Španjolska armada - povijest

Španjolska armada - povijest

Španjolska flota otplovila je 12. srpnja 1588. Sastojala se od 128 brodova s ​​29.522 mornara. Britansku flotu činilo je 116 velikih brodova i brojna obalna plovila.

Ujutro 21., elementi britanske flote napali su nadmoćnije španjolske snage kako bi spriječili njihove desantne trupe. Britanska flota uspjela je posijati zabunu među španjolskom flotom, uzrokujući sudar mnogih španjolskih brodova. Borba se nastavila uključivati ​​i isključivati ​​pet dana. Nije bilo odlučujućih borbi, samo su se nastavili angažmani u kojima su Englezi dosljedno postigli prednost. Nakon pet dana mučenja, španjolska armada koja je imala sve manje zaliha odlučila se povući. Njihov put natrag u Španjolsku postao je zatrpan olupinama dodatnih brodova koji nikada nisu stigli kući.


Španjolska armada

Naši urednici će pregledati ono što ste podnijeli i odlučiti trebate li izmijeniti članak.

Španjolska armada, također nazvan Armada ili Nepobjediva Armada, Španjolski Armada Española ili Armada nesavladiva, velika flota koju je španjolski kralj Filip II poslao 1588. da napadne Englesku zajedno sa španjolskom vojskom iz Flandrije. Pokušaji Engleske da odbije ovu flotu uključivali su prve pomorske bitke koje su se u potpunosti vodile teškim topovima, a neuspjeh španjolskog pothvata spasio je Englesku i Nizozemsku od moguće apsorpcije u španjolsko carstvo.


Španjolska armada

Španjolska armada isplovila je iz Španjolske u srpnju 1588. Zadaća španjolske armade bila je srušiti protestantsku Englesku na čelu s kraljicom Elizabetom I. Španjolska armada pokazala se skupom katastrofom za Španjolce, ali za Engleze je to bila slavna pobjeda koja je učinila Sir Francisa Drakea čak i više heroj nego što je već bio, pa čak ima i utjecaja na proslavu Božića Tjudora!

Zašto je Španjolska htjela svrgnuti Elizabetu? Bilo je više razloga.

u vrijeme Elizabete Španjolska je kontrolirala ono što se nazivalo Španjolskom Nizozemskom. To se sastojalo od današnje Nizozemske i Belgije. Nizozemska je posebno htjela svoju neovisnost. Oni zapravo nisu voljeli da ih se čini katolicima, protestantske su se ideje ukorijenile u Nizozemskoj, a mnoge od njih u Nizozemskoj bile su tajni protestanti. Da su javno iznijeli svoja protestantska uvjerenja, njihovi bi životi bili u opasnosti. Španjolska je koristila vjersku tajnu policiju zvanu Inkvizicija loviti protestante. Međutim, za vrijeme Elizabetine vladavine Englezi su pomagali nizozemskim protestantima u Nizozemskoj. To je jako razljutilo španjolskog kralja - Filipa II. - koji je to htio zaustaviti. Kratko je vrijeme bio u braku s Elizabethinom polusestrom Mary, a kad su se vjenčali, Engleska je bila katolička. S Engleskom pod svojom kontrolom, Philip je mogao kontrolirati La Manche, a njegovi brodovi mogli su lako proći iz Španjolske u španjolsku Nizozemsku. Španjolske trupe koje su tamo bile stacionirane mogle su se lako opskrbiti.
također su engleski "morski psi" nanijeli veliku štetu španjolskoj trgovini srebrom. Ljudi poput Sir Francisa Drakea napali su španjolsku plovidbu izvan Zapadne Indije, a Španjolska je izgubila ogromnu svotu novca kada su brodovi sa srebrom potonuli ili im je Drake zarobio teret. Za Engleze je Drake bio heroj, ali za Španjolce nije ništa drugo do gusar koji je, po njihovom mišljenju, smio činiti ono što je činio uz puno znanje kraljice. To Španjolci nisu mogli prihvatiti.
Godine 1587. Marija, kraljica Škotske, pogubljena je u Engleskoj po nalogu Elizabete. Marija, škotska kraljica, bila je katolkinja, a Filip II je vjerovao da ima dužnost osigurati da u Engleskoj više neće biti uhićeni katolici i da se više ne smije pogubiti. Marija, škotska kraljica, također je jasno dala do znanja da bi, ako postane kraljica Engleske, Filip trebao naslijediti prijestolje nakon njezine smrti.

Otuda njegova odluka da napadne i napadne Englesku.

Priča o španjolskoj Armadi jedna je od grešaka do kraja. Još prije isplovljavanja Armade naišli su na ozbiljne probleme:

Uza sve što se događalo, Španjolcima je bilo jako teško držati Armadu u tajnosti. Zapravo, željeli su obavijestiti Engleze o Armadi jer se smatralo da će Englezi biti prestravljeni viješću o tako velikoj floti pomorskih brodova koji ih napadaju.

Organizacija za pripremu Armade bila je ogromna. Trebali su topovi, oružje, barut, mačevi i mnoga druga ratna oružja, a Španjolska ih je kupila od svakoga tko bi im prodao. Brojni trgovački brodovi morali su se pretvoriti u pomorske brodove, ali Armada (ili "Veliko poduzeće" kako ga je nazvao Filip) također je sadržavala brodove koji su jednostavno nosili stvari, a ne borili se na moru. Ovi su brodovi između ostalog prevozili:

11 milijuna funti (u težini) brodskog keksa 11.000 pari sandala
40.000 litara maslinovog ulja 5.000 pari cipela
14.000 barela vina 180 svećenika
600.000 funti slane svinjetine 728 slugu

Armada je plovila 19. srpnja 1588. Flota od 130 brodova - uključujući 22 borbena galija - plovila je u obliku polumjeseca. To nije bilo neobično jer je većina flota plovila u ovom obliku jer je brodovima u toj floti nudila najveću zaštitu. Veći, ali sporiji galeoni bili su u sredini polumjeseca i bili su zaštićeni bržim, ali manjim čamcima koji su ih okruživali. Manji brodovi poznati kao zabras i pataches opskrbljivali su galijune. Armada se suočila s malim protivljenjem dok se približavala obali Cornwalla 29. srpnja 1588. Priča se da su kornilski ribari koji su pecali uz Guštera gledali prolaz Armade!

Međutim, London je upozoren da se Armada približava engleskoj obali. Komunikacija u C16. Bila je vrlo loša, ali su Englezi razvili način informiranja Londona kada je Armada prvi put viđena. Uz obalu su zapaljeni svjetionici. Čim se ugledao jedan svjetionik, zasvijetlio je sljedeći dalje uz obalu. Kad su svjetionici stigli do Beachy Head -a u Sussexu, otišli su u unutrašnjost i prema Londonu. Na taj način London je brzo postao svjestan da se Armada približava Engleskoj.

Dok je Armada plovila uz La Manche, napale su je engleske snage predvođene Sir Francisom Drakeom. Bio je stacioniran u Plymouthu. Rečeno je da je Drake, kad je obaviješten o pristupu Armade, odgovorio da ima vremena dovršiti igru ​​zdjela koje je igrao na Plymouth Hoeu i da ima vremena pobijediti Armadu. Moguće je da je znao da je plima rijeke Tamar u Plymouthu protiv njega, pa nije mogao izvući svoje brodove iz Devonporta - stoga je znao da može dovršiti svoju igru ​​zdjela jer su njegovi brodovi ovisili o plima za kretanje. Ako je plima dolazila, njegovi su brodovi morali ostati vezani. Ako je plima nestajala, tada je imao slobodu premjestiti svoje brodove u Kanal. Što god bila istina, istina je da su Drake i njegovi ljudi nanijeli vrlo malo štete Armadi dok je prolazila uz La Manche. Ono što su Englezi učinili bilo je bacanje velike količine streljiva na Armadu i nije imalo velikog utjecaja jer su španjolski brodovi imali dobro izgrađene trupove koji su se pokazali solidnima.

Dok je Armada plovila La Mancheom, napadi Drakeove flote Plymouth pokazali su se vrlo neučinkovitima. S izuzetkom dva galeona, Armada je ostala relativno neoštećena.

