3. kolovoza 1944

3. kolovoza 1944


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3. kolovoza 1944

Kolovoz

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Burma

Kineske trupe zauzele su Myitkyinu



Stotine Židova oslobođeno je prisilnog rada u Varšavi

5. kolovoza 1944. poljski ustanici oslobađaju njemački prisilni radni logor u Varšavi, oslobađajući 348 židovskih zatvorenika, koji se pridružuju općoj pobuni protiv njemačkih okupatora grada.

Kako je Crvena armija u srpnju napredovala prema Varšavi, poljski domoljubi, koji su još uvijek bili lojalni svojoj vladi u egzilu u Londonu, spremni su svrgnuti svoje njemačke okupatore. Dana 29. srpnja Poljska domovinska vojska (podzemlje), Narodna vojska (komunistički gerilski pokret) i naoružani civili oduzeli su Nijemcima dvije trećine Varšave. 4. kolovoza Nijemci su krenuli u protunapad, pokosivši poljske civile mitraljeskom vatrom. Do 5. kolovoza umrlo je više od 15.000 Poljaka. Poljsko zapovjedništvo zatražilo je od saveznika pomoć. Churchill je telegrafom poslao Staljina obavijestivši ga da Britanci namjeravaju baciti streljivo i druge zalihe u jugozapadnu četvrt Varšave kako bi pomogli pobunjenicima. Premijer je zamolio Staljina da pomogne pobunjenicima ’. Staljin je odustao tvrdeći da je pobuna previše beznačajna da bi se gubilo vrijeme.

Britanija je uspjela dobiti pomoć poljskim domoljubima, ali su i Nijemci uspjeli baciti zapaljive bombe. Poljaci su se borili dalje, a 5. kolovoza oslobodili su židovske prisilne radnike koji su se zatim pridružili bitci, od kojih su neki formirali poseban vod posvećen samo popravljanju zarobljenih njemačkih tenkova za upotrebu u borbi.

Poljaci bi se tjednima borili protiv njemačkog pojačanja, i bez pomoći Sovjeta, jer je Josip Staljin imao vlastite planove za Poljsku.


3. kolovoza 1944. - Povijest

Zapis iz dnevnika anonimnog dječaka od 3. kolovoza 1944. u kojem se osvrće na skoru deportaciju iz geta u Łódźu.

3/8 1944 [na engleskom]

Ove redove pišem u užasnom stanju uma - svi mi moramo napustiti Litz. Uradite za nekoliko dana. Kad sam prvi put čuo za to, bio sam siguran da to znači [t] kraj našeg nečuvenog mučeništva podjednako [zajedno] s našim životima, jer smo bili sigurni da bismo trebali biti „vernichtet“ [uništeni] na dobro poznati način njihov. Ljudi su žalili što nisu umrli prvog dana rata. Zašto ste pretrpjeli pet godina “ausrottungsKampf” [rata za istrebljenje]. Ne bi li nam mogli dati "coup de grâce" na samom početku?

No očito je neki pritisak savezničkih pobjednika morao imati određeni utjecaj na razbojnike i oni su postali blaži - a [Hans] Biebow, njemački načelnik Getto, održao je govor za Židove - čija je suština bila da vrijeme ne trebaju se bojati da će se s njima postupati na isti način na koji su svi ostali prevaziđeni bili - zbog promjene ratnih uvjeta “und damit das Deutsche Reich den Krieg gewinnt, hat unser Führer befohlen jede Arbeitshand auszunützen” [i u kako bi njemački Reich pobijedio, naš je firer naredio da se koriste svi radnici.] Očigledno! Jedino pravo koje nam daje pravo da živimo pod istim nebom s Nijemcima - iako živimo kao najniži robovi, je privilegija raditi za njihovu pobjedu, puno raditi! i ne jedu ništa. Zaista, oni su još odvratniji u svojoj đavolskoj okrutnosti nego što bi to mogao slijediti bilo koji ljudski um. Nadalje je rekao: "Wenn Zwang angewendet werden muss, dann überlebt niemand!" [Ako se mora primijeniti sila, nitko neće preživjeti!] Pitao je okupljene (židovske) jesu li spremni vjerno raditi za Reich i svi su odgovorili "Jahwohl!" [Da, doista!] - Razmišljao sam o odbačenosti takve situacije! Kakvi su to Nijemci ljudi koji su nas uspjeli pretvoriti u tako niska, puzeća stvorenja, kako bi rekli "Jahwohl". Je li život doista toliko vrijedan? Nije li bolje [ne] živjeti u svijetu u kojem ima 80 milijuna Nijemaca? O, [nije li] sramota biti čovjek na istoj zemlji kao i Nijemac? Oh! otrcan, jadan čovjek, vaša će podlost uvijek nadmašiti vašu važnost!

Kad pogledam svoju mlađu sestru, srce mi se topi. Nije li dijete pretrpjelo svoj dio? Ona, koja se tako herojski borila posljednjih pet godina? Kad pogledam vašu udobnu sobicu, pospremljenu od strane mladog, inteligentnog, siromašnog bića, rastužuje me pomisao da ćemo uskoro ona i ja morati napustiti posljednju česticu doma! Kad naiđem na sitne predmete koji su cijelo vrijeme imali uski bijeg - tužna sam pri pomisli na rastanak s njima - jer su mi oni, suputnici naše bijede, postali dragi. Sada moramo napustiti svoj dom. Što će učiniti s našim bolesnicima? S našim starim? S našim mladima? O, Bože na nebu, zašto si stvorio Nijemce da uništiš čovječanstvo? Ne znam ni hoću li smijeti biti zajedno sa sestrom! Ne mogu više pisati, užasno sam rezigniran i crne duše! 1


Tražim zapise o 9. pješačkoj pukovniji, 2. pješačkoj diviziji u Drugom svjetskom ratu

Tražim informacije o 9. pješačkoj pukovniji 2. pješačke divizije u Drugom svjetskom ratu. Moj veliki ujak, Arthur E Orcutt služio je u satniji C, 9. pješačkoj pukovniji, 2. pješačkoj diviziji, a ubijen je 3. kolovoza 1944. u Francuskoj. Imam jako malo informacija kroz priče koje se prenose u mojoj obitelji i to je to. Volio bih ući u trag njegovim stopama, pronaći borbene zapovijedi, iskrenost bilo koju informaciju kako bih sastavio njegovu priču. Također bih volio poraditi na zamjeni njegovih medalja. Nisam čak ni siguran kakve je možda imao. Hvala unaprijed!

Odg: Traženje zapisa o 9. pješačkoj pukovniji, 2. pješačkoj diviziji u Drugom svjetskom ratu

Bok Matt, ako je vaš ujak ubijen u inozemstvu, možda biste htjeli započeti tako što ćete zatražiti njegovu pojedinačnu datoteku umrlog osoblja (IDPF ili spis predmeta pokopa) od Nacionalne arhive, ako to već niste učinili. Otkrio sam da se podaci u ovim datotekama razlikuju, ali vam mogu dati neku ideju o mjestu i okolnostima njegove smrti.   Najmanje bi mu bilo dodijeljeno Ljubičasto srce. Dakle, tamo bi trebao postojati zapisnik o tome.

Drugi izvor informacija bila bi Jutarnja izvješća njegove tvrtke. Oni bilježe dnevne aktivnosti pojedine tvrtke ili jedinice i čuvaju se u arhivu St. Nadam se da je ovo od neke pomoći. Joan

Odg: Traženje zapisa o 9. pješačkoj pukovniji, 2. pješačkoj diviziji u Drugom svjetskom ratu

google knjigu koju možete čitati na internetu. Borbena povijest Druge pješačke divizije. ime tvog strica je u knjizi

Ovdje ima mnogo podataka o njegovoj jedinici

Sretno u potrazi

Odg: Traženje zapisa o 9. pješačkoj pukovniji, 2. pješačkoj diviziji u Drugom svjetskom ratu
Cara Jensen 28.05.2020 13:28 (u odgovor na Matt Deome)

Hvala vam što ste objavili svoj zahtjev na History Hubu!

