Charles Pears

Charles Pears


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Charles Pears, rođen 1873., razvio je karijeru pomorskog slikara. Tijekom Prvog svjetskog rata Kruške je regrutirao Lord Beaverbrook, ministar informacija, kao ratni umjetnik. Većina njegovih devedeset tri slike prikazuje Kraljevsku mornaricu. Kruške su umrle 1958. godine.


Povijest Kruške

Postoje uvjerljivi arheološki dokazi iz iskopavanja starih stanovnika jezera u Švicarskoj da je europska kruška, Pyrus communis L., bila poznata po toj civilizaciji. Vjeruje se da je krušku poznavao prapovijesni čovjek, ali nema slaganja o tome je li jabuka bila prva ili je kruška. Drevna evropska kruška bitno se razlikovala od azijske kruške Prunus pyrifolia.

Engleski zapisi pokazuju da je 1629. godine kamenje krušaka poslala tvrtka Massachusetts tvrtki New England ” koloniste da posade i izrastu u drveće u Plymouthu, MA.

30. ožujka 1763. slavni Amerikanac George Mason upisao se u svoj opsežni voćarski dnevnik: “kalemljeno 10 crnih krušaka Worchester iz Colla … to su velika jela (gruba) voća za pečenje ” i stara francuska kruška raznolikost.

Utvrdu Frederica na otoku Saint Simons, Georgia, osnovali su engleski kolonisti 1733. godine, u isto vrijeme kada je naseljen grad Savannah. Kako bi doseljenicima omogućio samoodržive zalihe hrane, general Oglethorpe je razvio plan uvođenja drveća i biljaka za uzgoj u umjerenoj i suptropskoj klimi, što bi se pokazalo vrijednim za buduće farme i zasade voća i oraha u Georgiji. Ove ciljeve izvijestio je William Bartram u svojoj knjizi Travels koja je objavljena 1773., 40 godina kasnije. John Bartram, otac i suradnik Williama Bartrama, otputovao je na istraživačko putovanje u Istočnu Floridu, Karolinu i Georgiju djelomično kako bi istražio resurse i zalihe biljaka koje su Španjolci prepustili Englezima kao kolonijalne akvizicije.

Prinčev rasadnik osnovan je kao prvi američki rasadnik za sakupljanje, uzgoj i prodaju biljaka i drveća u Flushingu, New York 1737. godine, rasadnik Prince je oglasio 󈬚 stabla kruške za prodaju 1771. ”

John Bartram zasadio je sjeme kruške 1793. godine, a to je drevno drvo raslo i davalo plodove do 1933. godine.

Veliki američki botanički hibridizator i pisac svog epskog i monumentalnog izvještaja od 12 svezaka svojih dugogodišnjih zapažanja o razvoju biljaka koje je napisao Luther Burbank izjavio je da su u osnovi postojale dvije genetske linije krušaka koje su on i drugi koristili za poboljšanje komercijalne kvalitete stabla kruške i njihovo plodonošenje. Europska kruška, Pyrus communis L., azijska kruška, Pyrus pyrifolia, koja se naziva i korejska kruška, japanska kruška, kineska kruška i tajvanska kruška. Oni su ukršteni kako bi se dobila rekombinacija gena za prosijavanje složenih mješavina karaktera koje bi, nadamo se, dale vrhunski plod. Bartram je u svom djelu "Poboljšanje voća"#8217 napisao o hibridu kruške koji se pojavio na farmi u blizini Philadelphije u Pennsylvaniji, a rezultat je europske kruške i kineske pješčane kruške koja je posađena na farmi kao ukrasno vrtno drveće. Ovaj hibrid pojavio se na farmi gospodina Petera Kieffera, pa je tako nosio njegovo ime za prvu hibridiziranu istočnjačku krušku. Kruška “Kieffer ” ima ugodnu aromu, lijepo je i graciozno stablo s ogromnim bijelim cvjetovima, ali ova kruška je najbolja kad se skuha u konzervama ili pitama zbog svoje čvrstoće. Otpornost na hladnoću i otpornost na bolesti čine ovu krušku vrijednom kultivarom koja je i danas najprodavanije stablo kruške.

Ostala istočnjačka stabla krušaka koja su ušla u popularne kataloge vrtića bili su Le Conte, Garber i Smith. Ova su stabla kruške postala standardne sorte za sadnju vrtova u Zaljevskoj državi, gdje stabla europskih krušaka ne rastu dobro.

Ostali sojevi krušaka razvijeni u Kaliforniji opisani su kao ogromne veličine, nježnih boja, mirisa i izvrsne kvalitete. Jedna od ovih hibridnih krušaka bila je visoka devet centimetara i težila pet kilograma - jedno voće.

Burbank je istaknuo da se komercijalna trgovina kruškama mršti na velike kruške zbog problema s boksom, sortiranjem i otpremom, a prosječni kupac voća kruške ne kupuje često preferencijalne kruške. Na sjeverozapadu Sjedinjenih Država proizvodi se najviše komercijalnih krušaka, općenito zbog izuzetne desertne kvalitete voća. Najstarija senzacija na tržištu krušaka je Bartlett (Williams), koja raste u skupini koja se zove “Zimske kruške, ” uključujući i druge sorte. Comice, D ’Anjou, Bosc, Red D ’Anjou i Concorde kruške. Ove sorte ove sorte imaju vrlo ograničeno područje uspješnog rasta, zbog svog krhkog porijekla europskih krušaka, Pyrus communis, te se ne preporučuju za uzgoj u većini regija Sjedinjenih Država.

Stablo kruške jedinstveno je po plodovima koji se ne smežuraju i lako se prepoznaju po svom uobičajenom opisu koji se odnosi na oblik ploda, u obliku kruške, i#8221 specifičan oblik koji svi razumiju. Kupci plodova kruške vrlo su pristrani pri kupnji kruške u obliku na koji su navikli, a često će odbiti i azijsku krušku, 'Pyrus pyrifolia, okruglo voće ili plod u obliku jabuke. Tekstura krušaka jedinstvena je među plodovima, uz aromu, okus i ideju da kruške (europski klonovi) treba brati sa stabla kako bi kasnije sazrele, dok je azijske kruške bolje ostaviti na drveću da sazriju radi potpunog razvoja okusa. Koža krušaka raste u širokom spektru boja, zelenoj, žutoj, narančastoj, crvenoj i pjegavoj, a to čini odličan zaštitni štit od očiju ptica i drugih životinja. Stablima kruške potrebna su dulja razdoblja zrelosti za početak plodovanja od većine drugih voćaka, ali stablo će donijeti ranije ako se cijepi na patuljastu podlogu od dunje, međutim, većina trgovaca stablima nudi polu-patuljasta stabla na prodaju, i naravno, veća stabla počinju plodovati ranije od malih stabala. Azijske kruške daju plodove ranije od onih stabala s europskim kruškama. Jedan od čimbenika koji je od davnina odgađao širenje stabala krušaka je činjenica da sjeme pokazuje slab uspjeh u klijanju, osim ako je vlažno i većina putnika na drevnim trgovačkim putovima “Silk Road ” osušila je sjeme za prodaju ili razmjenu.