Međutim, Medina Sidonia suočila se s vlastitim problemima - u Armadi je ponestalo streljiva. Jedina prednost koju su Španjolci imali u to vrijeme bilo je vrijeme. 4. kolovoza snažan vjetar uzrokovao je da Lamanš postane još grublji, a manji engleski brodovi su patili od toga, dok su Španjolci koristili vjetar za brzo kretanje do europske obale gdje su pokupili španjolske trupe spremne za invaziju na Englesku .

Tijekom cijelog svog putovanja od Španjolske do istočne strane La Manchea, Armada se suočila s nekoliko problema engleske mornarice. Iako smo znali za njegov pristup, mogli smo učiniti malo dok se držao u obliku polumjeseca.

No to je dovelo do pravih problema kada je moralo stati da pokupi postrojbe u kontinentalnoj Europi. Iako je Armada zadržala oblik polumjeseca, engleskoj mornarici bilo ju je jako teško napasti. Kad se zaustavio, izgubio je oblik polumjeseca i ostavio ga otvorenim za napad. Medina Sidonia je na svoj užas saznala da ne postoji luka dovoljno duboko u blizini mjesta gdje su bile španjolske trupe da zaustavi svoju flotu. Najbolje što je mogao učiniti bilo je pristati u Gravelinesu blizu današnjeg Calaisa 27. srpnja 1588., a zatim pričekati dolazak trupa.

Sir Francis Drake zaslužan je za ono što se zatim dogodilo, ali Talijan po imenu Giambelli također bi trebao dobiti zasluge za izgradnju "Hell Burners -a" za Engleze. Osam starih brodova bilo je napunjeno svime što je moglo dobro izgorjeti. Ove plutajuće bombe namjeravale su tijekom noći plutati u mirujuću Armadu. Armada je bila potpuno naoružana flota. Svaki brod je nosio barut, a brodovi su bili izrađeni od drveta s platnenim jedrima. Kad bi se zapalili, svaki brod ne bi imao šanse. Znajući za “Hell Burners”, Španjolci su stavili vidikove na svaki čamac. Uočili su vatrogasne brodove koji su ulazili, ali što su mogli učiniti?

Kako je Armada vidjela kako se približavaju vatreni brodovi, svaki brod Armade pokušao je probiti se iz Gravelinesa kako bi se spasio - ali u mraku. Izgubljen je samo jedan španjolski brod, ali je oblik polumjeseca nestao i Armada je sada bila osjetljiva na napad.

Englezi jesu napadali, ali Španjolci su se hrabro borili protiv njih. Četiri španjolska galeona stajala su na svom terenu i borila se s Drakeom. Španjolci su bili brojčano nadjačani deset prema jedan. Tri su galeona potopljena, 600 ljudi je ubijeno, a 800 ranjeno. No, spriječili su Engleze da napadnu ostatak Armade, a pogoršanje vremena također je pomoglo Armadi da pobjegne. Medina Sidonia kasnije je napisala da je Armadu "spasilo vrijeme, Božja milost ..."

Međutim, engleska flota blokirala je svaku šansu Armade da se vrati niz La Manche. Stoga, kad se Armada ponovno sastavila u flotu, mogla je ići samo uz istočnu obalu Engleske, a zatim oko sjevera Škotske. Odavde bi Armada mogla ploviti pored zapadne irske obale i natrag u Španjolsku.

Međutim, njihove zalihe na brodu nisu bile dovoljne za takvo putovanje pa su mnoge posade svedene na jelo užeta za preživljavanje. Svježa voda brzo je nestala, a posade nisu mogle piti morsku vodu. Dodatne su im nevolje, jer je Armada sredinom rujna plovila sjevernim dijelom Škotske, pogodila je jednu od najgorih oluja u povijesti koja je oštetila mnoge brodove.

Oni brodovi koji su preživjeli ovu oluju, krenuli su prema Irskoj. Ovdje su bili uvjereni da će dobiti pomoć i zalihe. Zašto su to mislili? Irska je još uvijek bila katolička i katolički španjolski mornari vjerovali su da će im oni s istom vjerom pomoći. Pogriješili su. Armada se nalazila u današnjem zaljevu Armada, južno od Galwaya. Oni mornari koji su izašli na obalu napadnuti su i ubijeni. Irci, katolici ili ne, i dalje su smatrali Španjolce osvajačima. Oni koji su preživjeli oluje, Irce, nedostatak hrane itd. Morali su se bojati bolesti jer su skorbut, dizenterija i groznica ubili mnoge koji su već bili u oslabljenom stanju.

Brojke se razlikuju, ali smatra se da se samo 67 brodova od 130 vratilo u Španjolsku - stopa gubitka od gotovo 50%. Ubijeno je više od 20.000 španjolskih mornara i vojnika. Tijekom cijele kampanje Englezi nisu izgubili brodove i samo 100 ljudi u borbi. Međutim, više od 7000 engleskih mornara umrlo je od bolesti (uglavnom dizenterije i tifusa) tijekom vremena dok je Armada bila u engleskoj vodi. Također, engleski mornari koji su preživjeli i borili se protiv Armade bili su loše tretirani od strane engleske vlade. Mnogi su dobili samo dovoljno novca za put do svoje kuće, a neki su dobili samo dio plaće. Glavni zapovjednik engleske mornarice, lord Howard iz Effinghama, bio je šokiran tvrdeći da je „ Radije ne bih imao ni novčića na svijetu, nego što bi njima (njegovim mornarima) nedostajalo ... ”Time je vlastitim novcem platio svoje mornare.

Tko je bio kriv za ovaj poraz?

Mnogi su u Španjolskoj krivili Medinu Sidoniju, ali kralj Filip II nije bio jedan od njih. Za svoj neuspjeh okrivio je vremenske uvjete rekavši: "Poslao sam vas u rat s ljudima, a ne s vjetrom i valovima."

U određenoj mjeri Englezi su se složili jer je osvojena medalja u čast pobjede. Na njoj su bile riječi "Bog je puhao i one su se razbježale".

1. Bili su u blizini svojih pomorskih luka i nisu morali putovati daleko kako bi se borili protiv Armade.

2. Englezi su imali mnogo prednosti u pogledu brodova koje su koristili. Španjolci su polagali nadu u moć galija. Englezi su koristili manje, ali brže brodove. Međutim, nisu mogli učiniti ništa da prodru u oblik polumjeseca Armade iako su na brodu imali moćne topove.

3. Španjolci su imali drugačiju taktiku od Engleza. Englezi su htjeli potopiti španjolske brodove, dok su se Španjolci htjeli ukrcati na naše brodove, a zatim ih zarobiti. Da bi to učinili, morali bi doći uz naše brodove ostavljajući ih izložene širokoj strani engleskih topova na našim brodovima.

4. Naši su brodovi, budući da su bili manji od španjolskih galija, bili upravljiviji, što je bila vrijedna prednost.

5. Najveći razlog pobjede Engleza, bila je fatalna greška u planu Španjolaca. Iako je plovila u obliku polumjeseca, Armada je bila relativno sigurna. No dio njegova plana bio je zaustaviti se, pokupiti mornare, a zatim otploviti u Englesku. Jednostavna činjenica da je plan uključivao zaustavljanje Armade značilo je da je ona fatalno pogrešna. Ratni brodovi u pokretu i formaciji dali su Armadi zaštitu. Kad su brodovi bili mirni, bili su otvoreni za napad.

Pobjeda nad Armadom učinila je da Sir Francis Drake postane vrlo poznat čovjek. Pobjeda se čak sjećala i za Božić kada je Elizabeth naredila da svi trebaju imati gusku na Božić jer je to bio obrok koji je jela navečer kad je saznala da je njezina mornarica pobijedila Armadu.


10 stvari koje (vjerojatno) niste znali o španjolskoj Armadi

Poraz španjolske Armade 1588. - flote španjolskih brodova na čelu sa španjolskom zapovjednicom Medinom Sidonijom sa svrgom svrgavanja kraljice Elizabete I. - smatra se jednim od najvećih engleskih vojnih postignuća, a poslužio je i za povećanje popularnosti monarha. Ovdje Robert Hutchinson, autor Španjolske armade, iznosi 10 manje poznatih činjenica ...

Ovo natjecanje je sada zatvoreno

Objavljeno: 2. studenog 2018. u 17:20

Kampanja španjolske Armade 1588. promijenila je tijek europske povijesti. Da je Medina Sidonia, španjolski zapovjednik, uspjela ispratiti 26.000 vojnu invaziju Filipa II iz Flandrije, budućnost Elizabete I. i njezine protestantske Engleske doista bi izgledala vrlo crno.