Pretražili smo Nacionalni arhivski katalog i locirali niz pod naslovom Operativni izvještaji Drugog svjetskog rata, 1940.-1948. U Zapisniku Ureda pobočnika, 1917.-1981. (Grupa zapisa 407) koji uključuje zapise 9. pješačke pukovnije, 2. pješačke divizije tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata. Zapisi jedinica nižih ešalona, ​​poput tvrtki, ponekad su bili uključeni u spise pukovnije. Za pristup ovim zapisima obratite se Nacionalnom arhivu u College Parku - Tekstualna referenca (RDT2) putem e -pošte na [email protected]  

Zbog pandemije COVID-19 i u skladu s uputama dobivenim od Ureda za upravljanje i proračun (OMB), NARA je prilagodila svoje uobičajeno poslovanje kako bi uravnotežila potrebu dovršetka svog posla od kritične važnosti za misiju, istovremeno se pridržavajući preporučene socijalne distance sigurnost osoblja NARA -e. Kao rezultat ovog ponovnog određivanja prioriteta aktivnosti, možda ćete doživjeti kašnjenje u primanju početne potvrde, kao i bitan odgovor na vaš referentni zahtjev od RDT2. Ispričavamo se na ovoj neugodnosti i cijenimo vaše razumijevanje i strpljenje.

Dodatne informacije mogu se nalaziti u njegovom pojedinačnom dosjeu umrlog osoblja (IDPF). Za IDPF-ove od 1940. do 1976. osoblje s prezimenima koja počinju na MZ,  , molimo vas da pišete Zapovjedništvu za ljudske potencijale američke vojske, Odjelu za operacije unesrećenih i sjećanja, ATTN: AHRC-PDC, 1600 Avenue Spearhead Division Avenue, Department 450, Fort Knox, KY 40122-5405.

Nadamo se da je ovo od pomoći. Puno sreće u istraživanju!

Odg: Traženje zapisa o 9. pješačkoj pukovniji, 2. pješačkoj diviziji u Drugom svjetskom ratu

Kako je navela Cara Jenson ispod, Izvještaji o akciji za 9. IR dostupni su i dostupni na CD -u po nominalnoj cijeni.   Dohvatio sam AAR -ove za 23. IR drugog ID -a i oni su dostavili mnoge pojedinosti do bataljuna razini, a ponekad i razini Co. " , ali većina je prilično dobra.

Sretno. zanimljiva je to potraga.

Odg: Traženje zapisa o 9. pješačkoj pukovniji, 2. pješačkoj diviziji u Drugom svjetskom ratu

Poštovani gospodine Levline, mogu li vas pitati iz kojeg razdoblja imate AAR -ove 23. pješačke pukovnije? Je li tek od lipnja do rujna 1944.? Željeli bismo sastaviti sva jutarnja i poslijepodnevna izvješća kako bismo pomogli obiteljima veterana u njihovom istraživanju. Je li netko iz vaše obitelji služio u 23. pješačkoj pukovniji? Možda u našoj arhivi imamo neke dokumente koji bi mogli biti korisni i vama. Radujem se što ću vas čuti.

Odg: Traženje zapisa o 9. pješačkoj pukovniji, 2. pješačkoj diviziji u Drugom svjetskom ratu

Imam izvješća nakon akcije za 23. IR, 2. ID za siječanj do svibnja 1945.   Moj otac je bio zamjena za 23. IR, Co. L.   Također imam informacije o tome gdje je bio u Pilsenu naplaćeno uključujući prezime i adresu.   Molimo vas da mi date informacije koje vam mogu pružiti kako bih vam pomogao.

Odg: Traženje zapisa o 9. pješačkoj pukovniji, 2. pješačkoj diviziji u Drugom svjetskom ratu

drago mi je čuti vas! Zaista me zanima saznati više o vašem ocu i njegovoj vojsci jer su ljudi iz 3. bojne, 23. pješačke pukovnije oslobodili moj rodni grad Zbůch u blizini Pilsena u svibnju 1945. Čak imam slike muškaraca iz satnije M, 23. IR u selu L íně pored nas. Da budem iskren, moram reći da se američki vojnici poput vašeg oca još uvijek dobro sjećaju u Češkoj čak i nakon više od 40 mračnih godina komunizma u našoj zemlji. Svaki put kad razgovaram sa svjedocima rata, oni kažu: "Da, sjećam se američkih vojnika, posebno onih s indijanskim glavama na ramenima. Najprijateljskiji i najljubazniji. Još uvijek su bili veseli i nasmijani. Bio je to najsretniji trenutak mog života."

Slobodno me nazovi. Jedva čekam vidjeti gdje je vaš otac bio smješten. Mogu vam i slikati kako to sada izgleda. Imamo neke potpisane zapovijedi 3. Bn, 23. IR i ono što ja znam bile su uglavnom stacionirane Třemo & scaronn & aacute u blizini Pilsena.

Ako ste zainteresirani, možete posjetiti našu Facebook stranicu ovdje: https://www.facebook.com/MenOfThe2ndInfantryDivision/ Bili bismo vam zahvalni na svemu što želite podijeliti s nama. Nažalost, još uvijek nemamo puno podataka o tvrtki L i samo 6 imena članova tvrtke L & acutes u našoj bazi podataka tako da nam sve može pomoći.  

Odg: Traženje zapisa o 9. pješačkoj pukovniji, 2. pješačkoj diviziji u Drugom svjetskom ratu

Kao što vjerojatno znate, Druga iskaznica (9., 23., 38. IR)   napustila je područje u blizini Escarna, Njemačka, 1. svibnja 1945., koja je krenula prema Pilsenu i okolici.  . 23. IR, 3. bojna u osnovi je slijedila rutu 26 dok su napredovali prema Pilsenu gdje su stigli 7. svibnja.

Moj tata, Robert E. Levline, regrutiran je 22. veljače 1943., na kraju je služio u Zračnom korpusu vojske u bazi Air Depot 1 u blizini Warringtona u Engleskoj. pješaštva i bio je dodijeljen kao Browningov automatski strijelac (BAR) u odredu Co. L.

Slika je snimljena u Pilsenu krajem svibnja ili početkom lipnja 1945. godine.

Bio je smješten s obitelji Edelmann na ulici Nerudova u Pilsenu.   Imali su sina po imenu Pauli.   Do 1948., kada je započelo vaše "mračno razdoblje", moja je obitelj s njima razmjenjivala hranu i darove.

Javite mi ako mogu dati dodatne informacije.

Odg: Traženje zapisa o 9. pješačkoj pukovniji, 2. pješačkoj diviziji u Drugom svjetskom ratu

Hvala vam puno što ste poslali ocu sliku & acutes. Savrseno je! Također vam zahvaljujem na svim informacijama koje ste sa mnom podijelili. Stvarno to cijenim! Vaš je otac prvi primjer čovjeka koji je služio u Zračnoj zajednici vojske i dobrovoljno se prijavio za pješaštvo. Nikada nisam čuo takvu priču koja se odnosi na 2. pješačku diviziju. Ako želite, mogu pokušati pronaći obitelj Edelmann. Imate li još pisama od njih?

Izvješća o akcijama 23. pješačke pukovnije pronašao sam tijekom svog istraživanja. Želimo posjetiti i dokumentirati točne lokacije u Češkoj gdje su u akciji poginula tri pripadnika 23. pješačke pukovnije - posljednje borbene žrtve 23. IR tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata. Ubijeni su 5. i 6. svibnja 1945. Našli smo toliko podataka o njima, a također smo kupili i kopije njihovih osobnih zapisa od NARA -e koji su bili od velike pomoći. Nažalost, priče o ovoj trojici muškaraca 23. IR -a gotovo su zaboravljene pa naš projektni tim želi spomenuti te ljude i otkriti što se točno dogodilo.