Američki kupci voća pokazali su dramatičan i povećan interes za kupnju svježih krušaka u trgovini u posljednjih 25 godina. Izvori USDA -e navode da se potrošnja svježih krušaka po glavi stanovnika povećala više od većine voća, dok se smanjila kupnja svježih breskvi. Svježe kruške mogu se držati na niskim temperaturama smrzavanja čak 5 mjeseci za kasniju kupnju. Za vrtlare u dvorištu stabla kruške mogu narasti 20-30 stopa na polu-patuljastoj podlozi i dobro su prilagođena za uzgoj na većini tla, čak i na slabo dreniranim tlima, po mogućnosti u rasponu pH od 6 do 7. Stabla kruške će rasti i podnositi temperature od negativnih 20 stupnjeva Fahrenheita.

Burbank je izveo mnogo čudnih križanja s kruškama. Ukrštao je kruške s jabukama i dunjama, međutim, to hibridno drveće nije raslo da bi proizvelo prihvatljivo voće.

Plodovi kruške sadrže antioksidanse i nemaju masnoće, a zdravstvene prednosti imaju vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, niacin i minerali kalcij, fosfor, željezo i kalij.

Za sadnju se preporučuju mnoge sorte krušaka. Ayers Pear Tree, Baldwin Pear Tree, Columbus Red Pear Tree, Floridahome Pear Tree, Hood Pear Tree, Kieffer Pear Tree, Leconte Pear Tree, Moonglow Pear Tree, Orient Pear Tree, ananas Pear Tree, Sand Pear Tree and the Warren Pear Tree. Sade se i četiri sorte azijskih krušaka: korejsko krupno stablo kruške, stablo kruške Hosui, kruška šinseiki, kruška dvadesetog stoljeća.

Postoje i četiri sorte cvjetnih, nerodnih krušaka. Bradford cvjetajuća kruška, cvjetna kruška Cleveland, cvjetna kruška Aristokrat i cvjetnice Autumn Blaze.


Okrugli stol

Kako je karikiranje moćnika dovelo do političke cenzure u Francuskoj.

Les Poires (Kruške), Charles Philipon, 1831. Wikimedia Commons, Bibliothèque nationale de France.

Dugo nakon Francuske revolucije 1789., kada su sjećanja na pobjede Napoleona Bonaparte blijedila, a sjene republikanskih ideala uskoro se trebale vratiti, u Francuskoj se dogodila nova, liberalna revolucija. Srpanjska revolucija 1830. dovela je na vlast liberalnog "kralja francuskog naroda" Louis-Philippea koji je tada proglasio slobodu tiska. Ubrzo nakon toga, umjetnik i novinar Charles Philipon okupio je tim briljantnih umjetnika i osnovao satirični tjednik La karikatura 1831. Odmah učinivši "korak predaleko", objavio je crtež kraljeve glave, metamorfizirajući se u četiri faze do truljenja poire (glava kruške), također francuski žargon za "budala" ili "prostak". Philipon je doveden na sud i, prema legendi, izbjegao je zatvor demonstrirajući sličnost - od kralja do kruške - poroti, skiciranjem i (vrlo vjerojatno) verbalnom panacijom. Oslobođen je optužbe za klevetu: pobjeda satire koja bi izazvala nastavak daljnjeg ismijavanja.

Nakon što je preživio svoj put do suda Les Poires, Charles Philipon 1832. pokrenuo je divljački satirični list pod naslovom Le Charivari. Živahni jarbol Honoréa Daumiera za Le Charivari predstavlja portrete nekoliko umjetnika povezanih s Philiponovim ranim satiričnim novinama. U središte bubnja udara sam Philipon, mladi Honoré Daumier na tamburi (četvrti zdesna) Traviès ili Charles-Joseph Traviès des Villers, jedan od prvih stalnih karikaturista na Le Charivari, drugi je zdesna, a Grandville, ili Jean-Ignace-Isidore Gérard Grandville, koji je često parodirao ljude kao životinje, je krajnje desno. Iste godine kada se dogodio Philiponov incident u Les Poires-u, mladi Daumierov crtež Louisa-Philippea kao Gargantua koji sjedi na komodi također se pojavio u La karikatura. On nije samo uhićen, već je dobio i kratku zatvorsku kaznu.

U međuvremenu je Les Poires postao amblem otpora protiv autoriteta i nastavio s igličkim učinkom, pojavljujući se u Philiponovim novinama u što je moguće više dosadnih varijacija. Kad je Louis-Philippe zabranio nacrtanu sliku, ona se umjesto toga pojavila u daljnjim varijacijama, nastalim iz rasporeda tipa (popriličan podvig jer bi bili ručno postavljeni u metalnom obliku), čime su se zaobišli zabrana ili dekret. Igla bi još jednom otišla predaleko. U rujnu 1835. cijeli francuski slobodni tisak bio je cenzuriran u pogledu političkih subjekata.

Unatoč cenzuri, francuski stripovi i njihovi karikaturisti nastavili su napredovati. Sprječeni od kritike ili ismijavanja vlade ili onih na funkciji, oni su umjesto toga kritizirali francusko (posebno pariško) društvo. Le Charivari je još uvijek bio u funkciji 1862. uključujući i druge pokrenute papire Le Rire (Smijeh) 1895. i Le Sourire (Osmijeh) 1899. Ova naslovna stranica Le Rire prikazuje njemačkog monarha Kaisera Wilhelma II (stoji, s buketom), koji je 1896. čestitao burskom vođi Paulu Krugeru na britanskom porazu, ali je do 1899. postao pro-Britanac. Svoju promjenjivu odanost prenosi pod krinkom obiteljske naklonosti prema kraljici Viktoriji (koja je, zapravo, njegova baka).

Samuel Schwarz osnovao je satirični tjednik L’Assiette au Beurre (Jelo od maslaca) 1901., prikladno nazvano po prezrenim članovima vladinog birokratskog stroja koji su lukavo dijelili usluge običnim građanima po cijeni. (Sam naziv govori o bogatstvu jer je maslac bio visoko cijenjena roba.) Misija satiričnog lista bila je napasti "Jelo od maslaca" i vladajuće klase, kao i hijerarhiju i utjecaj Katoličke crkve. To je učinilo energijom. Društvenopolitički sadržaj bio je uglavnom vizualni tekst je bio minimalan, a njegova su pitanja često uključivala aktualne događaje ili međunarodne ličnosti, a Britanija je bila omiljena meta. Ova opaka ilustracija na naslovnoj strani prikazuje još jednu omiljenu metu: uočite drhtave oči vatikanske zgrade, svinjski nos i ogromna, razjapljena usta.

Jedan od L’Assiette au BeurreNajpoznatije karikature napravio je u rujnu 1901. Jean Veber, koji je postao stalni suradnik. Naslovljeno L’Impudique Albion (Bez srama Albion ili Besramna Britanija), prikazuje portret kralja Edwarda VII utisnut na stražnjoj strani britanske Britanije. Nakon godina pristojnosti i ozbiljnosti kraljice Viktorije, koja je umrla 1901. godine, njezin nasljednik Edward VII bio je na glasu kao pomalo playboy, sklon kockanju i ljubavnicama (često se nalazi u Francuskoj), pa predstavlja vrlo različitu stranu britanskog ponašanja i monarhije. Ova francuska satirična tradicija, osobito u svojim ranijim, škrtim godinama, može se smatrati da ima duhovne potomke u modernim francuskim satiričnim stripovima, poput Charlie Hebdo, osnovano 1969. godine.