Nakon slijetanja u blizini Margatea u Kentu, vjerojatno je da su španjolske trupe otvrdnule u bitkama bile na ulicama Londona u roku od tjedan dana. Engleska bi se vratila katoličkoj vjeri, a možda nije ni došlo britansko carstvo. Možda i danas govorimo španjolski.

No Medina Sidonia pretrpjela je jednu od najznačajnijih katastrofa u pomorskoj povijesti. Mit, vođen elizabetanskom propagandom, oblikovao je naše viđenje te dramatične borbe koja se vodi uz La Manche.

Španjolce nisu porazili kraljičini odvažni morski psi koji su se borili protiv ogromnih izgleda: uništili su ih užasno vrijeme, loše planiranje i pogrešna strategija i taktika.

Evo nekoliko iznenađujućih činjenica o kampanji ...

I Elizabetini ministri i španjolski kralj Filip očekivali su da će 50 posto engleskog stanovništva koje je ostalo katolici porasti u podršci španjolskim osvajačima nakon svakog iskrcavanja

Mačevi sa draguljima, namijenjeni kao Filipovi darovi engleskim katoličkim velikašima, pronađeni su u kutiji na brodu smrtno oštećenog Nuestra Señora del Rosario nakon što se engleski viceadmiral Sir Francis Drake ukrcao na brod.

Špijuni španjolskog kralja prethodno su izvijestili da je "veći dio Lancashirea katolički ... i grad Liverpool", a županije Westmorland i Northumberland ostale su "doista vjerne vašem veličanstvu".

Osim toga, druga je španjolska procjena u kolovozu 1586. procijenila da se 2.000 ljudi moglo regrutirati u Lincolnshireu "što je dobro utjecalo na katoličku vjeru", plus još 3.000 u Norfolku, dok je Hampshire bio "pun katolika".

Ovo posljednje izvješće možda je sadržavalo istinu. Početkom lipnja 1586. Henry Radcliffe, četvrti grof od Sussexa, suzbio je ono što je opisao kao namjernu pobunu "u zemlji blizu Portsmoutha" i uhitio neke od njezinih vođa: Elizabethina vlada poduzela je stroge mjere kako bi obuzdala prijetnju koju su smatrali potencijalni peti kolumnisti.

Pokrovitelji - oni koji su odbili prisustvovati anglikanskim službama jer su bili katolici - razoružani su, a oni koji se smatraju najopasnijim zatvoreni su bez suđenja u nizu tvrđava, poput dvorca Wisbech u Cambridgeshireu. To su bili prvi svjetski logori za internirane.

Henry Grey, šesti grof od Kenta, u Bedfordshireu se raspitao kako će se ponašati sa ženskim upornicima koji su bili "u braku sa muževima koji su u skladu s religijom". Godfrey Foljambe uhitio je vlastitu baku i "sada je drži u pritvoru".

Bilo je nekih među vjernim podanicima Elizabete I. koji su stavljali profit ispred patriotizma

Negdje 1587. ministri Elizabete I. saznali su da je 12 engleskih trgovaca - od kojih su neki sa sjedištem u Bristolu - prodavali zalihe i opremu Armadi "na štetu njezinog veličanstva i poništavanja carstva, ako ne i ispravljanja".

Njihovih devet pozamašnih krijumčarenih tereta, u vrijednosti između 300 i 2000 funti svaki, sadržavalo je ne samo zalihe, već i količine streljiva, baruta i municije.

Sudbina ovih bezobzirnih trgovaca (možda su oni bili simpatizeri katolika?) Ostaje nepoznata, ali u ta napeta vremena nije vjerojatno da bi uživali u kraljičinoj milosti, koja je u najboljem slučaju bila prilično ograničena.

Sir John Gilbert [koji je organizirao obranu Devona od španjolske Armade] također je odbio dopuštenje njegovim brodovima da se pridruže Drakeovoj zapadnoj eskadrili i dopustio im je da uplove na planirano trgovačko putovanje u Južnu Ameriku u ožujku 1588. prkoseći pomorskim zapovijedima.

Engleski katolici uplovili su na brod Armade

Najmanje četiri njegova "gospoda avanturisti" bili su Englezi, a bilo ih je 18 među časnicima.

Neizbježno je da su neki kruni platili visoku cijenu nelojalnosti: pet katolika odletjelo je brodom od pogođenih Rosario prije Drakeova dolaska, ali dva su Engleza zarobljena na brodu i odvedena u londonski Tower kao "pobunjenici i izdajnici svoje zemlje".

Jedan, identificiran kao Kornižanin Tristram Winslade, uručen je časnicima zaposlenim kod Elizabethinog špijuna, Sir Francis Walsinghama, koji su dobili nalog da ga ispitaju "mučeći se ... po njihovom nahođenju". (Za čudo, Winslade je preživio stalak i Elizabethinu pravdu i umro u katoličkom sjemeništu u Douaiju u Francuskoj u studenom 1605.).

Na brodu oštećen u bitci San Mateo, koji su se nalazili između Ostendea i Sluisa nakon bitke kod Gravelinesa, dva su Engleza ubili nizozemski mornari - jedan se zvao William Browne, brat vikonta Montaguea. Lokalni povjerenik za protestantske države Zeeland izvijestio je da je drugi ubijeni čovjek "vrlo bogat, koji je Williama ostavio svojim nasljednikom".

Prijavljeno je da su se na ovom brodu nalazili i drugi Englezi koji su jeli s njezinim kapetanom, Don Diegom Pimentelom. “Jedan se zvao Robert, drugi Raphael, nekoć sluga ... gradonačelniku Londona. Ne znamo njihova prezimena. ” Možda su bili među onima koje su Nizozemci nasilno utopili ili objesili i koji su se pobunili protiv španjolske vlasti.

Prije početka kampanje bilo je izvješća o nezadovoljstvu ispod palube na Elizabethinim ratnim brodovima. Nakon straha na brodu lorda Edmunda Sheffielda Snositi, "brijač i još troje od četvorice drugih položili su prisegu [vjernosti kruni] i odrekli se papine vlasti".

Papa Siksto V., koji je podržavao Armadu, bio je zaljubljen u Elizabetu, govoreći začuđenom venecijanskom veleposlaniku: "Da je katolkinja, bila bi nam najomiljenija, jer ima veliku vrijednost"

Filip je bio prisiljen zatražiti od pape zajam kako bi pomogao u podmirivanju velikih troškova pripreme Armade. Međutim, ovaj je papa bio poznat po svojoj škrtosti - španjolski veleposlanik u Vatikanu požalio se: "Kad je u pitanju izvlačenje novca iz njega, to je kao istiskivanje njegove životne krvi."

Sixtus je u međuvremenu imao projekt za kućne ljubimce koji je od Osmanskih Turaka kupio crkvu Svetog groba u Jeruzalemu i obnovio je u Rimu - ili je vratio oružjem. Bio je zabrinut da je, iako bi španjolska vojska "bila dovoljna za tu svrhu", vodila borbu protiv Engleske, umjesto da ostvari svoje ambicije u Svetoj zemlji.

Na kraju je Sixtus obećao platiti milijun zlatnih dukata (662 milijuna funti u 2015. godini), ali je kanniski odredio da će polovica biti plaćena tek nakon što su španjolske snage kročile u Englesku. Ostatak bi nakon toga bio u jednakim ratama svaka dva mjeseca.

Filip je mogao pokloniti englesku krunu kome god je želio, pod uvjetom da se područje odmah vrati katoličkoj vjeri. Sikst je također zahtijevao da se sada obnovi crkvena imovina i prava, otuđena od vremena Elizabetinog oca, Henrika VIII.

Ni jedan jedini peni nije isplaćen.

Nakon poraza Armade, Sikst je rekao jednom od svojih kardinala da napiše Filipu da ga utješi i potakne na novu ekspediciju protiv Engleske. Suzdržao se od pisanja, jer se bojao da bi kralj "mogao biti izgovor da od njega traži novac".

Medina Sidonia nije htjela zapovijedati Armadom

Bio je administrator i nikada nije bio na moru. Rekao je španjolskom kralju: "Znam po malom iskustvu koje sam stekao na površini da ću uskoro oboljeti od mora."