Odg: Traženje zapisa o 9. pješačkoj pukovniji, 2. pješačkoj diviziji u Drugom svjetskom ratu

Bok Tomas, Vernon Hurley iz 23. pješaštva ubijen je 5. svibnja 1945. u blizini Pilsena. Jesu li vaša istraživanja pronašla neke podatke o njemu? Hvala vam!

Odg: Traženje zapisa o 9. pješačkoj pukovniji, 2. pješačkoj diviziji u Drugom svjetskom ratu

Hoće li NARA kopirati zapise na DVD uz naplatu? Pokušavam sastaviti 2 ID zapisa WW2.   Unatoč vjerojatno jasnim uputama, postoji li neka kontaktna točka s kojom##8217d preporučujete da razgovaram?

Odg: Traženje zapisa o 9. pješačkoj pukovniji, 2. pješačkoj diviziji u Drugom svjetskom ratu

Dragi gospodine Deome, hvala vam što ste podijelili informacije o svom velikom ujaku. Povjesničar sam iz Pilsena, Češka. Pripadnici 2. pješačke divizije pomogli su u oslobađanju moje zemlje na kraju rata u svibnju 1945. Suosnivač sam našeg projekta "Muškarci 2. pješačke divizije" internetske baze podataka o drugim pripadnicima ID-a i zajednici veterani, obitelji i obožavatelji ove divizije u Drugom svjetskom ratu. Naš je zadatak očuvati naslijeđe svih ljudi koji su služili u ovoj slavnoj diviziji. U našoj bazi podataka imali smo ime vašeg velikog ujaka i sada konačno znamo da je on bio član tvrtke C. Napravio sam kratko istraživanje i pronašao nekoliko dokumenata i informacija (uključujući novinske članke) koji bi vam mogli biti zanimljivi. Ovo je na primjer dio S/Sgt. Hanford M. Rice & acutes dnevnik. Služio je s vašim velikim ujakom u satniji C: 3. kolovoza 1944. (četvrtak): "Napali smo (opet). Pet ljudi je odustalo s borbenim umorom. Stethem je otišao pa sam uzeo 3. vod. (Neprijateljsko) topništvo pada poput kiše. (Pogođeni su bili) kapetan Harvey, pf. Ed T. Niski, Pvt Joseph F. Kelly, (Robt. L.) Perkins, (Elgin LG Bauer) Bower, Storey. (Postoji samo) 16 ljudi ostalo je u 3. vodu. "

Odg: Traženje zapisa o 9. pješačkoj pukovniji, 2. pješačkoj diviziji u Drugom svjetskom ratu

Bok Matt, Red bitke za 2. pješačku diviziju nalazi se na sljedećoj web stranici:


Kolovoz 1944.: Pariški i Varšavski ustanak - sličnosti i razlike

Kolovoz 1944. obilježen je s dva ustanka u zemljama okupiranim od Njemačke. U obje prijestolnice odgovarajućih država lokalne grupe otpora pokušale su osloboditi svoje prijestolnice kada su se savezničke snage približavale tim gradovima, a njemačke vojske su se povlačile.

Dok je Pariz oslobođen nakon kratke, manje-više simbolične razmjene vatre između njemačkih snaga i francuskog otpora, ustanak u Varšavi ugušen je na najbrutalniji način: hladnokrvno ubojstvo mnogih civila, vojnika Poljske domovinske vojske i kasnije uništenje istočnog Pariza.


Razmišljate li zašto se Pariz uspio osloboditi u nekoliko dana dok je Varšava poražena i sravnjena sa zemljom?

Larrey

Sam-Nary

Prava razlika između ova dva je u tome što su u slučaju Pariza zapadni saveznici imali snage koje se nisu htjele povinovati naredbi NE zauzeti grad.

Crvena armija nije namjeravala ne poslušati Staljina i dopustiti Nijemcima da uguše ustanak tako da je nova poljska vlada stvorena nakon rata. to bi bilo komunističko.

Slobodna francuska druga oklopna divizija nije namjeravala stajati po strani i gledati Nijemce kako sruše njihov glavni grad, koliko god Ike to želio, i udarila je u grad.

LordZ

Magnat

Larrey

Prava razlika između ova dva je u tome što su u slučaju Pariza zapadni saveznici imali snage koje se nisu htjele povinovati naredbi NE zauzeti grad.

Crvena armija nije namjeravala ne poslušati Staljina i dopustiti Nijemcima da uguše ustanak tako da je nova poljska vlada stvorena nakon rata. to bi bilo komunističko.

Slobodna francuska druga oklopna divizija nije namjeravala stajati po strani i gledati Nijemce kako sruše njihov glavni grad, koliko god Ike to želio, i udarila je u grad.

Također nisu htjeli riskirati da gledaju kako će komunisti zauzeti glavni grad. Veliki razlog zašto je 2ème DB uklonjen bio je upravo zbog rizika da bi ustanak uspio, a tada bi komunisti sami oslobodili Pariz. (A da su izgubili, tada bi Saveznici gledali kako je nacistima bilo dopušteno da odagnaju otpor komunista, što se također ne bi zaboravilo.)

De Gaulleove riječi upućene Leclercu prije nego što je krenuo odnosile su se na 1871. godinu: "Posljednje što želimo je još jedna komuna."

Antonina

Hm, prije svega Pariz se nije & quotliberirao & quot; zapadni saveznici su tek bili iza ugla, dvije savezničke divizije došle su u grad nakon nekoliko dana. Nijemci su odlučili ne braniti Pariz i predali su se. Le Victoire.

Parižani su imali saveznike u blizini, Warsawersi su imali dva neprijatelja - jednog u gradu (Nijemci), drugog na vratima (Rusi). Dva bivša saveznika koja su sada postala neprijatelji - Sovjetski Savez i nacistička Njemačka - bili su u savršenom skladu što se tiče Poljske. U rujnu 1939. Staljin je nazdravio "sovjetsko-njemačkom prijateljstvu učvršćenom u krvi" (citat). Nacističko -sovjetski branilački brodovi otada su se pokvarili, ali je stari savez doista bio zacementiran u krvi između 1. kolovoza i 3. listopada 1944. s obje strane rijeke Visule tijekom 63 dana Varšavskog ustanka.

Poljski saveznici bili su daleko i drhtali su kako im staro poznanstvo s najvjernijim poljskim saveznikom ne pokvari Veliku alijansu s kršćanskim gospodinom ujakom Joeom.

Poslovica les amis des nos amis sont br sam je nije nam baš uspjelo.


3. dio: kolovoz 1943. - 1944.

“Još jedno putovanje vlakom, ovaj put u Chittagong. Noću, malo izvan grada, zastali smo da propustimo vlak koji ide drugim putem. Bilo je puno ranjenika koji su se vraćali s fronta i uzvikivali su "Sretno" i "Bog ti pomogao!" nama, a Japance nazivali svakojakim imenima. U Chittagongu smo se ukrcali na parobrod, star oko 50 godina, i plovili niz obalu nekoliko sati do mjesta zvanog Cox's Bazar.

Pridružili smo se 36. pukovniji LAA, 1. istočni pregledi. Nas troje smo veslačkim čamcem poslani u B Troop 97 bateriju, odred za oružje broj 1, oko dvije milje niz rijeku. Bio je to Bofors na kojem sam trenirao na Aldershotu. Bili smo u 11. grupi armija, 15. indijskom korpusu, to je bilo prije formiranja 14. armije.

Sa mnom u Odredu topova broj 1 bili su:

Narednik TOM HOOK star 24 godine
BILL HOOK (Tomov brat) u dobi od 21 godinu
BOB MORTIMER star 24 godine
ERIC OSBORNE u dobi od 25 godina
BILL HOLMES u dobi od 25 godina
BILL HOUGHTON u dobi od 26 godina
DAVE THOMSON u dobi od 27 godina
TOM DEVLIN (vozač) star 25 godina
TED SAUNDERS (kuharica) u dobi od 29 godina

Svi su oni došli iz područja Hayesa u Middlesexu, osim Thomsona iz Yorkshirea i Devlina koji je, poput mene, iz Liverpoola. Kad je narednik povikao za 'Bob', nismo znali misli li on na mene ili Mortimera, pa su me odlučili zvati Charlie, a cijelo vrijeme u 36. LAA -i bio sam poznat kao CHARLIE DUFF. Ovo je znalo zbuniti momka koji je donio poštu, koji je jednog dana pitao zašto moja pisma sadrže R. Duffa. Narednik mu je rekao da ne možemo reći jer je strogo povjerljivo!