Prilagođeno iz Prosvjed! Povijest društvenih i političkih grafika protesta od Liz McQuiston. Autorska prava © 2019 by Quarto Publishing plc. Ponovno tiskano uz dopuštenje Princeton University Pressa.


Prijave

Bartlett kruške najprikladnije su za sirove i kuhane primjene, poput pečenja, kuhanja i roštilja. Mogu se jesti svježi, bez ruke, dodati u salate radi slatkog okusa, narezati na kriške i poslužiti na daskama od sira, ili pomiješati u granitu do vrha sladoleda. Bartlett kruške također se mogu naslagati u sendviče poput sira na žaru, koristiti kao preljev preko pizze ili usitniti s drugim voćem i puniti u poblano čili u jelu Meksika na dan neovisnosti poznatom kao chiles en noganda. Također, kruške se mogu dimiti na roštilju na ugljen radi dodatnog okusa ili narezati na kockice s tekilom i mezcalima kako bi dodale slatki okus. Bartlett kruške također čine izvrsne konzerve, sirupe i chutneye, mogu se sušiti i izvrsno nadopunjuju kolače, muffine, čips i brzi kruh. Bartlett kruške kompliment gorgonzola sir, orasi, sjemenke bundeve, češnjak, luk, ljutika, poblano čili, rajčica, krastavci, mrkva, sjemenke nara, jagoda, jabuka, špinat, svinjetina, piletina, janjetina, kamenice, origano, ružmarin, peršin, menta , cilantro, tajlandski bosiljak, limunska trava, matcha zeleni čaj u prahu, cimet, papar i med. Čuvat će se do tri tjedna ako se čuvaju u hladnjaku i nešto više od jedne godine ako se čuvaju u zamrzivaču.


Granatiranje britanskog konvoja Nijemci s francuske obale, 1940

Granatiranje britanskog konvoja od strane Nijemaca s francuske obale, 1940, autor Charles Pears.

Konvoji podmornica i dalje su prolazili Kanalom kako bi jugoistok bio opskrbljen ugljenom. Njemačke obalne baterije u blizini Calaisa u Francuskoj granatirale su ih prilično stalno nakon kolovoza 1940., iako s vrlo malim uspjehom.

Nakon lansiranja konvoja FS1, 7. rujna lansirani su atlantski konvoji iz rijeke Temze, kodirane OA, i rijeke Mersey, OB.

Kad su se našli izvan opasnog područja podmornica u blizini britanske obale, konvoji su se razišli jer su manje pratnje bile bespomoćne protiv njemačkih površinskih napadača koji su djelovali daleko u Atlantiku. Trgovački brodovi vezani za Veliku Britaniju koji su prevozili ratne zalihe, međutim, bili su konvojirani cijelim putem-ponajviše duž rute od Halifaxa u Kanadi (kodirani HX)-i često su bili zaštićeni teškim ratnim brodovima.

Nakon pada Francuske u lipnju 1940. njemački podmornici preselili su se u nove francuske baze, povećavajući njihov domet. Kao rezultat toga, konvoji su produženi preko Atlantika. Time je započela opasna faza Drugog svjetskog rata, koju je Winston Churchill nazvao Bitka za Atlantik.

Kako su borbe napredovale, postajali su potrebni novi konvoji, uključujući rute do Malte i Sovjetskog Saveza ('arktički konvoji'). Tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata ukupno je provedeno 450 serija konvoja.


Povijest kruške

Postoje uvjerljivi arheološki dokazi iskopavanja starih stanovnika jezera u Švicarskoj da je europska kruška, Pyrus communis L., bila poznata po toj civilizaciji. Vjeruje se da je krušku poznavao prapovijesni čovjek, ali nema slaganja o tome je li jabuka bila prva ili je kruška. Drevna evropska kruška bitno se razlikovala od azijske kruške Prunus pyrifolia.

Engleski zapisi pokazuju da je 1629. godine "koštice krušaka poslala tvrtka Massachusetts u Novu Englesku" koloniste da posade i izrastu u drveće u Plymouthu, MA.

30. ožujka 1763. slavni Amerikanac George Mason upisao se u svoj opsežni časopis o voćnjaku: "cijepljeno 10 crnih krušaka Worchester iz Colla. To su velika jela (gruba) voća za pečenje" i stara francuska sorta krušaka.

Utvrdu Frederica na otoku Saint Simons, Georgia, osnovali su engleski kolonisti 1733. godine, u isto vrijeme kada je naseljen grad Savannah. Kako bi doseljenicima omogućio samoodržive zalihe hrane, general Oglethorpe je razvio plan uvođenja drveća i biljaka za uzgoj u umjerenoj i suptropskoj klimi, što bi se pokazalo vrijednim za buduće farme i zasade voća i oraha u Georgiji. Ove ciljeve izvijestio je William Bartram u svojoj knjizi Travels koja je objavljena 1773., 40 godina kasnije. John Bartram, otac i suradnik Williama Bartrama, otputovao je na istraživačko putovanje u Istočnu Floridu, Karolinu i Georgiju djelomično kako bi istražio resurse i zalihe biljaka koje su Španjolci prepustili Englezima kao kolonijalne akvizicije.

Prinčev vrtić osnovan je kao prvi američki rasadnik za sakupljanje, uzgoj i prodaju biljaka i drveća u Flushingu u New Yorku 1737. godine. Prinčev rasadnik oglasio je "42 stabla kruške za prodaju 1771."

John Bartram zasadio je sjeme kruške 1793. godine, a to je drevno drvo raslo i davalo plodove do 1933. godine.

Veliki američki botanički hibridizator i pisac svog epskog i monumentalnog izvještaja od 12 svezaka svojih dugogodišnjih zapažanja o razvoju biljaka koje je napisao Luther Burbank izjavio je da su u osnovi postojale dvije genetske linije krušaka koje su on i drugi koristili za poboljšanje komercijalne kvalitete stabla kruške i njihovo plodonošenje. Europska kruška, Pyrus communis L., azijska kruška, Pyrus pyrifolia, također se naziva korejska kruška, japanska kruška, kineska kruška i tajvanska kruška. Oni su ukršteni kako bi se dobila rekombinacija gena za prosijavanje složenih mješavina karaktera koje bi, nadamo se, dale vrhunski plod.

Bartram je u svom djelu 'Poboljšanje voća' napisao o hibridu kruške koji se pojavio na farmi u blizini Philadelphije u Pennsylvaniji, a rezultat je europske kruške i kineske pješčane kruške koja je posađena na farmi kao ukrasno vrtno drveće. Ovaj hibrid pojavio se na farmi gospodina Petera Kieffera, pa je tako nosio njegovo ime za prvu hibridiziranu istočnjačku krušku. Kruška "Kieffer" ima ugodnu aromu, lijepo je i graciozno stablo s ogromnim bijelim cvjetovima, ali ova kruška je najbolja kad se skuha u konzervama ili pitama zbog svoje čvrstoće. Otpornost na hladnoću i otpornost na bolesti čine ovu krušku vrijednom kultivarom koja je i danas najprodavanije stablo kruške.

Ostala istočnjačka stabla krušaka koja su ušla u popularne kataloge vrtića bili su Le Conte, Garber i Smith. Ova su stabla kruške postala standardne sorte za sadnje vrtova u Zaljevskoj državi, gdje stabla europskih krušaka ne rastu dobro.