Bio je prvi koji je pojačao Cadiz tijekom Drakeova napada na taj grad 1587., a imenovan je generalnim kapetanom Andaluzije kao "upadljiv dokaz kraljeve naklonosti".

Nakon što je dva dana razmatrao imenovanje, Medina Sidonia jasno je izrazila svoje apsolutno uvjerenje da je ekspedicija u Armadu bila velika greška i da je imala male šanse za uspjeh. Samo ga je čudo, dodao je u iskrenom i otvorenom pismu, moglo spasiti.

Filipovi savjetnici, užasnuti njegovim naelektrisanim sadržajem, nisu se usudili pokazati to kralju. "Nemojte nas potiskivati ​​strahovima za sudbinu Armade jer će se Bog u tom slučaju pobrinuti da uspije", molili su novog admirala.

Što se tiče njegove sposobnosti za zapovijedanje, "nitko ne zna više o pomorskim poslovima od vas".

Tada je njihov ton postao prijeteći: "Upamtite da bi ugled i poštovanje koje trenutno uživate zbog hrabrosti i mudrosti bili potpuno izgubljeni ako bi ono što ste nam napisali postalo opće poznato (iako ćemo to držati u tajnosti)."

Kad su oluje raspršile i oštetile Armadu nakon što je napustila Lisabon, Medina Sidonia vratila se ozbiljna sumnja u njegovu misiju

Napisao je Filipu: „Moram priznati da vidim vrlo malo, ili jedva nekoga od onih u Armadi koji ima bilo kakvo znanje ili sposobnost da izvršava povjerene im dužnosti.

“Vaše veličanstvo može mi vjerovati kad vas uvjeravam da smo jako slabi. Nemojte biti zavedeni od strane nikoga tko bi vas želio uvjeriti u suprotno. ” Admiral je dodao: "Pa, gospodine, kako mislite da možemo napasti tako veliku zemlju kao što je Engleska s takvom snagom kao što je naša sada." Bolje je, savjetovao je, dogovoriti "neke časne uvjete s neprijateljem" dok se Armada popravljala u Corunni.

Nije iznenađujuće što je ovo mračno pismo uznemirilo i utučilo Filipa, koji je cijele “dane i noći provodio u molitvi, iako je patio od gihta u ruci”. Njegovo raspoloženje nije popravilo pismo Aleksandra Farnesea, vojvode od Parme, zapovjednika njegovih kopnenih snaga u španjolskoj Nizozemskoj i generala zaduženog za invazijsku vojsku. Parma je upozorila Philipa da se teglenice s ravnim rijekama koje bi prenijele njegove trupe u Englesku ne mogu susresti s Armadom na moru: "Kad bismo naišli na naoružane engleske ili [nizozemske] pobunjeničke brodove, mogli bi nas uništiti s najvećom lakoćom."

Filip je na margini uz ovaj odlomak napomenuo: "Daj Bože da iz ovoga ne proizlazi nikakva sramota." Ali nije mogao prihvatiti više argumente svog zapovjednika mornarice. Napisao je Medini Sidoniji: „Posvetio sam ovo poduzeće Bogu. Saberi se onda i odradi svoj dio posla! ”

Sir Francis Drake više je bio zainteresiran za plijen nego za borbu

Nakon prve borbe južno od Cornwalla, Drakeu je naređeno da zasjeni španjolsku flotu sa svjetlom koje gori na njegovoj krmi kao vodič do sljedeće engleske flote.

Ali negdje te noći svjetlo je nestalo. Drake je napustio svoju postaju kako bi opljačkao pogođene Rosario.

U zoru je engleski admiral lord Howard iz Effinghama, godine Ark Royal, a dva druga engleska broda teško su se suprotstavila armadskoj stražnjici. Žurno su se povukli.

Drake je nakon toga tvrdio da je u ponoć ugledao čudna jedra prema desnoj strani i, vjerujući da su Španjolci, ugasio fenjer i krenuo u potragu. Pokazalo se da su nevini njemački trgovački brodovi.

Nedvojbeno je Howard smatrao da je nepolitično suditi jednog od engleskih pomorskih heroja u vrijeme nacionalne opasnosti-iako je njegovim postupcima engleska flota izgubila vrijeme i udaljenost u potjeri za Španjolcima.

Martin Frobisher, zapovijeda Trijumf, zakipio: „Drakeovo svjetlo koje smo tražili, ali nije se vidjelo svjetlo ... Poput kukavice koju je držao pored nje Rosario] cijelu noć jer bi imao plijen ... Imat ćemo naše dionice ili ću ga natjerati da potroši najbolju krv u trbuhu. "

Elizabetin govor u Tilburyju - "Znam da imam tijelo slabe i slabe žene" - koji je obećao da će "uskoro imati slavnu pobjedu nad neprijateljima mog Boga i moga kraljevstva", održan je nakon Armada je na putu kući ušla u škotske vode

Istog jutra, Howard je stigao sa svojim brodovima i izgladnjelom posadom u Harwich u Essexu. U večernjim satima, dok je Elizabeth još bila u logoru engleske vojske u Tilburyju, šuškalo se da su Parma i njegove invazijske snage krenule i da će "biti ovdje što je brže moguće".

Kraljica se zbog vlastite sigurnosti odbila vratiti u London, izjavljujući da "neće pomisliti napustiti svoju vojsku u vrijeme opasnosti". Sljedećeg dana njezine su trupe držale javni post za pobjedu.

Glasine o Parmi bile su samo elizabetinska propaganda. S obzirom da je trošak njezinih snaga u vjerojatnim područjima invazije na Kent i Essex iznosio 783 £ 14s 8d dnevno, kraljica je naredila hitnu demobilizaciju vojske.

Dugi propagandni traktat napisan po nalogu Elizabethinog državnog tajnika lorda Burghleyja navodno je pronađen "u odaji jednog Richarda Leigha, sjemeništanskog svećenika koji je nedavno pogubljen zbog veleizdaje". Zapravo, to je krivotvorina, Leighin je identitet prikladno ukraden

U traktatu se tvrdi da su istine o engleskoj pomorskoj nadmoći ili moći protestantskog Boga neporecive: "Španjolci nikada nisu uzeli ili potopili nijedan engleski brod ili čamac, niti slomili jarbol, niti zarobili bilo koga." To je zadivilo španjolske zatvorenike u Londonu koji su uzviknuli da se "u svim tim borbama Krist pokazao kao luteran".

Medina Sidonia privukla je posebno klevetanje. Većinu svog vremena proveo je tijekom kampanje za Armadu "smještenu na dnu svog broda radi sigurnosti". Traktat je završio ovom podrugljivom i prezirnom frazom: "Tako završava ovaj prikaz nesreća španjolske armade koje su nazivali NEPOBJEDIVIM."

Propagandnom napadu tu nije bio kraj. Pasji stih od 10 stranica obećao je engleskim čitateljima da je sigurno jesti ribu, iako su se hranili leševima španjolskih mornara, zaraženih spolnim bolestima. Je li ovo bilo prvo zdravstveno upozorenje vlade?

Španjolska Armada nije bila posljednja Armada poslana protiv Engleske

Još dvije su poslane 1596. i 1597. godine, ali su i ove flote rastjerale oluje.

Dana 23. srpnja 1595. četiri su španjolske galije otplovile u izviđačku misiju iz južne Bretanje i sletjele u Mousehole u Cornwallu. Ribarsko selo je spaljeno, a tri čovjeka ubijena.

Mala snaga korniške milicije pobjegla je u slijepoj panici na prvi pogled na španjolske trupe, a zatim je bombardiran Penzance koji je uništio kuće i potonuo tri broda u svojoj luci. Newlyn je također spaljen.

Strah od skorašnjeg dolaska engleske flote natjerao je Španjolce da odu 4. kolovoza - ali ne prije nego što se katolička misa otvoreno slavila na engleskom tlu.
Veće snage od 3.000 španjolskih vojnika iskrcale su se 1601. u Kinsaleu na jugozapadu Irske kako bi pomogle irskim pobunjenicima, ali su bile prisiljene na predaju.

19-godišnji anglo-španjolski rat završio je 1604. kada su Elizabetin nasljednik, James VI i ja, htjeli okončati jezivo skupa neprijateljstva. Londonskim ugovorom odobreno je mnogo od onoga što je Filip II zahtijevao da je Engleska bila prisiljena tužiti za mir 1588.