Naš pištolj bio je pokretni koji je vukao traktor Chevrolet snage 15 kW. Mogli bismo biti u akciji za tri minute. Kad više nismo mogli dobiti pištolj, jer nije bilo ceste ili je džungla bila previše gusta, nastavili bismo kao pješaci. To se nazivalo A A Move i B Move. Pištolj je ispalio granate od 40 mm ili 2 lb u isječke od osam komada. Mogli bismo ispaliti 100 metaka u pet minuta automatskim ili jednim hicem. ”

“Bawli Bazar premjestio gore u Tumbru Ghat. Japanci su se pomaknuli uz Arakanski lanac, neki su viđeni u Comilli i Chittagongu, 90 milja iza nas. ”

“Premjestili smo se na prijevoj Ngakyedauk i stigli u 2 sata ujutro. Svuda oko nas pucalo je iz mitraljeza i pušaka. Požurili smo aktivirati pištolj dok su japanski avioni ronili bombardirajući cestu. Vreće s pijeskom oko pištolja otvorili su mitraljezi.

Krvarila sam ispod brade i na desnoj ruci. Ne znam kako se to dogodilo i tada nisam ništa osjećao. Narednik je rekao da je to mogao biti geler. Iskoristio je svoju terensku odjeću da mi previje ruku. Došao je jedan časnik na motoru i rekao nam da se vratimo u Bawli Bazar. Pitao me mogu li plivati. Kad sam rekao da mogu, rekao je ako ne možemo nabaviti pištolj na cesti kako bismo s njega uklonili zatvarač i preplivali rijeku, jer će Britanci dignuti u zrak most kako bi odsjekli Japance, a mi smo ne bi imao vremena prebaciti pištolj.

Kad je otišao, rekao sam naredniku što je rekao, i odlučili smo razmisliti svojom glavom. Izvadili smo pištolj iz pogona, zakačili ga za traktor za oružje i uputili se do mosta, koji je bio oko 5 milja niz 'cestu' - malo više od zemljane staze. Bili smo spremni za polazak kad smo shvatili da je cesta puna izbjeglica i indijskih vojnika koji su odlučili da im je dosta. Nismo mogli izaći na cestu, pa smo nas dvoje stajali na cesti i zadržavali promet kako bismo dobili prostora za pomicanje pištolja. Konačno smo uspjeli izvaditi pištolj i traktor na cestu i pješice smo putovali oko 5 milja do mosta preko rijeke Bawli.

Cijelo to vrijeme Japanci su nas mitraljezima napadali i ronili. Uspjeli smo prijeći rijeku i nastavili preko planinskog prijevoja. Na vrhu prijevoja morali smo prijeći mali most koji je djelomično miniran. U to je vrijeme narednik iskočio kako bi testirao ručnu kočnicu na pištolju. Nismo mogli stati i pištolj mu je prešao preko stopala. Vozač je skrenuo i zamalo prešao prijevoj s nama u traktoru. Iskočili smo i zatekli prednje kotače traktora kako vise iznad onoga što je ostalo od mosta.

Narednik je morao otići na stanicu prve pomoći kako bi mu zbrinuli stopalo, pa nas je ostalo samo 8, a nije bilo narednika. U ovom trenutku došlo je 30 -ak japanskih aviona, a mi smo bili sjedeća meta, pa smo otkačili pištolj i gurnuli ga niz brdo do male čistine. Odlučili smo ostaviti 3 čovjeka s pištoljem, a ostalih 5 će se vratiti i pokušati vratiti traktor na cestu.

Bio sam obučen za svaku poziciju na pištolju, pa sam rekao da ću ostati, a kuhar i jedan strelac su ostali sa mnom. Pokrenuli smo pištolj i rekao sam kuharu da legne na okomitu letjelicu, a drugom da leži vodoravno. Ustao sam na platformu i napunio i opalio jednom rukom, dok su drugi muškarci nišanili metu najbolje što su mogli u nadi da će nešto pogoditi. Nisam mislio da se nadamo izravnom pogotku, ali mislio sam da bi ih to moglo zadržati i zaustaviti u ronjenju bombardirajući momke na mostu.

Na cesti je bio konvoj kamiona sa streljivom pa su se morali skloniti. Svi vozači su došli i pitali mogu li išta pomoći. Rekao sam da mogu otvoriti kutije sa streljivom i donijeti granate da ih ubacim u pištolj. Imali smo 100 metaka i ispalili 96 granata, zadržavajući četiri natrag u slučaju da smo ponovno ronjeni bombardiranjem, barem tada smo mogli ispaliti posljednja četiri na njih i krenuti u borbu.

Došao je jedan major na motoru i rekao da radimo dobro i samo tako nastavite. Rekao je da smo srušili rep s jednog aviona, a ja sam rekao da je to morala biti puka sreća. Japanci su se odselili i bombardirali bolnički brod u rijeci. Uspjeli smo vratiti traktor na cestu i spojiti pištolj. Ostalih pet topova u našoj postrojbi bilo je oko 10 milja ispred nas. Uhvatili smo ih na sastanku sljedećeg jutra oko 1 sat ujutro, a cijelo vrijeme nismo imali što jesti ni piti.

Morali smo izvijestiti o ispaljivanju pištolja, a kako smo ga ispalili morali smo prokuhati cijev prije nego što smo pojeli nešto za jesti. Trebalo mi je više od sat vremena da sve raščistim, a do tog trenutka samo sam htio spavati - samo sam pao na tlo gdje sam bio.

Sljedećeg smo dana otputovali natrag u Tumbru Ghat gdje smo imali nišan na malom brežuljku s pogledom na veliku dolinu i duboku džunglu. Tjedan dana se ništa nije događalo, a onda smo jedno jutro bili na pištolju, cijev je pokazivala iznad doline, kad smo vidjeli dva aviona kako dolaze prema nama. Isprva ih nismo mogli razabrati, a onda smo shvatili da su iza njih još dva aviona. Pokazalo se da su prva dva uragana i da su ih progonila dva nula. Nismo mogli pucati dok Uragani nisu prošli pokraj nas, kad su bili jasni otvorili smo se na Nulama.

Bili su tako niski da su samo propustili kuharicu. Nažalost nismo. jedna od naših granata skinula je krov. Kuhar Ted pripremao je doručak, koji je tog jutra došao s dodatkom bambusa.

C trupe su bile vrlo neiskusne. Činilo se da nisu mogli učiniti ništa kako treba, a nakon što su otpuhali kamion od 15 kW, pun vojnika koji su prijavili bolest, svima su im držali dalje od puta. Jutros su bili udaljeni oko 10 milja od nas, a nule su krstarile misleći da su pobjegle. Tada ih je uočio C Troop. Narednik je naredio automatsku paljbu: namjestili su je pojedinačno, ispalili jedan hitac i zabili izravan pogodak!

Nekoliko dana kasnije ponovno smo se preselili, natrag u Bawli Bazar pa preko rijeke i dalje na mjesto koje se zove Yen Yin. Izgradili smo zemunicu s nekoliko željezničkih pragova i ‘brvnaru’ s ceradnim krovom. U blizini rijeke bio je bazen s malim drvenim gatom. Četvero nas je otišlo na kupanje, dvoje na straži s puškama, a dvoje u vodi. Zaronio sam s pristaništa i otkrio da je duboko najmanje 20 stopa. Odjednom se začuo strašan prasak koji me gotovo izbacio iz vode. Kad sam izronio, dečki su vikali na mene da izađem. Došao sam do banke - i tada ugledao dva krokodila. Pratili su me u vodu, a dečki na straži bacili su na njih nekoliko ručnih bombi.