Drugi sojevi krušaka razvijeni u Kaliforniji opisani su kao ogromne veličine, nježnih boja, mirisa i izvrsne kvalitete. Jedna od ovih hibridnih krušaka bila je visoka devet centimetara i težila je pet kilograma-jedno voće.

Burbank je istaknuo kako se komercijalna trgovina kruškama mršti na velike kruške zbog boksa, sortiranja i otpreme, a prosječni kupac kruška ne kupuje često preferencijalne kruške. Na sjeverozapadu Sjedinjenih Država proizvodi se najviše komercijalnih krušaka, općenito zbog izuzetne desertne kvalitete voća. Najstarija senzacija na tržištu krušaka je Bartlett (Williams), koja raste u skupini zvanoj "Zimske kruške", uključujući i druge sorte. Comice, D'Anjou, Bosc, Red D'Anjou i Concorde kruške. Ove sorte ove sorte imaju vrlo ograničeno područje uspješnog rasta, zbog svog krhkog porijekla europskih krušaka, Pyrus communis, te se ne preporučuju za uzgoj u većini regija Sjedinjenih Država.

Stablo kruške jedinstveno je jer se plodovi koji se ne smežuraju lako prepoznaju po svom uobičajenom opisu koji se odnosi na oblik ploda, "u obliku kruške", specifičan oblik koji svi razumiju. Kupci plodova kruške vrlo su pristrani pri kupnji kruške u obliku na koji su navikli, a često će odbiti i azijsku krušku, Pyrus pyrifolia, okruglo voće ili plod u obliku jabuke. Tekstura krušaka jedinstvena je među plodovima, uz aromu, okus i ideju da kruške (europske klonove) treba brati sa stabla kako bi kasnije sazrele, dok je azijske kruške bolje ostaviti na drveću da sazriju radi potpunog razvoja okusa.

Koža krušaka raste u širokom spektru boja, zelenoj, žutoj, narančastoj, crvenoj i pjegavoj, a to čini odličan zaštitni štit od očiju ptica i drugih životinja. Stablima kruške potrebna su dulja razdoblja zrelosti za početak plodovanja od većine drugih voćaka, ali stablo će roditi ranije ako se cijepi na patuljastu podlogu od dunje, međutim, većina trgovaca stablima nudi polu-patuljasta stabla na prodaju, i naravno, veća stabla počinju plodovati ranije od malih stabala. Azijske kruške daju plodove ranije od onih stabala s europskim kruškama. Jedan od čimbenika koji je od davnina odgađao širenje stabala krušaka je činjenica da sjeme pokazuje slab uspjeh u klijanju, osim ako je vlažno i većina putnika na drevnim trgovačkim putovima "Puta svile" osušila je sjeme za prodaju ili razmjenu.

Američki kupci voća pokazali su dramatičan i povećan interes za kupnju svježih krušaka u trgovini u posljednjih 25 godina. Izvori USDA -e navode da se potrošnja svježih krušaka po glavi stanovnika povećala više od većine voća, dok se smanjila kupnja svježih breskvi. Svježe kruške mogu se držati na niskim temperaturama smrzavanja čak 5 mjeseci za kasniju kupnju. Za vrtlare u dvorištu stabla kruške mogu narasti 20-30 stopa na polu-patuljastoj podlozi i dobro su prilagođena za uzgoj na većini tla, čak i na slabo dreniranim tlima, po mogućnosti u rasponu pH od 6 do 7. Stabla kruške će rasti i podnositi temperature od negativnih 20 stupnjeva Fahrenheita.

Burbank je izveo mnogo čudnih križanja s kruškama. Ukrštao je kruške s jabukama i dunjama, međutim, to hibridno drveće nije raslo da bi proizvelo prihvatljivo voće.

Plodovi kruške sadrže antioksidanse i nemaju masnoće, a zdravstvene prednosti imaju vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, niacin i minerali kalcij, fosfor, željezo i kalij.

Za sadnju se preporučuju mnoge sorte krušaka. Ayers Pear Tree, Baldwin Pear Tree, Columbus Red Pear Tree, Floridahome Hear Tree, Hood Pear Tree, Kieffer Pear Tree, Leconte Pear Tree, Moonglow Pear Tree, Orient Pear Tree, Pearly Pear Tree and Waren Pear Tree. Sade se i četiri sorte azijskih krušaka: korejsko krupno stablo kruške, stablo kruške Hosui, kruška šinseiki, kruška dvadesetog stoljeća.

Postoje i četiri sorte cvjetnih, nerodnih krušaka. Bradford cvjetajuća kruška, cvjetna kruška iz Clevelanda, cvjetna kruška Aristokrat i cvjetnice Autumn Blaze.


Viktorijanski umjetnik Charles Burton Barber hvata posebnu vezu između djece i kućnih ljubimaca

Odrastajući u popularnom viktorijanskom obiteljskom ljetovalištu Great Yarmouth u Engleskoj, možda su sretne uspomene iz djetinjstva pomogle Charlesu Burtonu Barberu da postane tako uspješan viktorijanski umjetnik djece i kućnih ljubimaca.

Njegovo umijeće toliko je cijenilo to što je 1883. Barber izabran za člana Kraljevskog instituta slikara uljem - jedinog umjetničkog društva posvećenog viktorijanskom umjetniku specijaliziranom za ulja.

Veliki Yarmouth iz viktorijanskog doba, Engleska

Njegov poseban talent bio je za sentimentalne portrete pasa, što je pomoglo u osvajanju kraljevskih provizija od kraljice Viktorije koja voli životinje.

Barbir je naslijedio Sir Edwina Landseera na mjestu dvorskog slikara kraljice. Jedno od njegovih najpoznatijih djela je Marco - prelijep Pomeranac koji je kupila na putovanju u Firencu u Italiji 1888. godine.

Marco na stolu za doručak Queen ’s Charlesa Burtona Barbera, 1893

Kraljica Viktorija i njezin sluga John Brown Charlesa Burtona Barbera

Sljedeće dvije slike, “In Disgrace ” i “A Special Pleader ”, dvije su od najpoznatijih djela viktorijanskog umjetnika Barbera.

Možda ćete primijetiti nešto slično - to je ista djevojčica koja briše suze, poslana da stoji u kutu zbog nestašnog ponašanja.

Na svakoj slici Barbir bilježi poseban odnos između pasa i ljudi. Malo štene dijeli kaznu, dok se čini da graničarski škotski ovčar moli roditelje da joj oproste.

U sramoti Charles Burton Barber

Potražnja za radima brijača odražava se u aukcijskim cijenama. In Disgrace je 2007. nabavio 639 964 USD u Christie's#8217s, a A Special Pleader je deset godina ranije prodan za 442 500 USD.

Posebna molba Charlesa Burtona Barbera, 1893 A Little Girl And Her Sheltie od Charlesa Burtona Barbera

Slikanje životinja izrazima nalik ljudima bilo je popularan stil za viktorijanskog umjetnika.

Barbir je znao ne samo prenijeti izraze poput uzbuđenja, čežnje, tuge i zaštite, već ih i izraziti na prirodniji način, poput životinja.