Engleska je prekinula svoju podršku nizozemskoj pobuni u španjolskoj Nizozemskoj i odrekla se napada svojih privatnika na španjolsko brodarstvo. Što se tiče Španjolske, sporazum je priznao da su službene nade u vraćanje katoličanstva u Englesku zauvijek gotove.

Robert Hutchinson je autor knjige Španjolska armada (W & ampN, 2013.).

Ovaj je članak prvi put objavio PovijestEkstra u travnju 2015.


Španjolska armada - povijest

Španjolska armada je 19. svibnja otplovila u invaziju na protestantsku Englesku.

Phillip lansira Armadu

Španjolski Phillip II pozvao je katolički svijet u križarski rat protiv protestantske Engleske. Englesko zlato i podrška jačali su protestantsku stvar u Škotskoj i Nizozemskoj. Budući da je Phillip osvojio Portugal i proširio španjolsku atlantsku moć, naredio je svojim admiralima da sastave Armadu koja bi mogla zauvijek slomiti protestante u Engleskoj.

"Nepobjediva armada"

Do svibnja 1588. Phillip je pripremio flotu koja se sastojala od 130 brodova, 2.400 topova i preko 30.000 ljudi. Ovo je bila najveća pomorska sila koju je svijet do sada vidio. Zvao se "Nepobjediva armada." Plan je bio da Armada doplovi uz La Manche, pokupi postrojbe iz španjolske Nizozemske pod vojvodom od Parme i otprati njegove invazijske teglenice preko La Mancha kako bi osvojila Englesku. Kraljica Elizabeta naredila je cijelom narodu da se moli za Božju intervenciju i zaštitu od invazije Španjolske armade.

Što je bilo na ulogu

Da je španjolska Armada uspjela, današnji svijet bio bi neprepoznatljiv. Španjolska je bila katolička velesila. Engleska je predvodila protestantsku stvar. Sva se Europa bojala Španjolske. Obuzela je sve svoje protivnike - čak i Turčina. Da je Armada uspjela cijela bi se kasnija povijest Engleske i Škotske dramatično promijenila. Ne bi bilo protestantske Sjeverne Amerike i anglosaksonske civilizacije. Time bi Španjolska postala svjetska velesila bez premca, a španjolski svjetski jezik.

Jedan od najvećih govora ikada napravljenih

Engleska vojska od gotovo 20.000 ljudi okupljena je u Tilburyju kako bi se suprotstavila očekivanih 30.000 ljudi u španjolskoj Armadi. In addition to this a further 15,000 Spanish troops under the brutal Duke of Parma were to be ferried across the Channel in barges from the Netherlands.

Queen Elizabeth addressed her soldiers at Tilbury with these words: “I am come amongst you, as you see, resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die amongst you all, to lay down for my God and for my Kingdom and for my people, my honour and my blood, even in the dust. I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king and of a King of England too and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain or any prince of Europe should dare to invade the borders of my realm to which, rather than any dishonour should grow by me, I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field.”

The English Navy

The Royal Navy had been under the control of Sir John Hawkins since 1573. He had rebuilt and reorganized the Navy that had survived from the days of Henry VIII. The castles which had towered above the galleon decks had been cut down. The keels were deepened. Designs concentrated on sea-worthiness and speed. Most significantly of all, Hawkins had installed heavier long-range guns. Knowing that he could not out-produce the Spanish in terms of the size and number of galleons, Hawkins was determined to batter the enemy from a distance with the superior range of his cannon. The Spanish Armada carried many cannon (2,400) but these were really only suitable for close-range salvos before grappling and boarding enemy vessels for hand-to-hand combat.

Against All Odds

To oppose the Armada’s 130 ships, Hawkins had 34 vessels, carrying 6,000 men. His commanders were Lord Howard and Sir Francis Drake. (It was Sir Francis Drake’s famous raid on the Spanish Armada in port at Cardiz in 1587 which had delayed the sailing of the Armada by destroying a large quantity of ships and stores. This was described as “the singeing of the King of Spain’s beard!”)

The Armada Sets Sail

The Armada finally left Tagus on 20 May. It was afflicted by severe storms. Two of their 1,000 ton ships lost their masts. They had to put in to refit at Carunna and could not sail again until 12 July.

Fires Over England

An Intelligence Report of 21 July from Howard to Walsingham reported sighting 120 sail vessels including galleys “and many ships of great burden.” Beacons were lit all across England to alert the population to the danger. Church bells rang. Special services were held to pray for God’s protection.

Engaging the Enemy

The English engaged the Armada in a four-hour battle, pounding away with their long range guns, but staying out of range of the Armada’s cannon. There was a further engagement on 23 July and then off the Isle of Wight on 25 July. The guns of the English ships raked the decks of the galleons killing many of the crew and soldiers.

Fire Ships Cause Panic

On 28 July the Spanish Armada anchored in the English Channel near Calais. As the English Navy lay upwind from the Spanish, they determined to set adrift 8 fire-ships, filled with explosives, to drift into the crowded Spanish fleet at anchor. As the Spanish crews awoke to see these flaming ships drifting towards their anchored Armada, they panicked. Spanish captains cut their cables and made for the open sea. Many collisions followed. The surviving ships of the Armada headed eastwards to Gravelines expecting to link up with Parma’s troops and barges, ready to be escorted for the invasion of England. But the tides and winds were against them and they found no sign of Parma’s troops in Dunkirk harbour.

Decisive Engagement

At this point the Royal Navy caught up with the Spaniards and a long and desperate fight raged for eight hours. Howard’s men sank or damaged many of the Spanish ships and drove others onto the banks. The English reported that at this point they had completely exhausted their ammunition, otherwise scarcely a Spanish ship would have escaped.

The Devastated Armada

The remnants of the defeated Armada now fled northwards seeking to sail around the north of Scotland in order to reach Spain. They faced mountainous seas and racing tides. Westerly winds drove two of the galleons to wreck upon the coast of Norway. Ships that had been shattered by the English cannonades were now struck by storms. Another 17 ships were wrecked on the coast of Britain. Most of the once mighty Armada were lost before the battered survivors finally reached Spanish ports in October.

God Blew and They Were Scattered

Incredibly, the English had not lost a single ship and scarcely 100 men in the ferocious engagements against the Spanish Armada. Though limited in supplies and ships, the tactics of Hawkins and his admirals Howard and Drake, had been crowned with success. A medal struck to commemorate the victory bears the inscription: “Afflavit Deus et dissipantur” (God blew and they were scattered!)

Answers to Prayer

While churches throughout England were holding extraordinary prayer meetings, devastating storms had wrecked the Spanish plans. The Duke of Parma’s invasion barges from Holland were prevented from linking up with the Armada by Dutch action. The English tactic of setting fire ships amongst the huge Spanish galleons created confusion. Courageous action by the English seamen and continuing storms decimated and broke up the Spanish Armada. Most of what was left of Phillip’s fleet was devastated by more storms off the coast of Scotland and Ireland. Only a miserable remnant of the once proud Armada limped back into the Ports of Spain. 51 Spanish ships and 20,000 men had been lost. The greatest superpower at the time had suffered a crippling blow. The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 marked a great watershed in history. It signalled the decline of Catholic Spain and Portugal and the rise of Protestant England and Holland.

A Victory for the Protestant Reformation

Before 1588 the world powers were Spain and Portugal. These Roman Catholic empires dominated the seas and the overseas possessions of Europe. Only after the English defeated the Spanish Armada did the possibility arise of Protestant missionaries crossing the seas. As the Dutch and British grew in military and naval strength, they were able to challenge the Catholic dominance of the seas and the new continents. Foreign missions now became a distinct possibility. Had the Spanish Armada not been defeated, Protestantism could have been extinguished in England and Holland. And then the whole future of North America would have been far different with Catholicism dominating instead of the Protestant Pilgrims.

A Watershed Event

By the grace of God, the destruction of the Spanish Armada in 1588 saved the Protestant Reformation in England from Spanish invasion, oppression and the Inquisition. The victory of Protestant England and Protestant Holland against Catholic Spain was absolutely essential for the founding of the United States of America and of the Republic of South Africa.