Te sam noći bio na straži s bombardiračem. Taman nam je trebalo laknuti u 1.30 ujutro, kad je naišao kamion težak 3 tone pun Japanaca i zaustavio se oko 200 metara dalje. Naravno da nismo mogli ništa učiniti jer bismo odali svoju poziciju. Do tada su ostatak odreda bili budni i u jami za oružje. Bio sam još 50 metara dalje u rovu s pištoljem Brena. Jedan je dečko došao zauzeti moje mjesto jer sam bio tamo više od dva sata, a ja sam se uspio vratiti do pištolja.

Prije nego što mi je laknulo, japanska je patrola pokušala dignuti u zrak neke topove od 3,7 inča koji pripadaju 8. Ircima. Nedaleko od nas eksplodirala je puška i ručne bombe. Vojnik iz 8. Irca uskočio je u kamion pun streljiva, koji je bio u plamenu, i otjerao ga s puta. Uspio je samo iskočiti prije nego što je pakleno prasnulo.

Sljedećeg smo jutra upravo htjeli doručkovati nakon što smo cijelu noć bili budni, kad smo čuli zvižduk točno iznad nas. Bila je to japanska granata koja je pala odmah iza nas, a zatim je došla druga koja je bila mnogo bliže. U ovom smo trenutku zaronili u zaklon, a granate su nastavile stizati sve dok nisu stigle do osmog irskog oružja i pakao je pukao sljedećih sat vremena.

Čuli smo nekoga kako plače u rupi od granate i oprezno otišli istražiti - svjesni da bi to mogla biti zamka. Nažalost, ovaj put to je bio Burmanac s rupom na nozi velikom poput naranče. Nismo mu mogli puno učiniti osim što smo u rupu stavili komad ručnika i oko njega omotali zavoj.

Kasnije, u jami s oružjem, kad je opet zavladala tišina, bombarder je stajao kraj mene s puškom usmjerenom prema dolje. Odjednom se začuo tresak - slučajno je povukao okidač i metak mi je promašio stopalo za pola centimetra.

Sutradan smo opet bili u pokretu. Probili smo se do prijevoja Ngakyedauk, udaljenog oko 10 milja, pod stalnom vatrom minobacača. Samo smo nastavili, držimo palčeve. Nastavili smo preko prijevoja, kroz gustu planinsku džunglu. Bila je to noćna mora, samo sasušena blatna staza. Morali smo pokriti lice jer nismo mogli disati s prašinom, bilo je to kao da se vozimo kroz gustu maglu. Neki kamioni od 3 tone nisu uspjeli prevladati zavoje i pali su oko 1000 stopa dolje u dolinu. ”

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Drugi svjetski rat - Drugi svjetski rat



Francuzi imaju izreku: «Plus ça change, plus c 'est la même selected» (Jean-Baptiste Alphonse Karr, 1849). Može se prevesti kao: & quotViše se stvari mijenjaju, više ostaju iste & quot. Dugoročno gledano, događaji u povijesti imaju tendenciju da se ponovno vrate. Započnimo ovu priču o Drugom svjetskom ratu stavljajući je u kontekst dugog marša povijesti.

U svojoj hit pjesmi 'The Village of St Bernadette ' (1959) Eule Parker, američki pjevač Andy Williams hvalio je Lourdes kao:

& quotJedan mali grad koji nikad necu zaboraviti
Je li Lourdes, selo St. Bernadette. & Quot

'Selo St Bernadette ': ovo je način na koji je Lourdes u francuskom odjelu Visoki Pirineji (drevna županija Bigorre) postao poznat u cijelom svijetu od 1858. godine. Ipak, većinu svoje zabilježene povijesti Lourdes je bio važno vojno mjesto. To se također trebao dogoditi tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata.

Dva glavna razloga za stratešku vojnu važnost grada su njegov topografski položaj u sjevernom podnožju Pirineja i njegov veliki obrambeni položaj. U prošlosti je dvorac Lourdes Castle (Château fort de Lourdes) koji je stajao na visokom stjenovitom izdanku iznad rijeke Gave bio ključ za kontrolu regije i središnjih planinskih putova prema Španjolskoj i iz nje. Među onima koji su povezani s poviješću Lourdesa i njegova utvrđenog dvorca bili su car Karlo Veliki, Edward, princ od Walesa (Crni princ) i Bertrand du Guesclin.
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Čak i ime 'Lourdes ' i njegov grb potječu od legendarne opsade dvorca od strane Karla Velikog 778. godine. U to vrijeme, vraćajući se na sjever iz Španjolske, Karlo Veliki sa svojim snagama opsjedao je dvorac koji su tada zauzele mavarske snage pod vodstvom Mirata. Kao i kod mnogih opsada, cilj Karla Velikog bio je mavre izgladnjivati. According to the legend by chance an eagle having caught a trout in the river Gave then flew above the castle and dropped its precious catch.

With little food left one fish was not going to sustain the Moorish defenders for long. Hence, in order to fool Charlemagne into thinking they had sufficient food to survive the siege, they sent the trout as a gift to the Emperor. Apparently convinced by this little trick that the siege was still far from being successful - so the legend continues - Charlemagne then proposed a deal with Mirat.

Turpin, the Bishop of Le Puy-en-Velay suggested the plan to Charlemagne that Mirat could keep the town on condition that he would “surrender to the Virgin” (and hence not directly to Charlemagne). In other words, Mirat and the Moors would renounce Islam in favour of Christianity. At the same time Mirat's honour would also be upheld and needless deaths would be avoided.

Mirat and his garrison laid down their arms at the feet of the Black Virgin of Le Puy and Mirat became a Christian, taking the name of 'Lorus'. The name of the town of Lourdes derived from the name of this convert to Christianity. The coat of arms of Lourdes includes an eagle holding a trout in its beak above three castellated towers above the Pyrenean mountains and the river Gave. Over a thousand years before the Second World War the beleaguered military defenders of Lourdes chose to surrender with honour to the forces opposing them.

It would not be the last occasion that beleaguered troops in Lourdes would be faced with a choice of whether to surrender or fight. Time passes but the choice would remain the same. That choice would have to be made again in August 1944 by the commander of the German troops then stationed in Lourdes.
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(3) Lourdes and district in WW2 before August 1944

In the 20th Century the long march of history once again saw opposing military forces in Lourdes and the whole of High Pyrenees region. Initially after the fall of France in June 1940 the High Pyrenees department fell within the 'Unoccupied' zone France controlled by the Vichy-based government of Marshal Philippe Pétain. Nevertheless, the Germans arranged a series of measures limiting the movement of people, freight goods and even the postal traffic between the German 'Occupied' and the Vichy 'Unoccupied' zone.

The High Pyrenees has a 90km border with Spain which was a 'non-belligerent' country during WW2. Inevitably, this offered the possibility of shelter and escape to those who were subject to persecution under the German Occupation. A number of escape networks enabling Allied airmen or escaped POWs to reach Spain and onwards to the British colony of Gibraltar, several of them by the mountain passes of the High Pyrenees. As previously noted because of its topographical location Lourdes was traditionally the key to controlling the region and the central mountain routes to and from Spain. Hence, in the 20th Century the long march of history saw the area return to being a strategically important location.

On 8 November 1942 the Allies launched 'Operation Torch' and invaded French North Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). The situation for the French people living in the Vichy zone was about to get much worse. As a counter to the Allied invasion of North Africa, on 11 November 1942 the Germans moved into the previously 'Unoccupied' zone. Occupation troops arrived from Bordeaux and occupied the High Pyrenees. Some detachments 'locked' the valleys giving access to Spain and small garrisons moved into the towns such as Lourdes, Tarbes and Lannemezan.

