Kućni ljubimci u kolonijalnoj Americi

Kućni ljubimci u kolonijalnoj Americi


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Kućne ljubimce u kolonijalnoj Americi kolonisti su držali iz istih razloga kao i u Europi: radi druženja, a u slučaju pasa, radi zaštite, lova i čuvanja stada. Mačke su kontrolirale štetočine u kućama i stajama sve do 18. stoljeća kada su postale cijenjene kao kućni ljubimci.

Kolonisti su držali mnoge različite životinje kao kućne ljubimce, uključujući vjeverice, divlje ptice, rakune, jelene, konje, zmije, žabe i kornjače, između ostalih. Doseljenici su doveli svoje pse, konje i mačke iz Europe, a kasnije su pripitomili i druge životinje - poput jelena, vidre i dabra - koje su susreli u Sjevernoj Americi.

Davno prije dolaska prvih Europljana, Indijanci su držali i kućne ljubimce, prvenstveno pse i purane, iako postoje dokazi da su i bobci pripitomljeni. Indijanci su pse držali u iste svrhe kao i kolonisti, ali su ih koristili i za prijevoz robe sanjkama pričvršćenim na pojaseve vezane oko torza. Rani kolonijalni izvještaji opisuju pse koji se koriste na ovaj način, ali su na kraju domoroci usvojili ogrlicu za pse od Europljana, a pojasevi su se koristili rjeđe.

Svako pleme imalo je različite pasmine pasa koje su se koristile u različite svrhe na isti način na koji su promatrale različite tradicije koje se međusobno razlikuju. U Sjevernoj Americi nije bilo nijednog indijanskog psa. Kolonisti su, s druge strane, bili ujednačeniji u korištenju pasa - i kućnih ljubimaca općenito - i europski je model na kraju postao standard u cijeloj zemlji. U današnje vrijeme vlasnici kućnih ljubimaca i dalje se pridržavaju istog modela primijećenog u kolonijalnoj Americi.

Indijanski psi

O tome kada i gdje su psi prvi put pripitomljeni nastavlja se raspravljati, no smatra se da nisu porijeklom iz Sjeverne Amerike, već su stigli s Paleoindijancima koji su migrirali u zemlju preko Beringovog kopnenog mosta (poznatog i kao Beringia) prije više od 14.000 godina. Znanstvenica Marion Schwartz komentira:

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Prijavite se za naš besplatni tjedni bilten putem e -pošte!

Psi su izvanredni jer su jedinstveno osjetljivi na kulturne atribute ljudi s kojima žive. Ne samo da su psi proizvod kulture, već također sudjeluju u kulturama ljudi. Zapravo, psi su bile prve životinje koje su se nastanile kod ljudi i jedine životinje koje se nalaze u ljudskim društvima diljem svijeta. Zbog sveprisutnosti preko kulturnih granica, psi su bili toliko uobičajeni da se činilo da njihova povijest ne zaslužuje puno pažnje. Pa ipak, u posljednjih dvanaest tisuća godina psi su igrali sastavni dio ljudskog života. Ono što je kod pasa najupečatljivije je njihova sposobnost prilagođavanja potrebama ljudi s kojima žive. Psi su se pokazali nevjerojatno fleksibilnim bićima, a to je bilo točno u Americi kao i drugdje u svijetu. (2)

Smatra se da je prvi pas koji je ušao u Sjevernu Ameriku neka vrsta dinga, iako je ova tvrdnja osporavana, a moguće je da je bilo nekoliko različitih pasmina koje su stigle s prvim ljudskim imigrantima. Psi su korišteni za zaštitu domova i sela, za lov, prijevoz robe sanjkama, a u slučaju pasmine salish na zapadnoj obali (veća verzija pomeranskog), njihovo se krzno koristilo za izradu prostirki i pokrivača. Neka su plemena držala pse kao kućne ljubimce, a također i kao izvor hrane, druga prvenstveno kao čuvare i lovce, no sva su smatrala pse vrijednom imovinom.

Psi su smatrani posrednicima između viđenih i neviđenih svjetova, carstva smrtnika i bogova.

Psi su bili visoko cijenjeni kao dar bogova, i iako postoji mnogo različitih mitova koji govore o tome kako je pas živio među ljudskim bićima, priča o Psu i velikoj medicini iz Cheyennea sa srednjeg zapada je tipična. Bog stvaralac Velika medicina stvorio je ljudska bića nakon što je stvorio svijet i pokazao svom narodu zemlju prekrivenu poljima kukuruza i gustu od krda bivola. Cheyenne su cijenili darove, ali nisu imali načina slijediti bivole kako bi ih lovili ili transportirati kukuruz nakon što je ubran. Ponekad su ih noću napadala i druga plemena koja su im se mogla prišuljati kako bi se mogla uzeti i mala količina kukuruza i bizona. Great Medicine im je pokazao kako uhvatiti mlade vukove koje će odgajati kao kućne ljubimce. Ove su životinje zatim evoluirale u pripitomljene pse koji bi upozorili selo na napad, mogli transportirati kukuruz i pomoći ljudima u praćenju bizona, kao i u lovu na drugu divljač.

U nekim plemenskim pričama pas je među prvim stvorenjima, u drugima, poput Cheyennea, to je dar koji se ljudima olakšava. Psi su smatrani posrednicima između viđenog i neviđenog svijeta, carstva smrtnika i bogova, jer su utjelovljivali i divlju i domaću sferu. Ovaj pogled na psa u oštroj je suprotnosti s europskim shvaćanjem psa kao stvorenog bića čija je jedina svrha bila služiti ljudima.

Kolonisti i njihovi psi

Prema kršćanskim Europljanima, psi nisu imali duše - niti bilo koja druga životinja - jer je besmrtna duša animirala samo ljudska bića koja će odgovarati za djela učinjena u životu nakon njihove smrti i pojavljivanja pred Božjim prijestoljem na sudu. Stoga se na psa nije gledalo kao na nešto posebno, a pozivanje na pse u Bibliji poticalo je to gledište jer su psi općenito povezani sa siromaštvom i niskim društvenim statusom. Navesti samo jedan primjer, iako je biblijska priča o Lazaru i bogatašu iz Luke 16: 19-31 protumačena kao prikazivanje pasa u pozitivnom svjetlu (kao iscjelitelji koji ližu rane siromaha), oni su povezani s siromaštvo upravo ovim činom.

Čak i u tom slučaju, kolonisti nisu s prezirom gledali na pse, već su se o njima duboko brinuli. Prvi zakon o zlostavljanju pasa (ili bilo koje životinje) u engleskim kolonijama bio je Propisi protiv tiranije ili okrutnosti kolonije u zaljevu Massachusetts 1641. Namjerna okrutnost prema životinji kažnjavala se novčanom kaznom ili kaznom u zalihama i stupovima. Kolonisti koji su posebno uzgajali pse bili su jako ponosni na njih i uzdigli su svoje iznad onih svojih susjeda s ogrlicama koje su često bile okićene i, među višom klasom, prilično skupe.

Kožni ovratnici s mjedenom pločom s ugraviranim imenom psa, imenom vlasnika, a ponekad i jezgrovitim epigramom bili su popularni u Europi i zrcaljeni u ranoj kolonijalnoj Americi. Vlasništvo pasa počelo se povezivati ​​s određenim stupnjem bogatstva jer su si mogli priuštiti prehranu psa, ali i njegove obitelji, a ogrlica s lokotom djelomično je razvijena kako bi se dokazalo navedeno vlasništvo. Ogrlica s lokotom bila je metalni prsten sa šarkama pričvršćen oko vrata psa kopčama i pričvršćen malim lokotom za koji je samo vlasnik držao ključ. Ako je pas izgubljen ili ukraden, moglo bi se dokazati vlasništvo izradom ključa i otključavanjem ogrlice jer je bilo nemoguće ukloniti komad bez štete psu.