Novi bič Charlesa Burtona Barbera

Čudovište Charlesa Burtona Barbera, 1866 Rivali Charlesa Burtona Barbera Nije mnogo pogriješio Charles Burton Barber Mali pekar sa svoja dva pomoćnika Charlesa Burtona Barbera Nestašno štene Charlesa Burtona Barbera, 1886 Skrivalište Charles Burton Barber, 1891 Odlazak u školu Charles Burton Barber, 1883

Slika “Suspense ” prikazana u nastavku bila je u vlasništvu suparničkih proizvođača sapuna Pears i Lever Brothers. Prikazuje prelijepu mladu djevojku koja se časti za doručkom sa svojim kućnim ljubimcem mačkom i Jackom Russellom koji čeznutljivo gledaju gozbu pred sobom.

Suspense Charlesa Burtona Barbera Plavuša i brineta Charles Burton Barber, 1879

Nagovaranje je bolje, Charles Burton Barber Trust Charlesa Burtona Barbera, 1888 Danas nema vožnje Charlesa Burtona Barbera Djevojka s psima, Charles Burton Barber, 1893 Dva invalida Charlesa Burtona Barbera Pukla žica Charlesa Burtona Barbera Ja sam viši! autor Charles Burton Barber Novi čuvar Charles Burton Barber, 1888 Paket ogrebotina Charlesa Burtona Barbera Vrijeme za buđenje, Charles Burton Barber, 1883 Izgubljena šansa Charles Burton Barber Dragi Charlesa Burtona Barbera, 1890

Početak sapuna od kruške

Godine 1789. kornulski brijač Andrew Pears otvorio je trgovinu u Sohu, bogatom području Londona, i počeo proizvoditi kreme, pudere i druge kozmetičke proizvode.

Ubrzo je Pears primijetio da je njegova društvena klijentela koristila njegove proizvode za pokrivanje štete i suhoće uzrokovane kozmetikom punom arsena koju su nanosili kako bi postigli svijetli, alabasterski ten koji je u to vrijeme bio tako moderan.

Uvidjevši prazninu na tržištu, odlučio je stvoriti nešto što će biti nježnije za kožu. Nakon puno eksperimenata rođen je sapun od krušaka.

Napravljen od glicerina i prirodnih ulja, sapun je mirisao na engleski vrt i imao je proziran izgled koji ga je izdvajao od konkurenata.

Pearsa je više zanimala kvaliteta te količine, pa je prodavao sapun samo ekskluzivnoj bazi kupaca. Njegov izbor se isplatio. Posao mu je toliko napredovao, preselio je svoju trgovinu u Oxford. 1851. osvojio je i nagradnu medalju za sapun na Velikoj izložbi 1851. godine.


A & amp F Povijest krušaka

Zavidna međunarodna reputacija i komercijalni uspjeh u londonskoj tvrtki A. & amp F. F. Pears koja je uživala gotovo dvjesto godina uglavnom je posljedica napora dvojice muškaraca: Andrewa Pearsa, sina poljoprivrednika iz Cornwalla, i Thomasa J Barratt, čovjek koji se često naziva ocem modernog oglašavanja. Između njih, iako je generacija trebala razdvojiti svoje individualno sudjelovanje u tvrtki, razvili su klasičnu trostruku formulu uspjeha: uočili prazninu na tržištu, razvili visokokvalitetni proizvod koji će ga popuniti i uvjeriti što je moguće više ljudi da kupe taj proizvod korištenjem opsežne promocije i oglašavanja.

Andrew Pears stigao je u London 1789. iz svog rodnog kornaškog sela Mevagissey, gdje se školovao za brijača. Otvorio je prostor u ulici Gerrard, Soho –, tada modernom stambenom naselju –, a uskoro je uživao značajno pokroviteljstvo bogatih obitelji, čije su tonzijalne potrebe pobrinule Kruške u vlastitim domovima. Trgovina na ulici Gerrard Street koristila se za proizvodnju i prodaju crvenila, pudera, krema, sredstava za čišćenje zubi i drugih kozmetičkih pripravaka-preparata koje su bogati naširoko koristili za prikrivanje štete koju su nanijeli grubi sapuni koji su se tada koristili u Britaniji.

Pronicljivi Cornishman prepoznao je potencijal čistijeg, nježnijeg sapuna koji bi se ljubaznije odnosio prema nježnom alabasterskom tenu nego u korist (viši slojevi nepovoljno su povezivali preplanula lica s onima nižih slojeva koji su se morali truditi izaći u život ). Započeo je usavršavanje proizvodnog procesa za takav proizvod i nakon mnogo pokušaja i pogrešaka došao je do metode koja je i danas bitno slična- uključujući uklanjanje nečistoća i rafiniranje osnovnog sapuna prije dodavanja nježnog parfema engleskog vrtnog cvijeća. Ne samo da je ovaj proizvod bio visoke kvalitete, već je posjedovao i veliku vrijednost transparentnosti. I upravo ovaj posljednji aspekt dao je Pears Sapunu samo onu sliku koja joj je bila potrebna da bi je javnost jasno prepoznala.
Iako su se drugi proizvodi proizvodili zajedno s prozirnim sapunom mnogo, mnogo godina (primjeri se mogu pronaći na sljedećim stranicama), bilo je gotovo od samog početka jasno da će bogatstvo Andrewa Pearsa i#8217 biti stečeno njegovim šilingom i polovicom kruna sapun od jantara. 1835. uzeo je partnera, svog unuka Francis Pearsa, i preselili su se u nove prostorije u ulici 55 Wells Street, tik uz prometnu prometnicu Oxford Street. Posao se konsolidirao do te mjere da je tri godine kasnije stari Andrew mogao otići u mirovinu, pa je Franjo ostao sam.

Ostavština Andrewa Pearsa ’ bila je solidna, ako ne i osobito opsežna, ili nastavite trgovati. Kao i mnoge druge viktorijanske male tvrtke, zadovoljavao je određene klase kupaca koje je poštivao i želio udovoljiti. Andrew Pears bio je oprezan čovjek i više se brinuo o kvaliteti proizvoda koji nose njegovo ime nego o broju ljudi koji su ih kupili. Opasan lošim imitacijama, u jednoj je fazi čak otišao čak toliko daleko da je osobno potpisao svaki paket koji je prodao. Because of the high price of his products, the market for them was necessarily an exclusive one, and there was little need or point in extensive advertising to try and widen this. Expenditure on sales promotion in the early Victorian period rarely exceeded ,80 per annum.

Sensing the impending stagnation of the firm, and recognizing the increasing buying power of the middle classes, Francis Pears realized that unless he developed and expanded the family firm he would soon be pushed to one side by more competitive rivals. New offices were opened in Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, and in 1862 he bought a house and land at Isleworth in Middlesex, where he built a factory which he placed under the dominion of his young son Andrew. Widespread changes soon took place in the sedate and gentlemanly atmosphere of the West End offices, and into the firm came a new partner, Thomas J. Barratt, who had married Francis Pears’ eldest daughter Mary. Barratt was far sighted, aggressive, willing to take risks and infinitely resourceful. Within months he had completely revolutionized Pears’ distribution system and was turning his hand towards improving the firm’s sales performance by means of expensive and highly original publicity schemes. All this was too much even for Francis Pears, who, fearing imminent bankruptcy, withdrew from the firm, taking most of the money and leaving only 4000 pounds as a loan to be discharged equally by his son and Barratt, who were to remain in sole charge of the business.