Despite these attempts at greater control of free movement to and from Spain local farmers and shepherds knew the highways and byways rather better than the Occupiers. The locals were able to guide people across the border by one of the many unguarded routes across the mountains. In these situations surveillance patrols by the German or French authorities proved to be rather imperfect. For some, the only form of 'resistance' was silence, while other residents of the High Pyrenees opened the doors of their homes for one or more nights so that Jewish refugees in distress could escape across the frontier. Some escaping Jewish refugees were to stay for a longer period and remained in rural villages for the entire duration of the war.
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(4) A refuge in the High Pyrenees

Lourdes, with its many hotels, was a perfect place to bring together children and protect them from bombing. In late 1943 children began to be moved to Lourdes and the surrounding district from the Marseille and Toulon region in anticipation of a possible Allied landing on the coast of Provence. Other children came from the bombed cities such as Bordeaux or Nantes. About 2000 such children were evacuated to Lourdes and were well received by the inhabitants of Lourdes who were well used to welcoming people of all nations.

The children were organised into groups of about 30 or 40 and supervised by a local adult, whom the children called 'Chef' (i.e. 'Chief' or 'Boss'). Several of these adult supervisor ‘Chiefs’ volunteered to work at school health centres to escape the labour service (STO). In the period before the Liberation the German Occupiers, particularly the Gestapo, maintained and increased the identity checks particularly looking for Jewish refugees.

Several of the town and village mayors, town clerks and teachers were involved in providing false identity papers for those most in need, including those residents resisting being sent to Germany by the dreaded S.T.O. (Compulsory Work Order). The local mayors and town halls also helped by providing food or organizing food collections. Some of the town hall employees also helped make it easier for food stamps to be 'stolen'.

None of this was undertaken without some personal danger. The case of the Mayor of Tarbes (capital of the High Pyrenees) illustrates how dangerous it was to resist the Occupiers. Monsieur Maurice Trélut was Mayor of Tarbes between 1935 and September 1944. During the German Occupation M. Trélut was the first link in establishing a network of refugees from the hospital in Tarbes. Many people turned to him through his position as mayor, including many Jewish refugees some of whom were originally from Eastern Europe.

Many of these refugees M. Trélut was able to send to Mother Anne-Marie Llobet, Mother Superior of the Daughters of Charity. Mother Llobet took charge of placing the children in residential schools across Tarbes while their parents were given work at the hospital. Persecuted Jews from Poland, Romania or Germany and who did not speak any French were given false papers categorising them as 'deaf and dumb' or 'mentally deficient'. This explained away the fact they could not speak or understand French.

By such ways and means, many were able to escape deportation and remain free until the day of Liberation. Unfortunately, this was not to be so for Maurice Trélut. His 'complicity' was discovered and he was arrested by the Gestapo. In July 1944 Maurice Trélut was deported to Buchenwald where he was executed in September of that year. By the time of M. Trélut's death the High Pyrenees had been liberated. His sacrifice had not been in vain. Many of those M. Trélut had been able to help during his tenure as mayor had managed to survive the war.
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The Allies land in Normandy (northern France).
The time of Liberation is close to hand.

D-Day, Tuesday 15 August 1944:

The Allies land in Provence (southern France).
The time of Liberation draws even closer.
******************

By 15 August 1944 the German forces in southern France were already facing the problem of the French resistance harrying their supply lines towards the Normandy front. The days following the Allied Landings in Provence also coincided with much of the German army in Normandy being trapped in the 'Falaise Pocket'.

Even before 15 August a large number of the Occupying forces had been moved north to fight against the Allied invaders. For their part the organised French Resistance harried this transfer of troops by various ways and means such as blowing up bridges and railway lines and setting up road blocks. In some instances the Resistance fighters had received weapons supplied by parachute drop from Allied aircraft. These Resistance groups were able to attack the columns of German troops during their move north.

The writing was on the wall for those remaining German Occupiers in the High Pyrenees. But how many Germans were there and what were the options available to them after the invasion of southern France?
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(6) How many Germans were there?

On 18 August 1944 the German Occupying forces in the Argelès-Gazost district of the High Pyrenees comprised of:

At Lourdes - German Customs and frontier guards for two French departments (the High and Low Pyrenees) under the command of Heigerugsrat Kulitszcher.

At Argelès - The Frontier Customs Post under the command of Zollkommisar Blanck.

Also at Argelès - A Gestapo centre headed by Herr Kranick

At Pierrefitte, Luz-de-Saint-Sauveur, Barèges, Gèdre and Cauterets - smaller command posts of frontier customs guards commanded by junior officers and NCOs.

At Cauterets - An information & communications post under Captain Michel.

In total, the total number of German Occupying forces remaining in this district amounted to 9 officers and 340 other ranks (NCOs and privates).

(7) What were the options available to the Germans?

For the German Occupiers remaining in the High Pyrenees after the Allied landings in August 1944 the realistic options open to them would seem to have been as follows:

(a) Pull the forces back to strategic 'strong points' and try to hold out for as long as possible

(b) Link up the remaining forces locally and then move to try and support the larger force of German troops still fighting the Allies elsewhere in France

(c) Surrender to the local Resistance fighters in the district (possibly facing an uncertain future)

(d) Attempt to hold out against the Resistance until the regular troops arrived and then surrender with likely protected rights as prisoners of war.

The German commander for the High Pyrenees department gave the order that all the occupying forces should first make for Lourdes and then move to Tarbes. From Tarbes, the troops would then head north to join up with the rest of the German army still in France. It was not going to be an easy task to carry out these orders.

The French Resistance had already made an attack on the garrison at Tarbes on 18 August. Early on 19 August the Resistance were to move on Lourdes and take control of key points within the town, such as the Pont-Neuf (new bridge). There was no possibility that any forces would arrive to relieve any siege, nor was there much likelihood they would receive supplies or reinforcements from elsewhere. The options available to the German Occupiers were rapidly diminishing. The highest ranking officer of the forces that had pulled linked up at Lourdes was Heigerugsrat (Commandant) Kulitszcher who was faced with the same dilemma as Mirat commanding the Moorish force opposing Charlemagne in 778 AD: whether to fight or surrender.
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(8) A negotiated honourable and peaceful surrender

The Sub-Prefect of the Argelès-Gazost district of the High Pyrenees for the Vichy French administration was M. Saint-Pierre. Generally speaking, for those Frenchmen active in the Resistance they regarded those who had worked for the Vichy administration as collaborators. If the writing was on the wall for the German Occupiers in August 1944 the same hand was writing the same message on the same wall for the Vichy administration. Yet, Sub-Prefect Saint-Pierre had one more card up his sleeve that he was able to play. He would be able to play a key role in negotiating a bloodless German surrender to the FFI (resistance). In a sense, M. Saint-Pierre had a similar intermediary role to that played by the Bishop of Le Puy-en-Velay in 778 AD. Both of them were involved in a peaceful surrender of Occupying forces at Lourdes.

On 18 August 1944 M. Saint-Pierre was at one of the spa resorts in the mountains, Luz-de-Saint-Sauveur. According to M. Saint-Pierre's written account negotiations about a possible German surrender began late in the evening of 18 August. At that time a German emissary, Inspector Schoeffel (a-d-c for Zollkommisar Blanck), and an interpreter (Herr Janous) arrived to meet with M. Saint-Pierre and discuss a possible surrender. These negotiations went through the early hours of the morning.

According to M. Saint-Pierre's written statement it was he who first suggested to the Germans that they could initially be interned in hotels designated by the Germans and that they should hand over their weapons. If the Germans did this the Sub-Prefect gave his word that, as prisoners, the Germans would be treated as regular prisoners of war. Early in the morning of 19 August, the Sub-Prefect met with M. Lemettre (Mayor of Argelès), M. Marque (Special delegation of Pierrefitte), M. Rousset Bert (one of the local Resistance leaders) and some others to discuss what would happen.

Later that morning, M. Jean Senmartin (son-in-law of the owners of the Hôtel Beauséjour, Lourdes) and Captain Leon (Honoré Auzon) of the FFI arrived from Lourdes in a car to see the Sub-Prefect. The French forces at Lourdes had delivered an ultimatum to Commandant Kulitszcher. M. Saint-Martin then returned to Lourdes with M. Senmartin and Captain Leon to finalise the terms of surrender.