Psi su se koristili za lov, čuvanje doma i u krvnim sportovima kao što su borbe pasa ili mamci medvjeda. Pasmine su uključivale razne pse, buldoge, mastife, pokazivače, setere, španijele, terijere i druge. Manje pasmine bile su poznate kao "psi za utjehu", a žene i starije osobe preferirale su ih kao pratioce. Gospoda iz više klase, poput Georgea Washingtona (l. 1732-1799) i Thomasa Jeffersona (1743-1826), vodili su popis pasmina, a Washington se ponosio znanjem o psima. Francuski general Lafayette (l. 1757-1834), saveznik Washingtona tijekom Revolucije, to je prepoznao i dao Washingtonu dva basseta na dar; čime je Basset uveden u Sjevernu Ameriku. Još jedna od najpoznatijih anegdota o Washingtonu i psu također potječe iz razdoblja američkog rata za neovisnost (1775.-1783.) I govori o tome kako je nakon bitke kod Germantowna 1777. Washington pronašao psa svog protivnika, generala Williama Howe (l. 1729-1814), i vratio mu ga sa svojim komplimentima. Washington je znao da je to Howein pas po natpisu na ovratniku psa.

Kad bi pas nestao, ako mu nedostaje identifikacija, poput Howeinog psa, oglasi bi se postavljali u lokalnoj kući za sastanke, crkvi ili konobi nudeći nagradu za njegov povratak, baš kao što to rade ljudi danas. U Colonial Williamsburgu nagrade za pse nudile su se u iznosu od 20 šilinga (devet dana plaće) između 1774.-1777., Označavajući vrijednost koju vlasnici daju svojim psima. Oglasi u New Yorku tijekom revolucije slijede isti model kao što su britanski časnici postavljali mnoge za povratak svojih izgubljenih pasa. Portreti tadašnje gospode iz visoke klase često ih prikazuju kako poziraju s omiljenim lovačkim psom, a isto i žene iz više klase sa svojim psom utjehom. Psi se, naime, počinju prilično redovito pojavljivati ​​na obiteljskim portretima iz c. 1700 nadalje.

Ostali kućni ljubimci

Psi nisu bili jedina pripitomljena životinja koja je uživala status statusa tijekom 18. stoljeća; mačke su također postale sve više cijenjene kao pratitelji, dok su prije
smatrani su više -manje utilitarnom kontrolom štetočina. Doba prosvjetiteljstva potaknulo je ljude da preispitaju mnoga vjerovanja i tradicije iz prošlosti, a među njima je bio i pogled na mačku kao gotovo nužno zlo. Mačke su bile povezane s poganskim kulturama i, primijećeno je, nigdje se u Bibliji ne spominju, što ih dovodi u sumnju. Oni su, međutim, bili korisni u kontroli populacije štakora i miševa i većinom su se više tolerirali nego što se o njima brinulo.

Tijekom 18. stoljeća mačka je postala maženi kućni ljubimac kakvog danas poznajemo.

Međutim, tijekom 18. stoljeća mačka je postala maženi kućni ljubimac kakvog danas poznajemo. Obiteljski portreti, kao i pojedinačni komadi, često su prikazivali mačku osobe ili obitelji, a počeli su se pojavljivati ​​u poeziji i književnosti. Mačka kao vješticina omiljena poznanica, naravno, bila je nadaleko poznata i nisu ih prihvaćali kao članove obitelji još kao psi, ali u vrijeme Američke revolucije bili su barem u jednakom položaju sa psima koliko portretiranje je u pitanju.

Jeleni su također prikazani na portretima i postali su jedan od najtraženijih i najpopularnijih ljubimaca kolonijalne Amerike. Jeleni su nosili ogrlice i hodali su na povodcima te su, na temelju njihovog prikaza na slikama, živjeli u obiteljskoj kući ugodno poput mačaka ili pasa. Jeleni su se često pripitomljavali i puštali u vrtove kolonijalnih imanja kako bi zabavili goste na zabavama, a jedan od primjera za to je dr. Benjamin Jones iz kolonije Virginia koji je obučio više od stotinu jelena za svoje imanje u tu svrhu, kao i za svoje obitelj za uživanje. Portreti jelena prikazuju ih u pozama vrlo sličnima onima hrtova tog razdoblja s mjedenim bojama često tipa lokota.

Drugi kućni ljubimac koji se često pojavljivao na portretima bila je vjeverica čija je mladunčad postala popularnija od šteneta ili mačića s tadašnjom djecom. Ljudi su mladima pljačkali gnijezda vjeverica, pripitomljavali ih i prodavali na tržnici kao kućne ljubimce. Ove kućne vjeverice bile su ogrlice, na uzici i hodale baš kao i psi za udobnost. Leteće vjeverice bile su posebno popularne kod dječaka koji su ih obučavali sjediti na ramenima dok su hodali gradom. Popularnost vjeverica kao kućnih ljubimaca žalile su se tadašnjim suprugama i majkama, koje su se žalile na bića prožvakana kroz ormare, odjeću i posteljinu i nisu se mogle suzdržati jer su mogle jesti kroz drvene kutije ili kaveze. Limari su to iskoristili stvarajući metalne kaveze s kotačima za vježbanje i drugim predmetima kako bi vjeverica i dalje mogla zabavljati obitelj, ali ostati zatvorena.

Pripitomljene ptice bile su osobito popularne kod mladih djevojaka i žena, koje su kardinale i druge držale u često složenim kavezima u svojim salovima. Vjerovalo se da se ptica može naučiti melodiju ponavljanjem, pa su male flaute poznate kao flageolets postale popularne među vlasnicima ptica. Osoba bi tijekom dana ponavljala jednostavnu melodiju na instrumentu i mislilo se da će je ptica naučiti pjevati. Ne postoje zapisi o tome da je ova praksa zapravo uspjela, osim u slučaju ptice rugalice.

Dabrovi su također bili popularni, uglavnom među muškarcima i dječacima, i bili su obučeni da love ribu i nose je kući. Vidre su bile obučene za vađenje divljači koja je pala u vodu, na isti način na koji su to prije bili lovački psi. Posebno su ribari voljeli obučene vidre koje bi zaronile pod vodom i vratile se s ribom. Rakuni, koji su također bili pripitomljeni, bili su najmanje popularni zbog svoje navike da provaljuju u ostave i kradu hranu ili razne predmete iz domova. Bez obzira na to koliko je bio dobro obučen, rakun je također bio sposoban ubiti obiteljske piliće, što je na kraju dovelo do toga da je ispalo kao kućni ljubimac, a više se smatralo grabežljivcem i smetnjom.

Druge životinje, poput zmija i malih majmuna, nastavile su biti popularne iako su predstavljale vlastite probleme. Zmije su bile posebno nepopularne među ženama, iako su žene i djevojčice bile primarni vlasnici majmuna koji su bili daleko više zabrinuti u održavanju urednog i čistog doma. Još jedna životinja popularna osobito među mladim djevojkama bilo je janje koje se često prikazivalo na slikama s vrpcom oko vrata. Pilići su, naravno, također služili kao kućni ljubimci, iako ih nema portreta ukrašenih kao što su bili janjci i majmuni.

Zaključak

Promjene u vlasništvu kućnih ljubimaca, u pogledu vrsta životinja koje se drže u domovima, došle su s industrijskom revolucijom krajem 18. i početkom 19. stoljeća. Britanski industrijalac Samuel Slater (l. 1768-1835) uveo je engleske tekstilne mlinove u SAD c. 1789. Pomagao mu je industrijalac Moses Brown (l. 1738-1836) koji je osnovao prvi mlin na vodeni pogon u Americi u Pawtucketu na Rhode Islandu 1790. Uvođenje tekstilnih mlinova pokazalo se prilično isplativim za poslovne ljude i potaknulo je razvoj više tehnologiju koja štedi rad, što je dovelo do urbanizacije jer su se ljudi selili u gradove radi posla. S povećanjem industrijalizacije i urbanizacije vlasništvo nad kućnim ljubimcima postajalo je sve restriktivnije u pogledu izbora; gradski stan nije bio mjesto za jelena, konja ili janje kao kućnog ljubimca. Oni u ruralnim područjima još su držali ove životinje kao kućne ljubimce, ali više se ne pojavljuju u portretu u 19. stoljeću, a čini se da su vjeverice pratile isti pad popularnosti.

Kolonizacija, širenje prema zapadu i daljnje useljavanje također su utjecali na to koje su se životinje držale kao kućni ljubimci. Jeleni su se redovito lovili kao hrana i za njihove kože, čak i kad su bili pripitomljeni kao kućni ljubimci, ali kako su se prirodna staništa počela smanjivati, a populacija jelena sve se više udaljavala od naselja, hvatanje i pripitomljavanje jelena kao kućnog ljubimca postalo je manje popularno od pucanja i jedenja za večeru. Zmija, toliko popularna tijekom kolonijalnog razdoblja, slijedila je isti put dok su ih tjerali dalje od gradića i napokon su sredinom 19. stoljeća potisnuti u sferu zabave putujući mađioničari i cirkusanti.