Barratt has many modern counter parts in the advertising agencies of Madison Avenue, and his methods were to become widely followed. He imported a quarter of a million French ten centime pieces (accepted in lieu of a penny in Britain), had the name ‘Pears’ stamped on every one of them and put the coins into circulation. Since there was no law forbidding the defacing of foreign currency, his scheme earned Pears much valuable publicity until an Act of Parliament could be hastily introduced to declare all foreign coinage illegal tender. The offending coins were withdrawn from circulation and melted down. He persuaded prominent skin specialists, doctors and chemists to give glowing testimonials to Pears Soap among these were Sir Erasmus Wilson, President of the Royal College of Surgeons, and Doctor Redwood, Professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy to the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, who personally guaranteed that Pears Soap possessed ‘the properties of an edicient yet mild detergent without any of the objection able properties of ordinary soaps’. Such endorsements were boldly displayed in magazine and newspaper advertise meets, as handbills and on posters. Lillie Langtry, a highly popular actress of the day, cheerfully gave Barratt a commendation for Pears Soap (for which, as with the other illustrious patrons, no fee was asked) and he broke into the American market by persuading the enormously influential religious leader Henry Ward Beecher to equate cleanliness, and Pears Soap in particular, with Godliness – Barratt promptly buying up the whole of the front page of the New York Herald on which to display this glowing testimonial. It seemed no stone was left unturned in Barratt’s endless search for good publicity. Infants whose arrival in the world was commemorated in the columns of The Times received a complimentary cake of soap and pictorial advertising leaflets by courtesy of Barratt. His most audacious publicity scheme, which in the end failed to get off the ground, was the offer of ,100,000 to the British Government to buy the back page of a contemporary national census form for Pears’ use. Had he succeeded, Barratt would have put his firm’s name before 35,000,000 people’s eyes.

But the best-remembered piece of publicity which Barratt devised was the use of Sir John Everett Millais’ painting ‘Bubbles’ as an advertisement for Pears. The model for ‘Bubbles’ was the artist’s grandson, Willie (later Admiral Sir William)James, and the curlyheaded little boy made his first appearance at the Grosvenor Gallery in London in 1886 the picture was originally titled ‘A Child’s World’. The picture was bought by Sir William Ingram of the Illustrated London News for reproduction as a presentation plate in that magazine, and after use it was sold to Barratt for 2200 pounds. Though this gave Pears exclusive copyright on the picture, Millais’ permission had still to be obtained before it could be modified (by the addition of a bar of transparent soap) for use as an advertisement. At first Millais, then unquestionably the richest and most popular painter in Britain, was apprehensive about such pointedly commercial exploitation of his work, but mollified by the high quality of the proofs which Barratt brought to his studio, he gradually warmed to the idea. Once the advertisement appeared he was obliged to defend himself vigorously against a hostile art world, and even as late as 1899, three years after his death, the affair was still a matter for debate in letters to The Times.

Barratt claimed to have spent 30,000 on the ‘Bubbles” campaign, and the number of individual reproductions of the painting ran into millions. By any standards, it was an unqualified success, whatever the critics had to say. Even today, ‘Bubbles’ remains one of the most instantly recognizable advertising symbols ever devised, and many of the prints, which Pears later made available to the public, were framed and hung in living rooms around the world. Barratt evidently had a ready eye for the commercial potential of art, for another of his acquisitions, Landseer’s ‘Monarch of the Glen’, though never used by Pears themselves beyond appearing as a color plate in the 1916 Pears Annual, duly became the distinctive trademark of the distilling firm of John Dewar & Sons, with whom A. & F. Pears had links.

Barratt thus held two trump cards. In one hand was an immediately recognizable product, Pears Transparent Soap. In the other was the association (in the popular mind at least) between that product and culture, represented by ‘Bubbles’. It was a combination which was to represent Pears’ public image for many years to come, and continues today with the tradition of each young Miss Pears (the winner of an annual competition) having her portrait painted by a recognized artist. Barratt time and again capitalized on this association. He brought art to the public eye through Pears Annual, first published in 1891 and surviving until 1920. The Annual was a large-format, limp cover publication containing, in addition to advertising for Pears’ and other firms’ products, quality fiction (Dickens’s Christmas Books were reprinted in early editions), illustrations (as the years went by there was an increase in the use of color plates and second-color tints) and at least two large, separately packaged prints for framing. All this, at least until 1915, for sixpence!

Barratt evidently had philanthropic as well as commercial motives in bringing art to the public eye: the 1897 edition claimed that:

‘It is beyond controversy that, before the popular advent of Pears Annual, pictures of the refined quality of our Presentation Plates (which surpass any works of even this high” class order ever previously attempted) were unattainable by picture-lovers at anything less than a guinea a-piece.

Our ambition has been to offer an appreciative and increasing public, which has grown to expect these advantages at our hands, presentation pictures of superior quality and of artistic values, to ensure our extended popularity, and to constitute Pears Annual the foremost achievement of this kind. . . ”

The bonne bouche of Pears Annual 1897 will be readily recognized in the two large Presentation Plates, after the late and ever-to-be-lamented President of the Royal Academy, Sir John Everett Millais, whose two chefs-d’oeuqJre, the well known pictures, ‘Cherry Ripe’ and ‘Bubbles’, are now placed within the means of the million for the first time, so beautifully reproduced as scarcely to be distinguishable from the original pictures themselves . . . which now have a value of more than 10,000 pounds for the pair. And whilst so long as Pears Annual is produced it will ever be our aim, so far as it is in our power, to maintain its excellence, we do not expect again to have the opportunity of furnishing you with such a pair of pictures as these -worthy, as they are, of being framed and hung in the first and most artistic houses in the land.’

Two points in this lurching piece of Victorian prose are worth picking up on. Firstly, the chromolithographic plates were undoubtedly ‘beautifully reproduced’, since they were printed from no less than 24 separate color blocks this book, as with almost all modern book production, uses a mere four impositions. Secondly, they were ‘scarcely to be distinguishable from the original pictures’ through a painstaking process (made defunct by the advent of photolithography) in which the original painting was copied and etched out by craftsmen on to each of the 24 stone blocks in turn. The original artists for these presentation plates included Frank Dadd, J. C. Dollman, Hugh Thompson, Will Owen (of ‘Bisto Kids’ fame), Maurice Greiffenhagen, Gordon Browne and Tom Browne. They were printed in huge quantities records survive showing that Pears spent 17,500 on producing the ‘Bubbles” print alone and almost all were still available to order by the time the last issue of Pears Annual appeared in 1920. Colored frontispieces, which generally repeated material used in the Annual or as ad advertisements, were also used in the famous Pears Cyclopaedia, first published in 1897 and still issued today.

Barratt died on 28 April 1914, aged 72. He was widely mourned, particularly among the press and advertising fraternities. To the latter especially he had opened up new horizons he joined Pears at a time when advertising was limited by and large to small newspaper advertisements and crudely executed handbills and posters, and lived to see it-brought, to a great extent through his own example, to undreamed of sophistication. He forced the manufacturing world to see the ad-vantages of paying good money for good advertising in the 1880s Pears were spending between 30,000 and ,40,000 pounds a year on advertising and by 1907 the figure had risen to 126,000. He pioneered the technique, so familiar today, of saturation advertising W. E. Gladstone, searching for a metaphor to convey a sense of vast quantity during a debate on a topic now forgotten in the House of Commons, suggested the articles in question were as numerous as the advertisements of Pears Soap, or as autumn leaves in Vallombrosa’. On hoardings and on railway stations, in the press and on buses, the name of Pears Soap was everywhere in Victorian and Edwardian times.