Thus, in the early afternoon of 19 August 1944 four signatories affixed their names at the bottom of the document agreeing to the surrender of the German garrison of Lourdes. This is a translation of that document:

"On 19 August 1944, at the Hotel Beauséjour, Lourdes, Lieutenant-Colonel Martial under the General Direction of the Special Services Army Staff presented his credentials to Commandant Kulitszcher, German commander of the locality who agreed to disarm and surrender his troops to the French authorities in accordance with the rules of war.

The ultimatum had been issued to them at 22.00 h on 18 August by Captain Leon, Head of the Lourdes Sector of the FFI and confirmed at 10.00 h on 19 August. Having been in touch with the German Army commander at Tarbes, the same officer made contact at 11.00 h. At 13.00 h hours, the German commander captain asked the officer to see M. Saint-Pierre, the Sub-Prefect who had been negotiating the surrender with the German officers of Argelès during the night.

The nine officers will be interned in a hotel to be designated by them. They will hand over their weapons to an officer of the FFI who will prepare an inventory. The 340 men will be interned as regular prisoners and an inventory will be made of the weapons that belonged to them.''

The signatories to this document were:

M. Saint-Pierre (Sub-Prefect, Argelès-Gazost district)
Lt. Colonel Martial, D.G.S.S.
Captain Leon (Honoré Auzon), FFI

A few days after the German surrender M. Saint-Pierre, the Sub-Prefect for the district made a written record of what took place during the negotiations. The record survives in the archives of the prefecture, and at the Resistance and Deportation Museum in Tarbes. This is how the Sub-Prefect summarised the surrender of the German Occupiers:

« . Ainsi, sans un mort, sans un blessé, sans même un coup de feu, a cessé l'occupation de l'arrondissement dont l'administration m'avait été confiée»

& quot. Thus, without a death, without anyone wounded, without even one shot being fired, the Occupation ended in the administrative district which had been entrusted to me."

Heigerugsrat Kulitszcher was commanding the German frontier troops of two departments: the High Pyrenees and the Low Pyrenees. He was the highest ranking German officer remaining in the Lourdes area.

The true identity of Lieutenant-Colonel "Martial" was M. Tessier d'Orfeuil. Commander Richon, otherwise known as "Jeannot", was the third of the main French resistance leaders assisting with the formal signing of the German surrender. Many of the French Resistance leaders adopted a different name to safeguard against possible reprisals being taken out on their families. Satisfied at their 'victory' - achieved without bloodshed - the FFI leaders could be content with their efforts.

The 9 German officers told the Sub-Prefect they wanted to be escorted to a hotel at Argelès. Consequently, the German officers were taken there to be interned. The 340 or so other ranks of the German army and administration that had gathered together at Lourdes were also transported out of the town and initially interned at Pierrefitte-Nestalas.

It will be remembered that the German forces had agreed their weapons would be handed over to the FFI at the time of their surrender, and an inventory made. Up to this time the FFI had been supplied with arms by parachute drops and other means. These weapons obtained from the German forces made a significant increase to the FFI armoury in the High Pyrenees. A short time afterwards many of the FFI of the Soulé column that obtained the German weapons volunteered for the 1st battalion of the Bigorre Regiment of the French Army. Captain of the 'Bigorre' Battalion after the Liberation was Captain Jean Richon ('Jeannot').

As they were now part of the regular army the 'Bigorre' soldiers fought the Germans in the closing months of the war. The German weapons captured at the time of the Liberation of Lourdes became a significant part of the Bigorre battalion’s armoury. On 25 September 1946 General Charles De Gaulle announced that Captain Jean Richon, otherwise known as 'Jeannot', was to be nominated as a member of the Legion of Honour (i.e. the 'Légion d'honneur').

The citation referred to his leadership and achievements in the wartime Resistance, as well as his achievements commanding the 'Bigorre' battalion. In particular, the 'Légion d'honneur' citation referred to the 'Royan Pocket' battle of 14, 15 and 16 April 1945 in which 'Jeannot' and the 'Bigorre' battalion had played a key role. After the Germans evacuated most of France some garrison 'pockets' remained until the final days of the war. Royan, in the Charente-Maritime department on the Gironde estuary of S.W. France was one of these German 'pockets'.
-----------------------------

(10) Jubilation at another Lourdes 'miracle'

Lt.-Col "Martial" and Sub-Prefect Saint-Pierre still had a concern about possible reprisals from the still-significant German garrisons within striking distance of Lourdes, such as at Tarbes, Pau, Orthez, Pau, Bayonne and Toulouse. They issued a poster which was posted around town by mid-afternoon on 19 August. This announced the surrender of the local German Occupiers, but also called for 'absolute discipline' among the civil population. In particular, they formally declared a ban on public gatherings on the streets, the closing of cafés and a curfew until 10 o'clock at night.

No doubt the 'new' authorities in Lourdes had good reasons for this 'order' but the posters did not stay in position for very long! They were torn down. The townsfolk and refugees took to the streets to acclaim their liberators. Unlike as often happened during the German Occupation the authorities took no action against those ignoring an official order. This was not going to be a day for staying indoors and being fearful. There had been enough of those sorts of days over the previous four years. This was the day of days to be out celebrating on the streets! It was a significant day in the history of Lourdes and on a par with the surrender of the Moorish garrison under Mirat to Charlemagne's forces in 778 AD.

Some three months after the Liberation, a pamphlet was published in the High Pyrenees 'The Liberation of the Pyrenees and the South West'. This collection of stories about the Liberation had been prepared by M. André Messager. Among the stories featured was one entitled 'The German surrender of Lourdes'. The French Resistance who had been at Lourdes on 18 / 19 August and knew the true course of events found M. Messager's miraculous account of the events somewhat amusing! Yet, the strength of the written word is such that this is the version that has entered into popular belief.

In a book of his wartime experiences written in 2002, M. Pierre Fauthoux, a voluntary combatant in the Resistance and one of the 'Jeannot' group that took part in the Liberation of Lourdes, wrote about this popular but 'mythical' account by André Messager:

"Upon reading its contents, one can only marvel at the performance of the two negotiators cited, Captain 'Auzon' and Jean Senmartin, son-in-law of the owners of the Hotel Beauséjour. In two hours, almost without weapons or troops, they brought 340 heavily armed German soldiers to their knees!

It is true, let us not forget that the city is Marian, from time to time, subject to miraculous events. But miracle or not, this is the account that later reference books mention about this event. Thus, Jacques Longué's 'Chronicle in Bigorre' was inspired by this story, as are other journalists who are consistently rehashing this version, with only a few adjustments with the passage of time. It has been recounted so much so that over the years, that this version seems to have become historical truth . & quot

Source: Fauthoux (2002), pp. 50-51

As can be seen from this example, sometimes 'myths' can become irrefutable historical 'truths'!
---------------------------

By 20 August 1944, the whole of the High Pyrenees department has been liberated. The cost in life in 1944 was relatively light. But there had been a price to pay between 1942 and 1944. Post-war research estimates that between July 1942 and August 1944 guerrilla actions undertaken by the Resistance in this department was at the cost in life of 205 resistance fighters. In addition there were 527 civilians interned and deported either for acts of resistance, their political opinions or for being Jews. In the last three months of the Occupation the German reprisals on the civilian population in the High Pyrenees accounted for 78 dead and 50 wounded.

In the years after the war many tributes were paid to those who helped the Jews and those on the run from the Gestapo or actively participated in the Resistance. For example, many street signs in the towns and villages were named after some of these people, or memorials erected at the scene of where fighting or particular events took place.

Maurice Trélut, the Mayor of Tarbes who made the ultimate sacrifice for his wartime actions aiding the Jewish refugees, was declared 'Righteous among the Nations'. He is honoured on the 'Wall of Honour' at the Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial in Jerusalem. Maurice Trélut is also remembered in his own region. The main sports stadium of Tarbes is named in honour of Maurice Trélut. Another of those listed as 'Righteous among the Nations' at Yad Vashem is Mgr. Pierre-Marie Théas. Monsignor Théas was Bishop of Montauban (1940 - 1947) and Bishop of Tarbes & Lourdes (1947 - 1970).