Kako se sve više zemljišta naseljavalo, a trebalo je hraniti sve više ljudi, životinje poput dabra, vidre i rakuna - koje su bile lovljene zbog kože i mesa čak i kad su ih smatrali popularnim kućnim ljubimcima - umjesto toga postale su prvenstveno izvori hrane drugova i pomoćnika. Nativna američka sela, koja su nekad bila prilično brojna uz istočnu obalu Sjeverne Amerike, uništena su od strane kolonista kako bi se napravilo mjesta za daljnja naselja, a nakon što su stanovnici preseljeni u rezervate, bilo im je nezakonito posjedovati pse kao i imaju pristup vatrenom oružju. Psi američkih domorodaca oduzeti su, a ove su pasmine na kraju izumrle iz uzgoja s europskim psima i to toliko temeljito da je danas nejasno što su mnoge od ovih pasmina uopće bile.

Čini se da su se ograničenja u pogledu vrsta kućnih ljubimaca dogodila prirodno jer je postajalo sve teže doći do egzotičnijih životinja. Psi i mačke stoga su postali primarni izbor za većinu ljudi, a njihova je popularnost rasla kako ih je sve više domova usvajalo. U današnje vrijeme pas i mačka i dalje su najpopularnije i najčešće životinje koje se drže kao kućni ljubimci, iako brojni Amerikanci i dalje drže egzotične životinje baš kao i njihovi preci.


Elias Legarde Edit

Elias Legarde (ili Legardo) bio je Židov koji je stigao u Jamestown u Virginiji na HMS Abigail 1621. Ova se pretpostavka temelji samo na zvuku prezimena koje je imalo sumnjiv pravopis (Legardo).

Solomon Franco Edit

Prvi Židov za koji je poznato da je živio u sjevernoj Sjevernoj Americi bio je Solomon Franco, sefardski Židov iz Nizozemske za kojeg se vjeruje da se nastanio u gradu Bostonu u koloniji Massachusetts Bay 1649. Franco je bio učenjak i agent Immanuela Perade, Nizozemski trgovac. Dostavljao je zalihe Edwardu Gibbonsu, general -majoru milicije u Massachusettsu. Nakon spora oko toga tko bi trebao platiti Francu (Gibbons ili Perada), Opći sud u Massachusettsu 6. svibnja 1649. donio je odluku da će Franco biti protjeran iz kolonije i dodijelio mu "šest šilinga tjedno iz Riznice na deset tjedana, za prehranu, sve dok ne dobije svoj put do Nizozemske. " [1] [2]

Solomon Pietersen Edit

Solomon Pietersen bio je trgovac iz Amsterdama koji je došao u grad 1654. Godine 1656, Pietersen je postao prvi poznati američki Židov koji se vjenčao s kršćaninom, iako nema zapisa koji pokazuju da se Pietersen formalno obratio, njegova kći Anna krštena je u djetinjstvu. [3] [4] [5]

Jacob Barsimson Edit

8. srpnja 1654. Jacob Barsimson napustio je Nizozemsku i stigao na brod Drvo kruške 22. kolovoza u luci New Amsterdam (na Donjem Manhattanu, gdje je danas Wall Street). Barsimson je bio zaposlen u nizozemskoj istočnoindijskoj tvrtki i pobjegao je iz portugalskih naselja u Novom svijetu, koji su zauzeli nekadašnje nizozemsko naselje i tamo osnovali portugalsku inkviziciju.

Asser Levy Edit

Asser Levy (Van Swellem) prvi se put spominje u javnim zapisima u Novom Amsterdamu 1654. godine u vezi s grupom od 23 Židova koji su stigli kao izbjeglice iz Brazila. Vjerojatno je prethodio njihovom dolasku. Levy je bio (košer) mesar za malu židovsku zajednicu. Borio se za židovska prava u nizozemskoj koloniji i poznat je po tome što je osigurao pravo Židova da budu primljeni u Građane i da služe stražarsku službu u koloniji.

Prvi skupina Židova u sjevernim kolonijama iskrcali su se početkom rujna 1654., nedugo nakon Barsimsona. Barsimson ih je, po njihovom dolasku, sreo u Bateriji. Ovu skupinu činilo je dvadeset i tri portugalska Židova iz Nizozemske (četiri para, dvije udovice i trinaest djece). Poput Barsimsona, oni su pobjegli iz bivšeg nizozemskog naselja koje je skupina emigrirala iz nizozemskog Brazila nakon što su naselje osvojili Portugalci. Uplašivši se inkvizicije, Židovi su napustili Recife. Prvobitno su pristajali na španjolskoj Jamajci i španjolskoj Kubi, ali im Španjolci nisu dozvolili da tamo ostanu. Njihov brod, Ste. Catherine, umjesto toga otišao u Novi Amsterdam, smjestivši se protivno željama lokalnih trgovaca i lokalne nizozemske reformirane crkve. Kolonijalni namjesnik Peter Stuyvesant, na pritužbu ovih grupa, pokušao je protjerati Židove. Napisao je pismo direktorima nizozemske West India Company od 22. rujna 1654 .:

Židovi koji su stigli gotovo bi svi željeli ostati ovdje, ali saznavši da su oni (sa svojim uobičajenim kamatarenjem i lažnom trgovinom s kršćanima) bili jako odvratni prema inferiornim sudijama, kao i prema ljudima koji su prema vama imali naklonost, đakonat također strahujući da bi zbog sadašnjeg siromaštva mogli postati naboj u nadolazećoj zimi, za dobrobit ovog slabog mjesta koje se tek razvijalo i zemlje općenito, smatrali smo korisnim zahtijevati od njih na prijateljski način odlazak, moleći se i najozbiljnije s tim u vezi, za nas same, ali i za opću zajednicu vaših štovatelja, da se lažnoj rasi - takvim neprijateljima mržnje i bogohuliteljima Kristova imena - ne dopusti da dodatno zaraze i uznemire ovu novu koloniju vaših ibadeta i nezadovoljstva najomiljenijih tema vaših ibadeta.

Međutim, među direktorima nizozemske West India tvrtke bilo je i nekoliko utjecajnih Židova, koji su se zauzeli u ime izbjeglica. Službenici tvrtke odbili su Stuyvesanta i naredili mu u pismu od 26. travnja 1655. da pusti Židove u Novi Amsterdam, "pod uvjetom da siromašni među njima ne postanu teret tvrtki ili zajednici, već će ih uzdržavati narod":

Željeli bismo ostvariti i ispuniti vaše želje i zatražiti da se na novim teritorijima više ne dopusti zaraza ljudi židovske nacije, jer od toga predviđamo iste poteškoće kojih se bojite, ali nakon što smo dodatno odmjerili i razmotrili Uočavamo da bi to bilo donekle nerazumno i nepravedno, posebno zbog značajnog gubitka koji je ova nacija, s drugima, pretrpjela u preuzimanju Brazila, kao i zbog velike količine kapitala koji su još uložili u dionice ove tvrtke. Stoga smo nakon mnogih razmatranja konačno odlučili i odlučili apostilirati [bilježiti] na određenu peticiju koju su dostavili portugalski Židovi da ti ljudi mogu putovati i trgovati u i u Novu Nizozemsku te živjeti i ostati tamo, pod uvjetom da siromašni među njima ne postanu teret tvrtki ili zajednici, ali će ih podržati njihova vlastita nacija. Sada ćete prema tome vladati sobom.

Nakon što su Englezi zauzeli koloniju 1664. godine, prava koja su uživali Židovi nisu bila ugrožena, a čini se da su dvadeset godina živjeli kao prije britanske okupacije, iako s neznatnim povećanjem njihovog broja. Židovima je prije bilo zabranjeno naseljavanje u engleske kolonije, jer im je 400 godina bilo zabranjeno pristupiti svim engleskim zemljama. Oliver Cromwell (britanski zaštitnik od 1649. do 1660., preko svog sina Richarda) ukinuo je ovu zabranu, a osnivanje prvog velikog židovskog naselja ubrzo je uslijedilo u Newportu na Rhode Islandu. Godine 1672. Rabba Couty postao je istaknut žalbom na Kraljevsko vijeće u Engleskoj iz dekreta koji su protiv njega donijeli sudovi Jamajke, zbog čega je jedan njegov brod zaplijenjen i proglašen oduzetim. Njegov je apel bio uspješan i utvrdio je prava Židova kao britanskih podanika. Čini se da je ovo prvi slučaj u kojem je kolonijalna potpora za naturalizaciju priznata kao valjana.