And what of the material which Barratt put before the public and which is reproduced in this book? Much of it strikes the modern eye as unashamedly sentimental, but this was to the taste of the day – a taste which Pears were quick to recognize and cater for. Children (whether angelic or recalcitrant), animals, flowers and beautiful women are common denominators in the market appeal of advertising, especially when aimed, as Pears Soap mostly was, at female buyers. Pears’ slogans -‘Matchless for the complexion’, ‘Good morning! Have you used Pears Soap?’ were simple and unchanging, reflecting an era of guilelessness and security in which the good things in life might reasonably be taken for granted – at least by the more fortunate. Only the pictures themselves changed from time to time, and it is interesting to look at a 1907 newspaper interview with Barratt in which he says:

‘Tastes change, fashions change, and the advertiser has to change with them. An idea that was effective a generation ago would fall flat, stale, and unprofitable if presented to the public today. Not that the idea of today is always better than the older idea, but it is different – it hits the present taste.’

A generation! Modern advertising thinks in terms of weeks, its campaigns changing direction like yachts in a strong breeze.

Pears advertising, to suit its brand image, was tasteful and restrained, needing no recourse to the hyperbolics often encountered elsewhere in the period we are considering. The message was simple: that Pears Soap was safe and healthy and that it made its users beautiful. It savors of prestige advertising, embodying an unquestioned market supremacy probably there is a good hint of snobbery here as well, for while the middle classes are invariably seen as healthy and self assured, the social inferiors like servants, ragged urchins and in particular black people are frequently seen as figures of fun. In design terms, many of the advertisements illustrated here could be stripped of their typography and considered purely as genre paintings – as some of them indeed originally were. Though the product name and captions are generally in harmony with the pictures, they are typical of this transitional period of advertising design in that lettering and illustration are not considered as a single unified and integrated entity. But their appeal is simple and immediate, requiring no sophisticated interpretation: they provoke an emotional rather than intellectual response. Barratt aimed, he said, to make his advertisements ‘telling, artistic, picturesque, attractive, pretty, amusing’ – and of course commercially successful. If for nothing more than that they took art out of the galleries and into homes and streets, thus brightening the humdrum lives of ordinary people, they are worthy of remembrance.


Charles Pears - History

Eden Valley Orchard Pears look to the Future with Pear Cider Production


Eden Valley Orchards was established March 17, 1885
by Joseph H. Stewart - Father of the Commercial Pear Industry


In February of 2017, EdenVale Winery located in the heart of the orchard property, released their first production of it's estate-grown pear cider. The 2016 vintage cider is crisp, dry and 100% organic. Fresh-pressed pears straight from our historic orchards, planted in 1885, were used to make this very unique and refreshing cider. No additional fruit juices or concentrates are used-- only the original estate fruit.

Eden Valley Orchards, born from an Oregon donation land claim in 1851, is now a destination facility rich in history and grace. This orchard, founded and planted by Joseph H. Stewart in March of 1885, is the birthplace of the United States commercial pear industry and a historical leader of innovative agriculture. The gracious mansion (now known as Voorhies Mansion) and picturesque property in the heart of pear country, is the "place and story" that anchors the Rogue Valley's agricultural history. Lying not far from railroad tracks and fruit packing plants that are emblematic of the shared bounty of the Rogue River Valley's pear industry, In many ways the surrounding scenery has not changed much since the first shipment of pears was sent East from this property in south Medford in the late 1800's.

Deeply imprinted on the area is the legacy of Joseph H. Stewart, Eden Valley s founder who became the patriarch of Southern Oregon s fruit industry. A prominent contemporary of Stewart s remarked, Every fruit tree in the Rogue River Valley will be a monument to his memory. Indeed, two dozen of the pioneer s original trees are still growing at Eden Valley Orchards, in its heritage orchard, and bud wood from his original orchard started trees on large orchards throughout the Valley.


The cider is available for purchase in 750 mL or 375 mL bottles. ORDER HERE

Gold - 2021 Oregon Wine Awards 2019 Pear Cider
Double Gold -2019 Seattle Cider Awards

Gold Medal 2019 SIP NW Best of Cider

2019 Grand Rapids International Cider and Perry Competition (GLINTCAP)
Gold Medal + Best in Class -2017 Pear Cider

2017 Grand Rapids International Cider and Perry Competition (GLINTCAP)
Silver Medal: � Pear Cider

2017 Oregon Wine Awards
Silver Medal: � Pear Cider


Part I: History of Pears

NW Pear Bureau USA:
Pears are one of the world's oldest cultivated and beloved fruits. In 5,000 B.C., Feng Li, a Chinese diplomat, abandoned his responsibilities when he became consumed by grafting peaches, almonds, persimmons, pears and apples as a commercial venture. In The Odyssey, the Greek poet laureate Homer lauds pears as a "gift of the gods." Pomona, goddess of fruit, was a cherished member of the Roman Pantheon and Roman farmers documented extensive pear growing and grafting techniques. Thanks to their versatility and long storage life, pears were a valuable and much-desired commodity among the trading routes of the ancient world. Evident in the works of Renaissance Masters, pears have long been an elegant still-life muse for artists. In the 17th century a great flourishing of modern pear variety cultivation began taking place in Europe. And in popular culture, the pear tree was immortalized alongside a partridge in the 18th-century Christmas carol, The Twelve Days of Christmas.
Early colonists brought the first pear trees to America's eastern settlements where they thrived until crop blights proved too severe to sustain widespread cultivation. Fortunately, the pear trees brought west to Oregon and Washington by pioneers in the 1800's thrived in the unique agricultural conditions found in the Pacific Northwest. Today's Northwest pear varieties are the same or similar to those first cultivated in France and Belgium where they were prized for their delicate flavor, buttery texture, and long storage life.
As more sophisticated irrigation and growing techniques developed during the past century, pear orchards flourished dramatically in the Northwest's river valley regions located in a serpentine sprawl from Northern Central Washington to Central Southern Oregon.
Today, pear orchards in Oregon and Washington are as specialized as the regions that support them. Organic, commercial and multi-generation family orchards all contribute high-quality fruit to the Northwest's fresh pear industry. Consumer interest and enjoyment of Northwest pears grows each year. Thanks to advancements in Controlled Atmosphere (CA) storage technology, fresh USA Pears are available to consumers nearly year-round.
The first arrival of pear trees to Oregon and Washington came with the pioneers. These trees found their way to the region by way of the Lewis and Clark Trail.
Pioneers that settled along the Columbia River in Oregon s Hood River Valley, found ideal growing conditions for their pear trees. Vast orchards grow there today, in the shadow of majestic Mt. Hood. Volcanic soil, abundant water, warm days and cool nights combine to create the perfect conditions for growing the varieties found in Oregon.
The other principal growing area in Oregon is the Rogue River valley, around Medford in the Southeastern part of the state. Medford, near the end of the Cascade Mountain Range, also enjoys the rich volcanic soil and European-like weather that nurture the world s most beautiful, sweet, and juicy pears.
The Cascade Range is part of the Ring of Fire, the mountains that ring the Pacific Rim. Many of the Northwest s snow-capped peaks are dormant or still active volcanoes. The principal growing areas in the region are literally in the shadow of these mountains, which can rise over 11,000 feet above sea level.
Settlers in the shadows of Washington s Cascade Range enjoyed similar success. With orchards dating back to the 1850 s, the Wenatchee Valley is an abundant producer of all USA Pear varieties. The rugged north central Washington region is exceptionally proud of its consistency of producing high-quality pears known the world over.
In central Washington s Yakima Valley, the light, fertile soil of the agricultural-rich region supports thousands of acres of Northwest pear trees. The growing regions in Washington share their volcanic influences from Mt. Baker, Mt. Rainier, Mt. Adams and Mt. St. Helens.
With these abundant crops, fresh pears naturally became a major part of Northwest cooking, which takes the finest local ingredients and combines them in delicious complimentary style. The versatile and delicate flavor of pears enhances the area s bountiful fresh seafood and regional wines. Chefs in the Pacific Northwest and around the world use pears for all parts of the menu, from appetizers to entrees to desserts.
Due to this rich history and its positive impact on the state s economy, the State of Oregon named the pear Oregon s Official State Fruit. In addition, the USDA annually recognizes the pear by declaring the month of December as National Pear Month. The pear is indeed a Northwest treasure!