Outside the Hotel Beauséjour at Lourdes, is a commemorative tablet with the following inscription:

'Ici le 19 août 1944
Les troupes allemandes de la région de Lourdes se sont rendues, sans condition, aux Forces Françaises de l'intérieur, commandées par le Capitaine Auzon'.

"Here on 19 August 1944 the German forces in the Lourdes region unconditionally surrendered to the French Forces of the Interior (FFI), commanded by Captain Auzon".

Many hundreds of thousands of tourists and pilgrims must pass by this tablet each year without actually reading it or know what it represents. Yet, this was the place that the German Commander of the Lourdes garrison surrendered to the French forces and avoided wholesale destruction and bloodshed in the town. For this reason, it is one of the most important reminders of the long history of Lourdes - even if relatively few people are aware of its existence.
------------------

(12) Acknowledgements & further reading

1. Resistance and Deportation Museum & Archives,
Tarbes (Hautes-Pyrénées département), France

2. The Castle Fort and its Pyrenean museum
25, rue du Fort
65100 LOURDES

3. The Reception staff,
Hôtel Beauséjour,
65100 LOURDES
----------------------

Further reading (in French):

1. Fauthoux, Pierre (2002),
"L'itinéraire d'un jeune résistant de BIGORRE,
D'un maquis pyrénéen au front de l'Atlantique",
ANACR, Tarbes.

2. Saint-Pierre, M. (1944)
"Reddition des garnisons Allemandes de Lourdes et Argelès:
Déposition du Sous-Préfet Saint-Pierre au Capitaine de Clarens"
(Resistance and Deportation Museum Archives, Tarbes, France)
**************


Bypaths of Kansas History - August 1944

A BLENDED WHISKY

Od Kansas Free State, Lawrence, April 7, 1855.

An Indian had gone to Westport [now a part of Kansas City, Mo.] one cold winter's day, and got very drunk. On his way home, he became completely overcome, laid down, and was frozen to death. His tribe was at that time much disposed to imitate the habits of white men, and accordingly held an inquest over the dead body. After a long pow-wow, they finally agreed to the verdict, that the deceased came to his death "by mixing too much water in his whisky, which had frozen in him and killed him!"

"TRAILER HOUSES" of 1859 CAMP-WAGONS FOR HOUSES

From the Emporia News, October 22, 1859.

We have before referred to the limited amount of surplus room which our building capacities at present afford, and the fact that immigrants were still pouring in upon us. The past week has added several more families, who, being determined to remain, have taken to camp life until they can either build or find room. We admire their courage. If some others who have come here and gone away for this reason had possessed such resolution, they would not now have cause for regret.

From the Leavenworth Evening Bulletin (D. R. Anthony, publisher), May 23, 1865.

This morning, C. R. Morehead & Co. were arrested and brought before the recorder for a violation of the Sunday laws, in permitting trains to be loaded from their warehouse on Sunday. The goods did not belong to them, but were left on storage by a Mexican trader. The mayor was applied to, and gave written permission to the Mexicans to load the teams, and also "ordered the policemen not to interfere, or to arrest the parties." The city attorney refused to prosecute the case, and moved that a nolle pros. be returned, which was granted by the court.

We do not find fault with this course, only in this: it is making fish of one and flesh of another. The German is hauled up for practising an innocent game on Sunday, roundly fined, and threatened with an iron jacket, if he dare drink his glass of lager or pitch a game of quoits on Sunday.

We were hauled up before his Honor, charged with carrying concealed weapons. We proved that we had a permit from the acting mayor, and that it was custom, usage, and in accordance with the charter. A fine of ten dollars was imposed. The city attorney did not move a nolle pros. in our case.

O ye gods, and the good people of Leavenworth! look out for these men "who strain at a gnat and swallow a camel."

Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains

The latest in scholarship on Kansas history, published quarterly since 1978 by the Kansas Historical Foundation.


August 1944: Liberation of Paris in Images

Middle of August 1944 witnessed an uprising in Paris. By the 25th, the city was liberated, and the celebration followed. These images record the history of the last few days leading to the liberation and then onto the celebrations.

August 1944: Troops of the 2nd Armored Division en route to Paris, August 1944. Credit: ECPAD.

August 23, 1944: Insurrection of Paris, set to join the Resistance, to liberate the capital. Here they erect barricades. Credit: ECPAD.

August 26, 1944: Troops from the 2nd Armored Division parade in a liberated Paris. They pass in front of City Hall. Credit: ECPAD.

August 1944: “Kiss the Winners”. Credit: ECPAD.

August 1944: General Leclerc, commander of the 2nd Armored Division, pushed the German General von Choltitz in his scout car, to take him to the police station in the Montparnasse train station, so that he signed the act of surrender. Credit: ECPAD.

August 1944: The arrest of German troops by the population of Paris and the resistance during the uprising in the city of Paris. They were taken to police headquarters. Credit: ECPAD.

August 26, 1944: High ranking German officers seized by Free French troops which liberated their country’s capital are lodged in the hotel Majestic, headquarters for the Wehrmacht in the days of the Nazi occupation. Paris, France. Credit: National Archives.

August 26, 1944: Crowds of Parisians celebrating the entry of Allied troops into Paris scatter for cover as a sniper fires from a building on the place De La Concorde. Although the Germans surrendered the city, small bands of snipers still remained. Credit: National Archives.

August 29, 1944: Parisians line the Champ Elysees to cheer the massed infantry units of the American army as they march in review towards the Arc de Triomphe, celebrating the liberation of the capital of France from Nazi occupation. Credit: National Archives.

August 1944: U.S. Tank in Paris. Credit: National Archives.

Crowds of French patriots line the Champs Elysees to view Allied tanks and half tracks pass through the Arc du Triomphe, after Paris was liberated on August 25, 1944. Credit: Library of Congress.

August 29, 1944: American troops of the 28th Infantry Division march down the Champs Elysees, Paris, in the `Victory’ Parade.” Credit: National Archives.

Soldiers of the 4th U.S. Infantry Division look at the Eiffel Tower in Paris, after the French capital had been liberated on August 25, 1944. Credit: John Downey, National Archives.

CALLIE OETTINGER was Command Posts’ first managing editor. Her interest in military history, policy and fiction took root when she was a kid, traveling and living the life of an Army Brat, and continues today.


August 3, 1944

American Jewish journalist Ruth Gruber arrives in New York harbor with 984 refugees from Nazi-occupied Europe, which concluded her secret mission to escort the refugees from Italy to America.

Ruth Gruber was an American journalist, photographer, writer, humanitarian, and a United States government official. At age twenty, she was the youngest Ph.D. u svijetu.

  • Ruth Gruber | Photojournalist International Center of Photography: https://www.icp.org/exhibitions/ruth-gruber-photojournalist
  • Ruth Gruber | Jewish Women’s Archive: https://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/gruber-ruth
  • Ruth Gruber | Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/Ruth-Gruber/e/B001H6QHIA
  • Ruth Gruber | Quotes: https://www.azquotes.com/quote/820126
  • Ruth Gruber – The Movie | Real Inheritance Films and Vitagraph: http://www.aheadoftimethemovie.com
  • “Ruth Gruber finds haven for 1,000 Holocaust Refugees” | Jewish Women’s Archive: https://jwa.org/thisweek/aug/03/1944/ruth-gruber
  • “Women of Photos and Firsts, Ruth Gruber at 100” | NPR: https://www.npr.org/sections/pictureshow/2011/10/15/141325143/a-woman-of-photos-and-firsts-ruth-gruber-at-100

Link to Photo Credit: Edith Gruber

Odricanje od odgovornosti: Autorica je ovaj sadržaj pripremila u svom osobnom svojstvu. Stavovi i mišljenja izražena u ovom članku su mišljenja autora i ne odražavaju nužno službenu politiku, mišljenje ili stav njihovog poslodavca.


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