1685. odbijena je primjena Saula Browna (izvorno Saul Pardo) u trgovini na malo, kao i primjena Židova za slobodu javnog ispovijedanja svoje religije. Da su to učinili privatno u nekom određenom bogomolji, pokazalo bi se iz činjenice da karta New Yorka, datirana 1695., prikazuje lokaciju židovske sinagoge u Beaver Streetu, kao i to da je Saul Brown bio ministar, te da se skupština sastoji od dvadeset obitelji. Pet godina kasnije mjesto sinagoge bilo je toliko poznato da su se prostori u prijenosu imovine nazivali orijentirom. 1710. godine, ministar skupštine, Abraham de Lucena, dobio je izuzeće od državne i vojne službe zbog svojih ministarskih funkcija, a spominju se i uživanje istih privilegija od strane njegovih prethodnika. Zapisnici kongregacije Shearith Israel iz New Yorka počinju 1729. godine, kada se nalazila u ulici Mill Street, a odnose se na zapise koji datiraju čak 1706. godine. Ova skupština osnovana je u ulici Mill 1730. godine, na zemljištu kupljenom dvije godine prije , prva sinagoga u budućim Sjedinjenim Državama.

Tako bi se činilo da su vjerska prava ovih ranih židovskih doseljenika osigurana početkom 18. stoljeća, te da su uživali i mnoga politička prava. Akt koji je Generalna skupština New Yorka donijela 15. studenoga 1727. predviđa da bi, kad je zakletvu abjuracije trebao položiti bilo koji britanski subjekt koji ispovijeda židovsku religiju, riječi "prema pravoj vjeri kršćanina" mogle biti izostavljene . Tri dana kasnije usvojen je zakon kojim je Daniel Nunes da Costa naturaliziran. Oštra politička kontroverza iz 1737. rezultirala je odlukom Generalne skupštine da se Židovima ne smije dozvoliti da glasaju za članove tog tijela.

1740. Parlament je donio Zakon o nasadima kojim se posebno dopušta naturalizacija Židova u kolonijama. Međutim, prije ovog datuma, kolonijalna skupština New Yorka donijela je brojne posebne akte naturalizacije, od kojih su neki bili primjenjivi samo na pojedince, drugi općenitijeg karaktera, prema kojima su se Židovi mogli naturalizirati bez polaganja prisege "na pravu vjeru kršćanin ", također su stavljeni u knjigu statuta. Između tog vremena i Rata za nezavisnost židovska se zajednica u ovoj koloniji polako povećavala, a glavni useljenici dolazili su iz Španjolske, Portugala i Zapadne Indije.

Tijekom francuskog i indijskog rata, Jacob Franks bio je kraljevski agent, u suradnji s britanskim sindikatom, za opskrbu britanskih snaga u Americi, a njegovi su poslovi s krunom u tom razdoblju premašili vrijednost od 750.000 funti.

Iako se većina ranijih useljenika naselila u New Yorku, nekolicina se doselila izvan njegovih granica, neki čak i do granica onoga što sada čini državu Pennsylvania. Godine 1661., kada je Albany bio samo trgovačko mjesto, Asser Levy posjedovao je tamošnje nekretnine, ali između tog datuma i prvih godina devetnaestog stoljeća nema podataka o bilo kakvim doseljenicima u tom gradu. Nije ih bilo u dovoljnom broju da formiraju džemat sve do 1838. godine, a rabina nisu imali do 1846.

Grupa Židova naselila se u Newportu na Rhode Islandu krajem 1600 -ih zbog službene vjerske tolerancije kolonije koju je ustanovio Roger Williams. U drugim dijelovima Nove Engleske vjerojatno je bilo povremenih doseljenika u sedamnaestom i osamnaestom stoljeću, ali netolerancija puritanaca onemogućila je uspostavu bilo koje vjerske zajednice. Prema nekoliko izvora, Moses Simonson, koji se 1621. godine nastanio u Plymouthu u Massachusettsu, možda je imao nizozemsko židovsko podrijetlo. [1] [2] Zanimljiva je osobnost Jude Monisa, koji je postao obraćenik na kršćanstvo i napunio katedru hebrejskog jezika na Harvard Collegeu od 1722. do svoje smrti 1764. godine.

Spominje se jedan Židov u Connecticutu 9. studenog 1659., a drugi 1670. Prva židovska obitelj koja se doselila u New Haven došla je 1772. godine, iako je nekoliko godina prije toga prešlo u kršćanstvo. Prva kongregacija osnovana je oko 1840. godine, pa su članovi bili članovi dvadesetak bavarskih obitelji. Od tog datuma zajednica se polako povećavala. Židovska naselja postoje i u Bridgeportu, Ansoniji, Derbyju, Waterburyju, Novom Londonu i Hartfordu. Prva skupština u Hartfordu osnovana je 1843. Od 1891. godine, brojni židovski poljoprivrednici naseljeni su u različitim dijelovima države.

Najranije spominjanje Židova u Massachusettsu nosi datum 3. svibnja 1649. godine, a spominju se i Židovi među stanovnicima Bostona 1695. i 1702. godine, ali oni se mogu smatrati samo lutalicama, jer nijedan doseljenik nije nastanio svoje domove u Massachusettsu do Rat za nezavisnost protjerao je Židove iz Newporta. Godine 1777. Aaron Lopez i Jacob Rivera, s pedeset i devet drugih, otišli su iz Newporta u Leicester i tamo se etablirali, ali ovo naselje nije preživjelo kraj rata. Brojni Židovi, uključujući obitelj Hays, nastanili su se u Bostonu prije 1800. Od tih Mojsijeja Michael Hays je bio najvažniji. 1830. brojni alžirski Židovi otišli su u Boston, ali su ubrzo nestali. Povijest sadašnje zajednice počinje 1840. godine, kada je osnovana prva skupština.

Židovski useljenici u Vermont i New Hampshire nikada nisu bili jako brojni, iako postoje skupštine u Burlingtonu, Vermontu i u Manchesteru, Nashua, Concord, Portsmouth i Dover, New Hampshire. O zajedničkom životu Židova u Novoj Engleskoj ne može se reći malo važnosti, a njihov se broj povećavao, ali polako sve do početka velike ruske emigracije 1882., kada je prelijevanje iz New Yorka, kao i iseljavanje kroz Kanadu, počelo tok u Novu Englesku.

Otvaranje Zapada i rezultirajuća neprofitabilna priroda poljoprivrede u Novoj Engleskoj odvukli su iz ovog dijela Sjedinjenih Država mnoge štedljive poljoprivrednike koji su napustili svoja neplodna polja radi privlačnijih prilika u zapadnim državama. U vezi s ovim pomicanjem stanovništva zanimljiva je činjenica da su mnoge od ovih napuštenih farmi, osobito u Connecticutu, preuzeli ruski Židovi, koji su, uglavnom kao uzgajivači mlijeka, dodali novi i korisni element poljoprivrednoj zajednici .

Čini se da je samo nekoliko Židova našlo put do Marylanda tijekom prve polovice 17. stoljeća, te da su prvi doseljenici ove kolonije došli kao pojedinci, a ne u znatnom broju u bilo koje vrijeme, kao što je to bio slučaj u New Yorku , Newport, Savannah i Charleston. Sudeći prema samim imenima, čini se da je nekoliko Židova živjelo u Marylandu od najranijih dana kolonije. Najistaknutiji lik, koji je nedvojbeno bio Židov, bio je dr. Jacob Lumbrozo, koji je stigao 24. siječnja 1656. i koji je 1658. godine suđen za bogohuljenje, ali je pušten zbog opće amnestije koja mu je dodijeljena u čast pristupanje Richarda Cromwella (3. ožujka 1658.). Pisma denizacije izdana su Lumbrozu 10. rujna 1663. Osim što se bavio medicinom, posjedovao je i plantažu, bavio se trgovinom s Indijancima i imao je aktivne odnose s londonskim trgovcima. Bio je jedan od prvih liječnika u koloniji, a njegova karijera baca mnogo svjetla na povijest i prirodu vjerske tolerancije u Marylandu. Snagom svoje osobnosti uspio je zanemariti gotovo sve zakone koji bi njegovo prebivalište u koloniji učinili nemogućim, a čini se da je promatrao svoju vjeru iako je to, prema zakonima, bilo zabranjeno. Nepovoljno okruženje otežavalo je prijem Židova u Maryland, pa sve dok Ustav iz 1776. nije utvrdio vjerska prava svih, malo je Židova nastanilo koloniju.