USA Pear Crop Statistics

  • There are currently more than 1,600 pear growers in Oregon and Washington
  • Pears are Oregon's number one tree fruit crop, its #9 agricultural commodity, and Oregon s Official State Fruit
  • Oregon's total pear production ranks 3rd overall in the United States and 2nd in terms of fresh pear production
  • Washington's fresh pear production is the largest in the United States
  • In Washington State, pears are the third most valuable tree fruit crop behind apples and sweet cherries, and the tenth most valuable agricultural commodity overall
  • Combined annual fresh pear (not canned) harvest for Washington and Oregon currently averages over 582,000 tons
  • Washington and Oregon export about 35% of their fresh pear crop to more than 50 countries around the world.
  • About a quarter of the overall pear crop is canned (not represented by USA Pears/Pear Bureau Northwest). Most canning pears are Bartletts, with 63% of this variety being used for canning and processing into juices, etc.
  • U The Great Book of Pears, Barbara Jeanne Flores opens her pear history, saying, Native to temperate Europe and Western Asia, pears (Pyrus communis) are one of the two dozen plants know to have been cultivated for over 4,000 years. Pears probably originated in the South Caucasus, North Persia, or the Middle East.
  • Janet Hazen in Pears: A Country Garden Cookbook suggests that pears were migrated into Europe and northern India by Aryan tribes from the Caucasus regions.
  • Dried pears have been found in Ice Age cave dwellings excavated in Switzerland.
  • Sumerians were the first to write about pears in 2750 B.C., describing a thick paste they made from it with thyme, figs, oil, and ale to be used as a poultice applied to the body.
  • The pear was a part of Greek life, appearing in Greek mythology as being sacred to Hera and Aphrodite. Greek poet Homer called pears the fruit of the gods in when he lived around 850 B.C. In the 4 th Century, Aristotle s student Theophrastus wrote a detailed report on how to propagate pears.
  • The Romans had six varieties of pears being cultivated in 100 BC. Roman Historian Pliny wrote about 40 varieties in 200 AD, cautioning that pears are harmful to eat raw, but good boiled with honey. Maybe pears were too hard to eat raw? Anyway, Ben Watson adds that Pliny also stated that Falernian pears were the best for making pear wine, and Palladius in the fourth century A.D described how to ferment pear juice, which was then called Castomoniale and apparently was esteemed more highly than apple wine by the Romans. agrees with the historian Tacitus that the Romans appear to have spread the cultivation of pears into Gaul (France) and probably Britain however, there is no definitive written record of pears in England until after the Norman Conquest of 1066.
  • During the Middle Ages, pears grew well in the warm climates of France and Italy and were considered a luxury as they were primarily grown in castle and monastery gardens.
  • Britain established native pears, which was hard and bitter but made excellent perry, unlike the French dessert pears. These pears were sometimes referred to as the Choke Pears.
  • Monks planted pear seeds to develop new pear breeds. During the Renaissance, Medici Grand Duke Cosimo II had 209 pear species.
  • More pears varieties from France were imported to England by Henry VIII s fruiter Richard Harris.
  • In 1559, the first pear tree, a White Doyenn , was imported to the New World. While it was useful, pears were passed over for the more popular apple, partly because of their propagation by Johnny Appleseed Chapman. This is because most pear seeds are sterile, making them more difficult to propagate from seed as Chapman did. Also pears prefer milder climates and do not grow well on America s East Coast.
  • King Louis XIV of France loved Rousselet de Reims pears. The Versailles garden creator La Quintinye also loved pears, and wrote about growing them, having about 100 different varieties, one of which was the ancestor of today s Comice. Pears at this time were not for the common folk.
  • The Belgians began developing pears in the 18 th century, developing 400 varieties including the Beurr d Anjou and the Beurr Bosc we have in supermarkets today.
  • Thomas Jefferson planted 1,000 pear, apple, cherry, plum apricot, and quince trees on his Monticello Estate between 1769 and 1814. Jefferson had lived in Paris as a diplomat, where he grew to love pears and brought them back to his estate, though he found them difficult to grow in Virginia s climate, and found them inferior to Europe s pears with the exception of the Seckel. Today, Monticello offers tours of the orchards mid-April through October, with fruit tastings scheduled in August.
  • Flores tells this interesting story about developing a pear variety, In [1770], a British schoolmaster named Stair discovered [a] seedling in Berkshire, England. It was popularized by a nurseryman named Williams [and it was named after him] In 1797, it was imported by James Carter to be planted on an estate in Massachusetts for Thomas Brewer. After Enoch Bartlett purchased the estate in 1817, he distributed the pear under his own name, Bartlett. Today, Bartlett is the most widely grown pear in the world and accounts for 70 percent of all United State commercial plantings.
  • Pears on the West Coast of North America took a different route. They were imported by the Spanish into Mexico, and brought north into California, Oregon, and Washington. In 1792, English explorer George Vancouver visited the Mission San Buenaventura garden in California and wrote, Apples, pears, plums, figs, oranges, peaches and pomegranates all these were flourishing in the greatest health and perfection though separated from the seaside by only two or three fields of corn (page 12, Flores).
  • After the California Gold Rush, farmers started planting European pears to feed the growing population, creating a boom in the 1800s. The oldest producing pear tree today was planted in 1810 at Mission San Juan Bautista. Markets remained full of local pears until World War II.
  • In the mid-nineteenth century, North American East Coast pear orchards were devastated by the introduction of fireblight, probably introduced from Asian ornamentals.
  • Flores talks about today s pears in the United States, saying, After [World War II], the small easily bruised heritage varieties [of California] were gradually eliminated in favor of a large pear that could be shipped, handled, and had a long shelf life: namely the Bartlett. The inland coastal valley of California, Oregon, and Washington became the largest pear growing area in the United States, growing 90 percent of the pear crop, mostly Bartletts. In the 1950s, the pear pack was destined for fruit cocktail and other syrupy can fillers, but today s processed pears are more likely to end up as the base for a health juice, a flavored wine, or baby food.
  • Hazen claims that there are over 5,000 domestic pear varieties today grown in the world.


Publikacije:

Spring 2017 Southern Oregon Magazine - "Orchards and Vines, Ciders & Wine, Oh My", by Lisa Manyon


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