A History of the English Speaking narod by Sir Winston Churchill, Cassel and Co., 1956.

The Great Christian Revolution by Otto Scott, 1995.

Elizabeth I by Jacob Abbott, 1876.

The Spanish Armadas by Winston Graham, Collins, 1972.

Queen Elizabeth I (to hear the audio, kliknite ovdje and to see a video


Sadržaj

The Spanish Armada was a fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in August 1588 under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England. It met with armed resistance in the English Channel, when a fireship attack off Calais broke its formation, and was driven into the North Sea after the Battle of Gravelines.

When the fleet entered the North Sea, 110 ships remained under Medina Sidonia's command. Many were damaged by gunfire or were running low on supplies, making them unfit for service in the Atlantic Ocean. Some had cut their anchors in the flight from the fireships, which severely diminished their ability to navigate close to shore. Also, the Armada commanders made a large navigational error that brought the fleet too close to the dangerous Atlantic coasts of Scotland and Ireland.

The plotted course Edit

After Gravelines the commanders of the Armada held a conference on Sidonia's flagship. Some proposed a course for Norway, others for Ireland. The admiral made his choice, and orders were issued to the fleet:

The course that is first to be held is to the north/north-east until you be found under 61 degrees and a half and then to take great heed lest you fall upon the Island of Ireland for fear of the harm that may happen unto you upon that coast. Then, parting from those islands and doubling the Cape in 61 degrees and a half, you shall run west/south-west until you be found under 58 degrees and from thence to the south-west to the height of 53 degrees and then to the south/south-west, making to the Cape Finisterre, and so to procure your entrance into The Groyne A Coruña or to Ferrol, or to any other port of coast of Galicia. [1]

The fleet was to approach the coast of Norway, before steering to the meridian of the Shetland Islands and on to Rockall. This allowed passage outside the northern tip of Shetland, clearing the coast of Scotland at a distance of 160 km. Once out in the broad Atlantic, the ships were to steer to a point 645 km beyond the Shannon estuary on the west coast of Ireland, giving themselves a clear run to northern Spain. [2]

The course taken Edit

The Armada's sailing orders were almost impossible to follow. The weather was difficult. Many of the ships and their crew members were in great distress. The navigators' charts were primitive, [3] and their best training and experience in the techniques of dead reckoning and latitude sailing fell far short of what was needed to bring the fleet safely home. [4]

The sailing orders were rendered useless by the weather, but the miscalculation of the Armada's position contributed greatly to its destruction. The navigators were unaware of the effect of the eastward flowing Gulf Stream, which must have hindered the fleet's progress – perhaps by as much as 30 km a day. The paymaster of the San Juan Bautista, Marcos de Aramburu, recorded a log of his progress from late August onwards, when the rest of the fleet was within sight. The inference from his observations is that his ship's estimated position as it turned for home was entirely wrong, some 480 km to the west: its real position lay in the east, perilously close to the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. This single deficiency "made the difference between safety and disaster". [6]

After seven weeks at sea the opportunity to make landfall and take on supplies and effect repairs must have been welcome, but navigation in these waters demanded intimate knowledge. The experience of Spanish mariners in the intricacies of north Atlantic conditions was largely confined to trading voyages to the south and south-west of Ireland, and it is likely that the fleet's pilots preferred to maintain Sidonia's course, despite the hardships on board their ships.

Most of the fleet – 84 ships – avoided land, and most of those made it home, although in varying degrees of distress. The remainder were forced toward the coast of Ireland – perhaps 28 – and included several galleons and many merchantmen. The latter had been converted for battle and were leaking heavily, making sail with severely damaged masts and rigging, and with most of their anchors missing. The ships seem to have maintained contact until the beginning of September, when they were scattered by a south-west gale (described in the contemporary account of an Irish government official as one "the like whereof hath not been seen or heard for a long time"). Within days, this lost fleet had made landfall in Ireland.

Government preparations Edit

The head of the English Crown administration at Dublin was Lord Deputy William Fitzwilliam. In August 1588 he was presented with credible intelligence that the battle in the English Channel had been won by the Spanish and that the invasion of England was set to be completed. Then it was understood that the Spanish were in the Atlantic and the entire fleet was about to fall on the coast of Ireland. The degree of alarm among the English at Dublin was extreme, and Fitzwilliam put out false reports that reinforcements from England were due to arrive with 10,000 troops.

The English feared the Spanish would land in disciplined formations, with the Irish rising out to join them from territories that were almost beyond the control of the government. But reliable intelligence was soon received at Waterford and Dublin that the ships were fetching up in a chaotic manner at disparate locations in the provinces of Ulster, Connacht and Munster, along a coastline spanning 300 miles (480 km). Fitzwilliam ordered that all Spaniards be captured and hanged summarily and that anyone aiding them be tortured and charged as a traitor to the Crown.

Munster Edit

The Armada first made landfall in the southern province of Munster, which had been colonised by the English in 1583 following the suppression of the last of the Desmond Rebellions. Fitzwilliam received orders from London to lead an expedition there, and intelligence from the governor of Connacht, Richard Bingham, soon confirmed that further landfalls were being made throughout the west and north of the country.

Thomond: Many ships were sighted off the coast of County Clare: four at Loop Head, two of which were wrecked, including San Esteban (700 tons, 264 men) at Doonbeg, and probably the heavily damaged San Marcos (790 tons, squadron of Portugal, 409 men, 33 guns) at Lurga Point (modern day Seafield, Quilty, County Clare) inside Mutton Island. All survivors were put to death by the sheriff of Clare, Boetius MacClancy (some, according to tradition, at Gallows Hill, but more likely at Cnoc na Crocaire, Spanish Point).

Seven ships anchored at Scattery Roads, probably with a pilot who knew the coast. Their landing party was fought off, but they did secure some supplies and managed to repair their ships. One galleon, Anunciada (703 tons, 24 guns, 275 men), was fired and scuttled off Kilrush on 12 September, [7] and the crew transferred to Barco de Danzig, which made it safely to Spain after the squadron departed the Shannon estuary on 11 September.

Blasket Islands: One Armada commander, Juan Martínez de Recalde, did have experience of the Irish coast: in 1580 he had landed a Papal invasion force in the Dingle peninsula, in the run up to the Siege of Smerwick, and had managed to evade an English squadron of warships. In the Armada he had command of the galleon San Juan de Portugal (1,150 tons, 500 men, 50 guns) of the Biscayan squadron, which engaged with the English fleet in the Channel and held off Francis Drake in Osveta, John Hawkins in Pobjeda, and Martin Frobisher in Triumph.

After the defeat at Gravelines Recalde's galleon led San Juan de Bautista (750 tons, 243 men) and another small vessel (almost certainly a Scottish fishing smack seized to assist with navigation and inshore work). As these ships approached the coast of Kerry, Recalde's lookouts sighted Mount Brandon on the Dingle peninsula and, to the west, the lofty Blasket Islands, a complex archipelago studded with reefs.

Recalde steered to the islands in search of shelter, riding on a swell through a tight gap at the eastern tip of the Great Blasket Island. His galleon made it through to calm water and dropped anchor over a sandy bottom beneath sheer cliffs. San Juan de Bautista and the smack soon followed. The anchorage ensured that the only wind that might drive the ships off would bring them clear to the open sea. It was a difficult manoeuvre, demanding prior knowledge of the coastline.

Recalde's ships remained within their shelter for several days, and a crown force led by Thomas Norris (brother of the soldier, John Norris) and Edward Denny (husband of Lady Denny) arrived in Dingle to guard against a landing. Recalde sent a reconnaissance party ashore, but all eight members were captured. At one stage a westerly gale caused Portugal to collide with San Juan de Bautista, and when the wind died down another ship, Santa Maria de la Rosa (900 tons, 297 men: Guipuzcoa squadron), entered the sound from the north and fired off a gun by way of distress signal.

As the tide ebbed, Recalde's ships held their anchorage in the more sheltered part of the sound, while Santa Maria de la Rosa drifted and then simply sank — perhaps on striking Stromboli Rock — leaving one survivor for the English to interrogate. The survivor's information was that the captain of Santa Maria de la Rosa had called the pilot a traitor and run him through with a sword just as the ship began to sink he also asserted that the Prince of Ascoli, son of the king of Spain, had gone down with the ship — this information was false, but proved useful propaganda for the English.