Zabilježeno je da su Židovi iz Novog Amsterdama trgovali duž rijeke Delaware već 1655. Vjerojatno je bilo nekih doseljenika na jugoistočnom dijelu teritorija kojega je William Penn preuzeo posjed 1681. Vrlo je velik broj prvih kolonista iz Pennsylvanije bio Njemački Židovi. The first Jewish resident of Philadelphia was Jonas Aaron, who was living there in 1703. Another early pioneer and one of considerable prominence was Isaac Miranda. He was the first to settle at Lancaster, at which place, as also at Shaefferstown, there was an early Jewish immigration. Miranda became a convert to Christianity and held several state offices. A number of Jews settled in Philadelphia in the first half of the eighteenth century, and became prominent in the life of the city. Among these were David Franks, Joseph Marks, and Sampson Levy. The Non-Importation Resolutions of 1765 contained the signatures of eight Jews, an indication of the importance of the Jewish community at this time. As early as 1747 a number of persons held religious services in a small house in Sterling alley, and afterward in Cherry alley—between Third and Fourth streets. They were mostly German and Polish Jews and their differences as to the liturgy to be followed prevented, at the time, the formation of any regular congregation. Attempts, indeed, were made in 1761 and 1773 to form one, but none was established until the influx of Jews from New York during the Revolutionary War, with the arrival of Gershom Mendes Seixas, gave the community sufficient strength to carry out this cherished object. A lot was purchased and a synagogue erected, the dedication occurring in September 1782. A number of Philadelphia Jews served in the army of the Revolution and the inestimable services rendered by Haym Salomon to Robert Morris in the finances of the Revolution make his name stand out as the most prominent character in American Jewry.

Jews have lived in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, since at least 1730, before the town and county were organized. Joseph Simon was the best known of the first arrivals. Meyer Hart and Michael Hart were among the earlier settlers at Easton, where they arrived previous to the Revolutionary War. A synagogue was established there in 1839. Shaefferstown had a few Jewish settlers at an early date, and a synagogue and cemetery in 1732. For a considerable number of years preceding the Revolutionary War a number of Jews of Pennsylvania were engaged in the exploitation and sale of western Pennsylvania lands. Among the more prominent of these were Jacob and David Franks, Barnard and Michael Gratz, Joseph Simon, and Levy Andrew Levy.

The Jewish settlement in Georgia dates almost from the very foundation of the colony and the early history of Georgia is practically the history of the growth and development of Savannah, Jewish life centering in that city. It would appear that a movement was set on foot in London to settle some Jews in the colony even before James Oglethorpe, in June, 1733, led his first band of followers to the point which soon after became the city of Savannah. The second vessel which reached the colony from England (on July 11, 1733) had among its passengers no less than forty Jewish emigrants. Although their arrival was unexpected, the liberal-minded governor welcomed them gladly, notwithstanding that he was aware that the trustees of the colony in England had expressed some opposition to permitting Jews to settle there. These first settlers were all of Spanish, Portuguese, and Prussian extraction, though within a year of their arrival others, who were apparently German Jews, also took up their residence there. These two bands of settlers received equally liberal treatment from Oglethorpe, and were the progenitors of one of the most important communities of Jews in the U.S. Many of their descendants are still living in various parts of the country. The first male white child born in the colony was a Jew, Philip (Uri) Minis on July 11, 1734.

Among the first immigrants was Dr. Nunis, who was made welcome because of his medical knowledge, and because he, with a number of others, brought sufficient wealth to the colony to enable the immigrants to take up large tracts of land. A congregation was organized as early as 1734. Three years later Abraham de Lyon, who had been a vigneron in Portugal, introduced the culture of grapes. The cultivation and manufacture of silk and the pursuit of agriculture and of commerce were the chief occupations of these early settlers. A dispute with the trustees of the colony respecting the introduction of slaves caused an extensive emigration to South Carolina in 1741, and resulted in the dissolution of the congregation. But in 1751 a number of Jews returned to Georgia, and in the same year the trustees sent over Joseph Ottolenghi to superintend the somewhat extensive silk-industry in the colony. Ottolenghi soon attained prominence in the political life of his associates, and was elected a member of the Assembly in 1761 and in succeeding years. There seems to have been little if any distinction made socially between the Jews and the other settlers, and educational and philanthropic institutions seem to have been supported by all alike.

The liberal charter which John Locke drew up in 1669 for the governance of the Carolinas should have operated to attract Jews there at an early date, since "Jews, heathen, and dissenters" were by the terms of Locke's charter granted full liberty of conscience. Although political changes modified Locke's original plans considerably, the spirit of tolerance was always retained. Nevertheless, no Jews in any numbers appear to have come to South Carolina until the exodus from Georgia from 1740 to 1771, already referred to. However, one Simon Valentine, one of four Jews who applied for citizenship in 1697, became the first documented Jewish landowner, which entitled him to vote. [3] A few others followed him, for in 1703 a protest was raised against "Jew strangers" voting in an election for members of the Assembly.

In 1748, some prominent London Jews set on foot a scheme for the acquisition of a tract of 200,000 acres (80,937 ha) (809 km 2 ) of land in South Carolina. Nothing came of this, however, though on November 27, 1755, Joseph Salvador purchased 100,000 acres (40,469 ha) (405 km 2 ) of land near Fort Ninety-six for £2,000. Twenty years later Salvador sold 60,000 acres (24,281 ha) (243 km 2 ) of land for £3,000 to thirteen London Sephardic Jews. This land was known as the "Jews' Lands." Another of the Salvadors (Francis Salvador, the nephew of Joseph) purchased extensive tracts of land in the same vicinity in 1773–74. [3] Moses Lindo, likewise a London Jew, who arrived in 1756, became actively engaged in indigo manufacture, [3] spending large sums in its development, and making this one of the principal industries of the state.

During the Revolutionary War the Jews of South Carolina were to be found on both sides and the most eminent of the revolutionists was Francis Salvador, who was elected a member of the First and Second Provincial Congresses which met 1775–76, the most important political office held by any Jew during the Revolution. [3] Two-thirds of a company of militia commanded by Richard Lushington was made up of Charleston Jews.

After the fall of Charleston in 1780 the majority of Jews left that city, but most of them returned at the close of the war. The Sephardic Jews established a congregation in 1750, and the Jews of German descent another shortly thereafter. In 1791, when the Sephardic congregation was incorporated, the total number of Jews in Charleston is estimated to have been 400.

To judge by names alone, it would appear that a few Jews wandered into Virginia as early as 1624. A small number seem also to have been there before the end of the seventeenth century, but for nearly 100 years no traces of Jewish settlement are found. At least one Jewish soldier—possibly two—served in Virginia regiments under Washington in his expedition across the Allegheny Mountains in 1754. It is probable that Jews drifted into the colony from Baltimore and other points in Maryland at an early date. By 1785, Richmond had a Jewish community of about a dozen families of Spanish-Portuguese descent, which organized a Sephardic congregation in 1791. This congregation remained in existence until 1898.

A few Jews were among the traders who settled in Tennessee, near the Holston River, in 1778, but they were mere stragglers and made no permanent settlement.

Of the remaining states of the southern group east of the Mississippi River the principal Jewish settlements have been made in Alabama and Mississippi. An occasional Jew made his way into the territory which is now Alabama during the early part of the eighteenth century. One Pallachio became prominent in 1776.

It is likely that there were a few Jews in the Natchez district of Mississippi before the close of the eighteenth century, but no congregation was organized until that of Natchez was established in 1843.

