, which ravaged much of the Roman Empire between the years 165 AD and 180 AD.

The Truth about Commodus

In the film, Marcus defeats the horde of barbarians, but as history suggests, the conflict was brought to an end by Commodus when he signed a treaty with the barbarians. Commodus ruled the empire alongside Aurelius for around three years, and after his father&rsquos death, Commodus reigned for over twelve years, up until 192 AD, quite unlike the short period of rule that he is assigned to in the film. Also, while he engaged himself in gladiator battles, he did not die in the Colosseum. He was murdered by a gladiator called Narcissus while he was in his bath.

Is Maximus Wholly Fictional?

Maximus Decimus Meridius is one character in the film that is purely fictional, but it is speculated that the character has been modeled upon some historical figures. Among the list are Narcissus (Commodus&rsquos murderer and Maximus&rsquos name in the first draft), Spartacus (a rebellious slave), Cincinnatus (a farmer who ruled the empire for 15 days), Marcus Nonius Macrinus (an army general and a friend of Marcus Aurelius), and reportedly, Claudius Pompeianus (Commodus&rsquos sister Lucilla&rsquos husband).


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