Two more ships entered the sound — San Juan de Ragusa (650 tons, 285 men), the other unidentified. San Juan de Ragusa was in distress and sank — perhaps on striking Dunbinna reef. San Juan de Bautista attempted to take advantage of an ebb tide and sail south out of the sound, but ended up tacking about on the flood tide to avoid the numerous reefs, before sailing through the north-west passage. After a difficult night, the crew were dismayed to find themselves at the mouth of the sound once more. But the wind blew from the south-east, and San Juan de Bautista finally escaped on 25 September and made it home to Spain through a terrible storm.

Three days later Recalde led the remaining ships out of the sound and brought them to Spain, where he instantly died. [ potreban je citat ] Those survivors who had fallen into Denny's custody were put to death at Dingle.

Fenit: The sloop Nuestra Senora del Socorro (75 tons) anchored at Fenit, in Tralee Bay on the coast of Kerry, where she was surrendered to crown officers. The 24 men on board were taken into custody and marched to Tralee Castle. On the orders of Lady Margaret Denny, they were all hanged from a gibbet.

Valentia Island: Trinidad (800 tons, 302 men) was wrecked on the coast of Desmond — probably at Valentia Island, off the coast of south Kerry — although there are no details of this event.

At Liscannor the oar-powered galleass Zuñiga (290, Naples) anchored off-shore with a broken rudder, having found a gap in the Cliffs of Moher, which rise sheer from the sea over 220 metres. The ship came under surveillance by the sheriff of Clare and, when a cock-boat was sent ashore in search of supplies, the Spanish were attacked by crown forces and had to withdraw to their ship. One captive was taken and sent for interrogation. Zuñiga escaped the coast with favourable winds, put in at Le Havre, and finally made it back to Naples the following year.

Ulster Edit

Donegal: La Trinidad Valencera (1,000 tons, Levant squadron, 360 men, 42 guns) had taken on more water than could be pumped out. Yet as she approached the coast she managed to rescue 264 men from the Barca de Amburgo, another ship swamped in the heavy seas. Trinidad anchored in Glenagivney Bay, where she listed to such a degree that the order was given to abandon ship. Some locals were paid for the use of a small boat, and over the course of two days all 560 men were ferried to shore. [8]

During a seven-day march inland, the column of survivors met a force of cavalry under the command of Richard Hovenden and Henry Hovenden [9] foster-brothers of Hugh O'Neill, 3rd Earl of Tyrone. [ potreban je citat ] Upon pledges of safe conduct for their delivery into the custody of Fitzwilliam — given in the presence of the Earl of Tyrconnell — the Spanish laid down their arms. [ potreban je citat ] The noblemen and officers were separated out, and 300 of the ordinary men were massacred. The surviving 150 fled through the bog, ending up either with Sorley Boy MacDonnell at Dunluce or at the house of Redmond O'Gallagher, the bishop of Derry, and were sent to Scotland. The 45 noblemen and officers were marched to Dublin, but only 30 survived to reach the capital, where they were dispatched to London for ransom.

Three further ships — unidentified — were wrecked on the Donegal coast, one at Mullaghderg, one at Rinn a' Chaislean.The third was found in 2010 at Burtonport. [10]

Antrim: The greatest loss of life was on the sinking of the galleass La Girona. She had docked for repairs to her rudder at Killybegs, where 800 survivors from two other Armada shipwrecks were taken aboard - from La Rata Santa Maria Encoronada i Duquesa Santa Ana, which went aground at Loughros Mor Bay, Donegal. La Girona set sail for Scotland, but on 26 October her rudder broke and she was wrecked off Lacada Point, County Antrim. Of the estimated 1300 people on board, only nine survived. [11]

Connacht Edit

The Governor of Connacht, Richard Bingham, sought reinforcements from Dublin but his request was denied by Fitzwilliam, who had few resources at his disposal. A proclamation made it treason on pain of death for any man to help Spaniards. Many survivors were delivered to Galway from all over the province. In the first wave of seizures, 40 noblemen were reserved for ransom, and 300 men were put to death. Later, on the orders of Fitzwilliam, all the unarmed noblemen except two were also executed, along with six Dutch boys who had fallen into custody afterward. In all, 12 ships were wrecked on the coast of Connacht, and 1,100 survivors were put to death. [12] [13]

Galway: Falcon Blanco (300 tons, 103 men, 16 guns) and Concepción de Juanes del Cano of Biscay (225 men, 18 guns) and another unknown ship entered Galway Bay. Falcon Blanco grounded at Barna, five km west of Galway City, and most of those on board made it to shore. Concepción de Juanes del Cano grounded at Carna 30 km further west, having been lured to shore by the bonfires of a party of wreckers from the Clan O'Flaherty

Sligo: Three ships grounded near Streedagh Strand, ten miles North of Sligo town, with 1,800 men drowned and perhaps 100 coming ashore. The wreck-site was discovered in 1985. Among the survivors was Captain Francisco de Cuellar, who gave a remarkable account of his experiences in the fleet and on the run in Ireland.

  • La Lavia (25 guns), was a Venetian merchantman and the Vice-flagship
  • La Juliana (32 guns) was a Catalan merchantman and
  • Santa Maria de Vison (de Biscione) (18 guns) was a Ragusan merchantman.

Mayo: In September a galleon was wrecked at Tyrawley (modern County Mayo). Tradition [ example needed ] has it that another ship was wrecked in the vicinity, near Kid Island, but no record remains of this event. Također, Gran Grin was wrecked at the mouth of Clew Bay.

Among those ships wrecked in Connacht was the merchant carrack La Rata Santa Maria Encoronada (419 men, 35 guns), which had run for the Irish coast in desperate need of repair, along with four other ships of the Levant squadron and four galleons. La Rata Santa Maria Encoronada carried an unusually large number of noblemen from the most ancient families of Spain — chief among them Don Alonso Martinez de Leyva — as well as the son of the Irish rebel, James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald.

La Rata Santa Maria Encoronada was skillfully handled along the northern coast of Mayo, but could not clear the Mullet Peninsula, and so anchored in Blacksod Bay on 7 September. The wind got up and the anchors dragged, until the ship was driven on to Ballycroy strand. All the crew got to shore under the leadership of de Leyva, and two castles were seized and fortified with munitions and stores from the beached ship, which was then torched. The rebel's son, Maurice Fitzmaurice, had died on board, and was cast into the sea in a cypress chest.

The Spanish soon moved on to another castle, where they were met by a host of fellow survivors, approaching from the wreck in Broadhaven of another ship, which had entered that bay without masts. De Leyva's host now numbered 600, and the governor of Connacht, Richard Bingham, chose not to confront them. After some days two ships of the Armada entered Blacksod Bay — the merchantman Nuestra Señora de Begoña (750 tons, 297 men) and the transport Duquesa Santa Ana (900 tons, 23 guns, 357 men). De Leyva and his 600 men boarded Duquesa Santa Ana. Nuestra Señora de Begoña sailed straight for Santander, Spain, arriving some time later. Duquesa Santa Ana, however, was somewhat damaged and it was decided to sail north for Scotland. Stormy weather soon hit Duquesa Santa Ana and she was grounded in Loughros Bay in Donegal, with all aboard reaching shore in what was friendly territory.

De Leyva, who had been seriously injured by a capstan, pitched camp on the shore of the bay for nine days, until news came of another ship of the fleet, the galleass Girona, which had anchored in Killybegs harbour while two other ships had been lost on attempting to enter the harbour. With the assistance of an Irish chieftain, MacSweeney Bannagh, Girona was repaired and set sail in mid-October with 1,300 men on board, including de Leyva. Lough Foyle was cleared, but then a gale struck and Girona was driven ashore at Dunluce in modern County Antrim. There were nine survivors, who were sent on to Scotland by Sorley Boy MacDonnell 260 bodies were washed ashore.

Aran Islands: Two ships were sighted off the Aran Islands: one failed to land a party in hard weather, and it is not known what became of them.

Antrim: The single greatest loss of life occurred upon the wreck of the galleass Girona on the coast of Antrim after she had taken on board many survivors from other ships wrecked on the coast of Connacht (see Ulster, above).