Before and during the American Revolutionary War the Jews had representatives of their people upon both sides of the controversy, though the majority joined the colonial side. On the Non-Importation Agreement of 1769 the names of not less than five Jews are found this is also the case with respect to other agreements of a similar nature. The outbreak of the Revolutionary War dissolved the congregation in New York and upon the eve of the British occupancy of the town the majority of the congregation, headed by Gershom Mendes Seixas, took all the belongings of the synagogue and removed to Philadelphia, where they established the first regular congregation, the Mickvé Israel, in 1782. The small number who remained in New York occasionally held services in the synagogue. Most of those that left for Philadelphia returned to New York after the war. Haym Solomon or (Salomon), (1740–1785) was possibly the prime financier of the American side during the American War of Independence against Great Britain. He was born in Prussia and died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Although the Jews participated prominently in the events leading up to the Revolution, it would appear that even in the midst of absorbing political discussions they were able, in 1774, to start another congregation. They were not all, however, to be found on the colonial side during the war, for Mordecai Sheftall, Levi Sheftall, Philip Jacob Cohen, Philip Minis, and Sheftall Sheftall were in the first days of the Revolution disqualified by the authorities from holding any office of trust in the province because of the pronounced revolutionary ideas which they advocated. The community was dispersed during the Revolution, but many Jews returned immediately after the close of the war.


George Washington Bred Hunting Dogs for Speed

George Washington and Lord Fairfax, mounted on horses, on a fox hunt with a slave managing a team of hunting dogs.

Smith Collection/Gado/Getty Images

Washington, Hager adds, wanted a speedier hunting dog, and hoped to breed that speed into the hounds he already owned.

“When his good friend, the Marquis de Lafayette, heard about this, he sent General Washington a group of French hound dogs in the care of young John Quincy Adams,” he says. “These dogs were much more aggressive than Washington’s usual hounds, and were eventually bred with them. This created the new breed, although it’s important to note that Washington wasn’t thinking about the breed in any sort of legacy way. He just wanted to improve his personal collection of hunting dogs.”

According to Mary Thompson, research historian at Mount Vernon, many dog breeds were developed through selective breeding over many years.

“The fact that American foxhounds have a lighter build and longer legs than English Foxhounds suggests that Washington and others who were developing this new breed wanted a good hunting dog that was faster than the English dogs,” she says. Thompson added that American foxhounds also work more individually than as a pack, with each dog being willing to take the lead.

The American Kennel Club recognizes Washington as the father of the American foxhound, noting the breeds of Bluetick Coonhound, American English Coonhound and Treeing Walker Coonhound were also “likely influenced by his quest for a superior dog.”

Thompson adds that Washington kept many dog breeds, each with their own speciality. There were herding dogs, hounds, non-sporting dogs, terriers, toys and working dogs at Mount Vernon.

“In fact, we can document the presence and/or knowledge of breeds in every group currently recognized by the American Kennel Club among the dogs in Virginia in the 18th century,” she says. Breeds at Mount Vernon included Briards, Dalmatians, English foxhounds, French hounds, Greyhounds, Italian Greyhounds, mastiffs, Newfoundlands, pointers, spaniels and terriers.

Washington often gave his dogs names, too. Some of note: Sweet Lips, Venus, Trulove, Taster, Tippler, Drunkard and Madame Moose.

According to Thompson, many of the dog names seem to relate to singing or music: Droner, Hearkwell, Music and Singer, for example.

�h foxhound had a distinctive voice, which was important as a way to tell one dog from another when hunters were following behind them after prey animals,” she says. “Sweet Lips may have gotten her name because Washington liked the sound of her voice as she was hunting.”


Spirits of Our Forefathers - Alcohol in the American Colonies

The above statements by three of the Founding Fathers reflect the prevailing attitude toward alcohol in the 18th century and throughout much of our country's early existence. Alcohol has played a major role in our nation's history, and its use is a part of our heritage. In colonial times, Americans probably drank more alcohol that in any other era. Spirits were an integral part of daily life throughout the colonies no matter the geographic or economic differences. It was reported that the average American drank eight ounces of alcohol a day. And it didn't matter what. Americans drank beer, and cider with breakfast rum and wine with dinner claret, ratafias, creams, punches, and other concoctions in the evening. (Robinson, 2001)

"Revolutionary War era persons drank a phenomenal amount. We have here an account of a gentleman's average consumption: 'Given cider and punch for lunch rum and brandy before dinner punch, Madeira, port and sherry at dinner punch and liqueurs with the ladies and wine, spirit and punch till bedtime, all in punchbowls big enough for a goose to swim in.'" (As cited in Washington and Kitman, 1970)

There are a number of reasons for all of this tippling. Our English heritage declared that water was bad for a person's health. Given the sanitary standards of the day this was probably true. Beer consumption especially, was seen as a healthy substitute for water. Beer was considered a food, which showed social status (only the most destitute drank water) and allowed for persons to put in a full days work. Franklin while working in a printing house in London was known as the "water American", because of his affinity to water, by his fellow printers who were

Americans of the period believed it was particularly healthier to drink lukewarm alcohol during hot weather rather than drink cold water. Signs were displayed at public wells warning individuals of the dangers of cold water during the summer. The rationale for this is that when a person sweated, heat was conducted from the inside of the body. Therefore, the stomach needed warmth, which could be provided by alcohol. (Barr, 1999)

The bias against water was so great that a recent immigrant from Italy, Phillip Massei, caused a stir at a large dinner party where he asked for a glass of water. I perceived some confusion among the servants, and the water did not arrive. The host, next to who I sat, whispered in my ear, asking with a smile if I could not drink something else, because the unexpected request for a glass upset the entire household and they did not know what they were about." (As cited in Barr, 1999)

Beer usually replaced water as the daily drink. An early morning tankard of beer was typical in colonial America, even for children. This tradition, as stated earlier, came from England. The Pilgrims loaded more beer than water on the Mayflower. And, there is some evidence that they were put off at Plymouth, rather than Virginia, because the ship's crew wished to make sure they had enough beer to consume on the return voyage. (Royce, 1981)

The ingredients for beer did not grow well in New England. As a substitute, the Puritans made do with hard cider. The many apple orchards of the area were planted for its production. Men usually began the day with a quart or more at breakfast.

Beer and cider were not readily available on the frontier. Settlers west of the Allegheny Mountains converted their corn into whiskey as a substitute and to make their crop transportable. Life was hard on the frontier. The pioneers called their whiskey the "Good Creature of God", giving them the strength needed to dull the pain of the brutal manual labor of making a home in the wilderness. (Powell, 1999)

". there is unquestionably too much spirituous liquors drank in the newly settled parts of America, but a very good reason can be assigned for it. The labor of clearing the land is rugged and severe, and the summer sweats are sometimes so great that it would be dangerous to drink cold water. "(As cited in Barr, 1999)

The first businesses established on the frontier were often simple taverns located along trails and roads to take care of the needs of travelers. Tradition of the time dictated that a drink be had at every halt in a journey. One story tells of two travelers on a seventy-mile trek by coach who drank a quart of liquor at each of the eight stops that were made.

Tavern owners enjoyed higher social status than did the clergy during the colonial era. Taverns were the center of civic life. Because of this they were often required to be located near the church or meeting house. Religious services and court sessions were often held in taverns. Judges interrupted court to drink, and clergy were obligated to drink at every house call and were often seen reeling home. (Powell, 1999)

All of this drinking did not go on without some comment. John Adams stated: "If the ancients drank as our people drink rum and cider, it is no wonder we hear of so many possessed with devils." (As cited in History of Alcohol in America) But, among the founding fathers Adams stood pretty much alone. Washington, Franklin, and Jefferson all imbibed and enjoyed brewing or distilling their own alcoholic beverages.

Jefferson was one of the most knowledgeable wine connoisseurs ever to hold national office. And, he was the wine advisor for Washington, Madison and Monroe. He felt that wine was ". indispensable for my health." He further advocated the virtues of wine stating "no nation is drunken where wine is cheap and none sober, where the dearness of wine substitutes ardent spirits as the common beverage." (As cited in Insiders Guide to Virginia Wineries)

Jefferson believed that wine stimulated conversation. There must have been quite a bit of talking at Monticello because there are records that he and his guests consumed 1,203 bottles of wine in just over two year's time. (Garr, 1997) Jefferson, though, thought of himself as a man of moderation.

". you are not to conclude I am a drinker. My measure is a perfectly sober one of 3 or 4 glasses at dinner, and not a drop at any other time. But as to those 3 or 4 glasses I am very fond." (As cited in Garr, 1997)

Jefferson's interests in wine went far beyond just drinking. He was also involved in viticulture. He planted vineyards at Monticello and encourage others to take up the practice. Jefferson's attempts were not successful since the phylloxera louse, which was not discovered until the 1860s, attacked his grapes.

The sober picture we have of Washington is not correct if we are to believe anecdotes of his day. It was said that he could dance the night away with four bottles of wine under his belt. And, that his Revolutionary War personal expense account for alcohol from September 1775 to March 1776 amount to over six thousand dollars. (Washington & Kitman, 1970) He was a devout lover of beer in particular a dark porter was always in ample supply at Mount Vernon. A typical Washington hosted dinner "included several wines, beer, cider." (Mount Vernon An Illustrated Handbook, 1974)

With all the drinking that went on during this era, one tends to agree with Adams' statement and wonder how we fought a war, won our independence, and established a government. Perhaps the Spirit of '76, which inspired our forefathers, was indeed spirits.

Reference

Barr, Andrew. Drink: A Social History of America. 1999, Carroll & Graff Publishers, Inc.

Garr, Robin. "Jefferson and Wine". 1997, www.winelovers page.com/wines/tjeff.

"History of Alcohol in America" (Cider). www.2020 site.org/drinks/cider.

Mount Vernon An Illustrated Handbook. 1974, Mount Vernon Ladies Association.

Powell, Stephen. "The Devils Drink: 1999, www.bluemoon.net/

Robinson, Matthew. : How To Toast Like Our Founding Fathers", 2001, Claremont Institute Publications, www.claremont.org/publications/Robinson 010118.cfm.

Royce, James E. Alcohol Problems: A Comprehensive Survey. 1981, New York Free Press.

"Thomas Jefferson: Food and Wine Connoisseur", The Insiders Guide to Virginia Wineries. www.blueridge/sb-wineries.

Washington, George and Kitman, Marvin. 1970, George Washington's Expense Account. 1970, Simon and Schuster.


Spinning Patriotic Sentiment in Colonial America

“As for me, I will seek wool and flax, and work willingly with my hands and indeed there is occasion for all our industry and economy.”
—Abigail Adams, in a 1774 letter to her husband, John Adams

Did you know that the humble spinning wheel was once a symbol of patriotic fervor in America? Colonial women in the years before the Revolution created their own homespun cloth as a way to disrupt the British monopoly on the textile market. In fact, spinning played such an important role in the conflict that the Daughters of the American Revolution chose a spinning wheel as a symbol for their organization.

It all started with Britain’s attempt to protect one of their biggest industries, textiles. Colonists imported most of their textiles from Britain, and wool production in the colonies was discouraged since Britain saw America as a supplier of raw materials for England’s factories. England could then sell the manufactured goods to the colonies at a handsome profit.

But early Americans had other ideas. By the end of the 1600s, America was exporting wool, which outraged England and led to the Wool Act of 1699, prohibiting the colonies from exporting wool, wool yarn, and wool cloth.

The passage of the Wool Act lit the fires of resentment in the colonies and many people resisted by making cloth from flax and hemp—and producing their own essential clothing instead of buying British imports.

The homespun clothing movement really gained steam when the Daughters of Liberty turned to their spinning wheels. This group of patriotic women organized mass spinning “bees’’ in town squares, churches, and private homes. Once the war started, they gathered to spin and sew uniforms for the Continental Army.

During Sheep-to-Shawl at Philipsburg Manor, interpreters demonstrate 18th-century spinning and weaving techniques similar to those used by the Daughters of Liberty. Although the owners of Philipsburg Manor sided with England during the Revolution and bought their textiles from Britain, it’s certain there were patriotic spinners among the manor’s many tenant farm households!


Regions

Over time each region developed its own cuisine. It was influenced by their environment, religious practices, and British imports.

    : Growing seasons were short so they depended more on British Imports, Corn crops, Wild Game, and Seafood. Puritans dominated the population so their recipes tended to be simple. : Growing seasons were longer and they were called the &ldquobreadbasket colonies&rdquo due to the number of crops that were grown in their soil. Due to Quaker influence, cream cheese and various fruit butter were developed. : the Growing season was year-round and the population was more diverse. There was a clear difference in the diets of the wealthy and the poor.

5b. Indentured Servants

The growth of tobacco, rice, and indigo and the plantation economy created a tremendous need for labor in Southern English America. Without the aid of modern machinery, human sweat and blood was necessary for the planting, cultivation, and harvesting of these cash crops. While slaves existed in the English colonies throughout the 1600s, indentured servitude was the method of choice employed by many planters before the 1680s. This system provided incentives for both the master and servant to increase the working population of the Chesapeake colonies.

Virginia and Maryland operated under what was known as the " headright system ." The leaders of each colony knew that labor was essential for economic survival, so they provided incentives for planters to import workers. For each laborer brought across the Atlantic, the master was rewarded with 50 acres of land. This system was used by wealthy plantation aristocrats to increase their land holdings dramatically. In addition, of course, they received the services of the workers for the duration of the indenture.

This system seemed to benefit the servant as well. Each indentured servant would have their fare across the Atlantic paid in full by their master. A contract was written that stipulated the length of service &mdash typically five years. The servant would be supplied room and board while working in the master's fields. Upon completion of the contract, the servant would receive "freedom dues," a pre-arranged termination bonus. This might include land, money, a gun, clothes or food. On the surface it seemed like a terrific way for the luckless English poor to make their way to prosperity in a new land. Beneath the surface, this was not often the case.

Only about 40 percent of indentured servants lived to complete the terms of their contracts. Female servants were often the subject of harassment from their masters. A woman who became pregnant while a servant often had years tacked on to the end of her service time. Early in the century, some servants were able to gain their own land as free men. But by 1660, much of the best land was claimed by the large land owners. The former servants were pushed westward, where the mountainous land was less arable and the threat from Indians constant. A class of angry, impoverished pioneer farmers began to emerge as the 1600s grew old. After Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, planters began to prefer permanent African slavery to the headright system that had previously enabled them to prosper.


Brewing in the Seventeenth Century

Beermaking at 17th-century Jamestown

Oh we can make liquor to sweeten our lips
Of pumpkins, of parsnips, of walnut-tree chips.


On May 24, 1607, the newly-arrived colonists at Jamestown had their first feast. George Percy reported that among the potables was beer, and, although the Virginia Company had expressed concern as early as 1606 concerning "that odious vice of drunkenes," alcohol consumption was a way of life for the colonists long before they founded the first permanent English settlement in the New World. Beer, cider and other relatively weak fermented beverages were almost universally consumed from the earliest days of Virginia's history. The colonists, in addition to importing the beer from the Mother Country, quickly began practicing the art of brewing themselves.

Beer, the result of the slow fermentation of malted and hopped liquid, is divided into three basic categories. Stout is a dark, heavy beverage with a relatively high alcoholic content. Lager, produced by a yeast which is activated at a relatively low temperature (40° F), is the lightest form of beer. In between these two extremes in both color and alcohol content is ale, which is produced by yeast which ferments best at about 60° F. Ale, because it was produced at a temperature which was more easily maintained, was the brew of choice in colonial times.

Producing a drinkable ale was not easy, and the colonists were not always successful, as the complaint from a 17th century inhabitant of Jamestown confirms: "I would you could hang that villain Duppe who by his stinking beer hath poisoned . . . the colony." Unlike the sophisticated scientific methods employed in today's breweries, the beer-maker of the 17th century relied on taste, smell and touch. In England, one of a housewife's duties was the production of beer for her family and servants. Beer, from the Middle Ages well into the 17th century, was produced commercially by both men and women.

Many ingredients were added during the brewing process. The first step in making beer was choosing water of a pleasing taste. Fortunately for the consumer, all the boiling which took place in subsequent steps would destroy any dangerous bacteria. The grain, which gave the beverage its body (barley was the usual ingredient, although corn, oats, wheat and rye could also be used) had to be malted (sprouted then dried in kilns) before being added to the mixture. Sugar of some type, usually in the form of molasses or honey, provided nourishment to the yeast. Hops, the fruit of a vinelike plant related to the mulberry tree, gave the ale its characteristic scent and flavor.

To make beer, malt was soaked in a large wooden mash tub at low temperatures then separated out of the liquid and ordinarily used for animal food. The liquid, called "wort," was transferred to the keeler, a large copper pot to which was added hops and other ingredients. After boiling the mixture for several hours, the brewer cooled it to about 70° F and sprinkled on the yeast, which began to digest the sugar in the solution and excrete it as alcohol. Bacteria and foreign yeast could spoil a brew, so it was important to keep the keeler covered. Stirring took place periodically, traditionally done with a bunch of broomstraw which was impregnated with yeast and quickened the action.

When fermentation was complete, the beverage would be either consumed right away or transferred to barrels for storage, leaving as much as the sediment behind in the keeler as possible.

Bonnett, Kendra. A Report on Drinking and Beer Brewing in the Seventeenth Century.


American History Timeline: 1651–1675

The American Revolution would not commence until 1765, when the Stamp Act Congress, representing the 13 colonies, disputed the right of the British parliament to tax the colonists without providing them with representation in the House of Commons. The American Revolutionary War would not begin until 1775. During the period from 1651 to 1675, however, attempts by the British government to control commerce in the American colonies gradually created an atmosphere in which rebellion was almost inevitable.

Listopad: England passes the Navigation Act that forbids goods to be imported from the colonies to England in non-English ships or from locations other than where they were produced. This action causes supply shortages hurting colonies and eventually leads to the Anglo-Dutch War, which lasts from 1652–1654.

April 4: New Amsterdam is given permission to form its own city government.

18. svibnja: Rhode Island passes the first law in America which prohibits enslavement, but is never enforced.

After the death of Maine's founder Ferdinando Gorges ( c. 1565–1647), the Massachusetts Bay Colony revises its borders to the Penobscot Bay, absorbing the growing colony of Maine.

Srpanj: The first battle of the Anglo-Dutch Wars (1652–1654) breaks out.

In defiance of England, Massachusetts Bay declares itself independent and starts minting its own silver coins.

The New England Confederation—a union of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven colonies formed in 1643—plans to help England in the ongoing Anglo-Dutch Wars. The Massachusetts Bay colony flatly refuses to participate.

The first Jewish immigrants arrive from Brazil and settle in New Amsterdam.

Listopad: The new governor of Maryland, William Fuller (1625–1695), nullifies the 1649 Toleration Act which gave Catholics the right to practice their religion. The colony also removes Lord Baltimore from authority.

25. ožujka: The Battle of the Severn, considered by some historians the last battle of the English Civil War, is fought in Annapolis, Maryland, between Puritan loyalists and moderate protestant and Catholic forces loyal to Baltimore the Puritans take the day.

1. rujna: After a last maritime battle between the Dutch colonists led by Peter Stuyvesant (1592–1672) and forces from the Swedish government, the Swedish surrender, ending royal rule by Sweden in America.

10. srpnja: Lord Baltimore is returned to power in Maryland and appoints Josias Fendall (1628–1687) as the new governor.

The first Quakers, Anne Austin and Mary Fisher, arrive in Massachusetts Bay from their colony in Barbados and are arrested and imprisoned. Later in the year, Connecticut and Massachusetts pass laws to allow for the banishment of Quakers.

Quakers who arrive in New Amsterdam are punished and then banished to Rhode Island by Governor Peter Stuyvesant.

Rujan: Massachusetts colony passes laws that do not allow for religious freedom of Quakers including the holding of their meetings.

Quaker Mary Dyer (1611–1660) is arrested in New Haven and convicted for preaching Quakerism and is among those banished to Rhode Island.

Two Quakers are punished by hanging when they return to the Massachusetts Bay Colony after being banished.

Lord Baltimore is removed from power by the Maryland assembly.

The Navigation Act of 1660 is passed requiring only English ships with a three-quarters English crew be allowed to be used for trade. Certain goods including sugar and tobacco could only be shipped to England or English colonies.

The English crown, in protest to the rules against Quakers, orders them released and returned to England. They are later forced to stop the harsh penalties against Quakers.

23. travnja: Connecticut governor John Winthrop Jr. (1606–1676), secures a royal charter for the colony after nearly a year of negotiation in England.

The Massachusetts Bay Colony's charter was accepted by England as long as they extended the vote to all landowners and allows for freedom of worship for Anglicans.

The Elliot Bible, the first complete Bible to be printed in America, is published at the Harvard College in Cambridge—in the Algonquin language. The Algonquin New Testament had been published two years earlier.

The Carolina colony is created by King Charles II and has eight English noblemen as proprietors.

8. srpnja: Rhode Island is given a royal charter by Charles II.

27. srpnja: The second Navigation Act is passed, requiring that all imports to the American colonies must come from England on English vessels.

The Hudson River valley Indians surrender part of their territory to the Dutch.

The Duke of York is given a charter to control lands that include the Dutch area of New Netherland. By the end of the year, a naval blockade by the English of the area causes Governor Peter Stuyvesant to surrender New Netherland to the English. New Amsterdam is renamed New York.

The Duke of York grants land called New Jersey to Sir George Carteret and John, Lord Berkeley.

Maryland and later New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia pass laws that do not allow for the freeing of enslaved Black people.

New Haven is annexed by Connecticut.

The King's commissioners arrive in New England to oversee what is occurring in the colonies. They demand that colonies must comply by swearing allegiance to the King and allowing for the freedom of religion. Plymouth, Connecticut, and Rhode Island comply. Massachusetts does not comply and when representatives are called to London to answer to the King, they refuse to go.

The territory of Carolina is extended to include Florida.

Maryland prohibits the growing of tobacco for a year due to a glut of tobacco on the market.

31. srpnja: The Peace of Breda officially ends the Anglo-Dutch War and gives England formal control over New Netherland.

Massachusetts annexes Maine.

1. ožujka: The Fundamental Constitutions, written partly by the English philosopher John Locke (1632–1704), are issued in Carolina by its eight proprietors, providing for religious tolerance.

Charles Town (present-day Charleston, South Carolina) is established on the Albemarle Point by colonists William Sayle (1590–1671) and Joseph West (died 1691) it would be moved and re-established in its present location in 1680.

8. srpnja: The Treaty of Madrid (or Godolphin Treaty) is completed between England and Spain. Both parties agree that they will respect each other's rights in America.

Governor William Berkeley (1605–1677) of Virginia convinces the Virginia General Assembly to change the rules from allowing all freemen to vote to white males who owned enough property to pay local taxes.

Plymouth forces King Philip (known as Metacomet, 1638–1676), chief of the Wampanoag Indians, to surrender his weapons.

French explorer Simon François d’Aumont (or Daumont, sieur de St. Lusson) claims the interior of North America for King Louis XIV, as an extension of New France.

First copyright law is passed in the colonies by Massachusetts.

The Royal Africa Company is given a monopoly for the English trade of enslaved people.

Feb. 25: Virginia is granted by the English crown to Lord Arlington (1618–1685) and Thomas Culpeper (1635–1689).

May 17: French explorers Father Jacques Marquette (1637–1675) and Louis Joliet (1645–

1700) set off on their expedition down the Mississippi River exploring as far as the Arkansas River.

The Dutch launch a naval attack against Manhattan to try and win back New Netherland during the Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–1674). Manhattan is surrendered. They capture other towns and rename New York to New Orange.

19. veljače: The Treaty of Westminster is signed, ending the third Anglo-Dutch War with the American Dutch colonies reverting back to England.

4. prosinca: Father Jacques Marquette establishes a mission at present-day Chicago.

Quaker William Penn (1644–1718) is granted rights to portions of New Jersey.

King Philip's War begins with retaliation for the execution of three Wampanoag Indigenous people. Boston and Plymouth unite to fight against Indigenous tribes. Nipmuck tribal members unite with the Wampanoags to attack settlements in Massachusetts. The New England Confederation then reacts by officially declaring war on King Philip and raising an army. The Wampanoags are able to defeat settlers near Deerfield on September 18th and Deerfield is abandoned.


1750–1775 : Diplomatic Struggles in the Colonial Period

Colonial era diplomacy focused on two issues: the European balance of power and the colonists’ appropriation of land from the Native Americans.

Rivalry in Europe, between the French and the British in particular, often influenced the course of events in their North American colonies.In an effort to increase their political and economic power, the British and the French competed to acquire the better share of the available land and control over the new trading opportunities the colonies presented.

At the same time, the European colonial governments tried to find ways to coexist with the original inhabitants of North America, often making alliances with some tribes while alienating others. Sometimes, as in the case of the French and Indian War (which in Europe was referred to as the Seven Years’ War), European politics regarding balances of power resulted in conflict in the colonies. As wars in Europe became more heated, fighting broke out between the French and the British in the American colonies. Both sides called upon Native American allies to assist them, exacerbating tensions between the tribes, as well as tensions between the tribes and colonists. Ultimately, the British Government found it necessary to pour additional troops and resources into protecting its possessions in the Americas and taxed their colonists to pay for these resources. These taxes eventually became a rallying cry for the American independence movement.


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