Between 17 and 24 ships of the Grand Armada were lost on the Irish coast, accounting for about one-third of the fleet's total loss of 63, with the loss of about 6,000 men. [14]

By the end of September 1588 Fitzwilliam was able to report to the Queen's secretary, Lord Burghley, that the Armada alarm was over. Soon after, he reckoned that only about 100 survivors remained in the country. In 1596, an envoy of Philip II arrived in Ireland to make inquiries of survivors and was successful in only eight cases.

Following the defeat of the Armada the English sent their own fleet against the Iberian peninsula, but failed to press home their advantage and returned with similar losses. At the height of the Anglo-Spanish War the Spanish landed 3,500 troops in the south of Ireland to assist the Ulster rebel leader Hugh O'Neill, during the Nine Years' War (1594–1603). This expedition also failed, and Spain and England concluded a peace in 1604.

By the time of the peace the Spanish had restored their dominance at sea, and treasure from the New World was flowing in to their Royal Treasury at an increased rate. Elizabeth's successor James I neglected his fleet and chose to secure crown influence in Ireland: in 1607 the lords of Gaelic Ulster fled to the continent, and the English conquest of Ireland was largely completed on the seizure and colonisation of their territories in the Plantation of Ulster in 1610.

There is a myth that the Spanish Armada left descendents in Ireland, however research has discredited such claims. [15] [ better source needed ]

The first salvage attempts were made within months, on the coast of County Clare by George Carew, who complained [ potreban je citat ] at the expense "of sustaining the divers with copious draughts of usequebaugh" [Uisce Beatha - Irish for whiskey].

Sorley Boy MacDonnell recovered three brass cannon and two chests of treasure from the wreck of Girona.

In 1797 a quantity of lead and some brass guns were raised from the wreck of an unknown Armada ship at Mullaghderg in County Donegal. Two miles further south, in 1853, an anchor was recovered from another unknown Armada wreck. [16]

The Grainuaile Suite (1985), an orchestral treatment of the life of the Irish sea-queen Gráinne O'Malley by Irish composer Shaun Davey, contains a lament on the Spanish landings in Ireland, sung by Rita Connolly.

The wrecking of La Girona was commemorated in illustrations of the Armada and the Antrim coast which appear on the reverse side of sterling banknotes issued by the First Trust Bank in Northern Ireland.

The final published novel of Anthony Burgess, Byrne: A Novel, features a protagonist who is specifically stated to be descended from Spanish survivors who remained in Ireland.

The Luck of the Irish and Darby O'Gill and the Little People are American films that make reference to the wrecking of the Spanish armada as an explanation for leprechauns having pots of gold.


ISBN 13: 9781250047120

After the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558, Protestant England was beset by the hostile Catholic powers of Europe, including Spain. In October 1585, King Philip II of Spain declared his intention to destroy Protestant England and began preparing invasion plans, leading to an intense intelligence war between the two countries and culminating in the dramatic sea battles of 1588.

Popular history dictates that the defeat of the Spanish Armada was a David versus Goliath victory, snatched by plucky and outnumbered English forces. In this tightly written and fascinating new history, Robert Hutchinson explodes this myth, revealing the true destroyers of the Spanish Armada―inclement weather and bad luck. Of the 125 Spanish ships that set sail against England, only 60 limped home, the rest wrecked or sank with barely a shot fired from their main armament.

In this dramatic hour-by-hour, blow-by-blow account of the Spanish Armada's attempt to destroy Elizabeth's England, Hutchinson spins a compelling and unbelievable narrative. Using everything from contemporary eyewitness accounts to papers held by the national archives in Spain and the United Kingdom, Robert Hutchinson re-creates one of history's most famous episodes in an entirely new way.

"synopsis" may belong to another edition of this title.

With a doctorate in archaeology, ROBERT HUTCHINSON has spent his career as a journalist and publishing director before becoming a critically-acclaimed Tudor historian whose books have been translated into nine languages. He lives in England.

𠇌ontemporary readers will certainly enjoy this outstanding contribution. Tudor historian Hutchinson (Young Henry: The Rise of Henry VIII, 2012, etc.) excels in his descriptions of the flow of information. Readers know how the battle turned out, but they will relish Hutchinson's intensely detailed account. Those with fond memories of Garrett Mattingly's classic The Armada (1959) will discover an equally enthralling successor.” ―Kirkus Reviews (starred review)

“In this engaging volume, archeologist and historian Hutchinson (Young Henry) sets out to overturn one of the cherished legends taught in British primary schools. Hutchinson lays out ample evidence that the Spanish ships sank more from happenstance than heroism. ” ―Publishers Weekly

“[Hutchinson's] attention to battle at sea, sixteenth-century style, induces wonder at how Phillip and his high command thought they could succeed. Culminating with the Armada's ghastly shipwrecks in Ireland, Hutchinson's day-by-day story of the Armada is a fine production for maritime history buffs.” ―Booklist

“The author does a magnificent job of describing the military campaign. . . . He also argues convincingly that, in terms of intelligence . . . this was a truly modern war.” ―Good Book Guide (UK)

“The victory of the English navy over the Spanish Armada in 1588 is one of those defining moments . . . of British pluck and determination. . . . Well no, not really, says historian Robert Hutchinson in his revelatory new book.” ―Choice (UK)

“In a book which successfully weaves together the different elements of the dramatic story, Robert Hutchinson, making use of fresh research (not least his own), sets out to consider the background and the events themselves.” ―The Tablet (UK)

𠇊nyone who sees history as boring should be given Robert Hutchinson's book posthaste. Without sacrificing facts and research, he has the ability to construct an absolutely compelling narrative. . . . He is one of the few authors who keep you up till 3 a.m.” ―The Bookseller on Young Henry

“Pulling quotations from the archives that convey Henry's pious yet imperious personality, Hutchinson ably meets history fans' unflagging fascination with Henry VIII.” ―Booklist on Young Henry

“Hutchinson is admirable at pulling out amusing tidbits from the primary sources he obviously plumbed to write this breezy account. . . . often enlivened by Hutchinson's irreverent commentary.” ―Publishers Weekly on Young Henry

𠇊nyone with a passing interest in Tudor history will catch up quickly and delight in a detailed profile of one of England's most famous--and infamous--monarchs.” ―Shelf Awareness on Young Henry


8th August 1588

At midnight, Howard sent eight fire ships into the congested Spanish ranks. Many Spanish Captains cut their cables in their haste to escape the flames. They blundered away from the blaze straight into the gunfire of the waiting English. Unfortunately for the Spanish, their fire power was vastly inferior to that of the English.

A change of wind blew the Armada North out of the range of English fire. However, the wind became a gale and the Spanish were driven further North and many were dashed on the Northern rocks. The survivors were forced to make their way round the Orkneys and down the Irish coast. The remains of the proud Armada limped home to Spain.

The Defeated Spanish Armada


English provocation

At the commencement of Elizabeth's reign (1558) Philip had been her best friend. His intercession helped to save her life after Wycliffe's rebellion (1554). He facilitated her accession, supported her against the claims of Mary Stuart, and intervened powerfully in her favor to prevent French aid from being sent to Scotland. When England had emerged triumphant at the treaty of Edinburgh (1560), Elizabeth sent him a special mission of thanks, with the Catholic Lord Montague at its head, to whom she gave a dispensation from the laws of England in order that he might practice Catholicism during the embassy.

The victory of Protestantism now being complete, greater coolness was shown. As time went on the Spanish ambassador was treated with disrespect, his house beset, visitors to his chapel imprisoned Spanish ships were robbed with impunity in the Channel. In 1562, Hawkins forced his way by violence into the forbidden markets of the West Indies, his trade being chiefly in slaves, whom he had captured in West Africa. In 1564 and 1567 the same violent measures were repeated, but the last ended in disaster for him. Meanwhile the Protestant party in the Netherlands began to rebel in 1566, and was subsidized by England.

In 1568, a Spanish ship having put into Plymouth with pay for the whole of the Spanish army in Flanders, the money was seized by the English government. Here ensued reprisals on both sides, trade was paralyzed, and war was on the point of breaking out, both on the occasion of the Northern rising (1569) and at the time of the Ridolfi conspiracy in 1571. The imprudent Spanish ambassador, Don Gerau Despes, was then expelled from England, Philip having previously dismissed from Spain the Spanish ambassador, Dr. Mann, an apostate priest, whose selection was naturally considered an insult. Whilst the Spanish fleet was fighting the cause of Christianity against the Turks at Lepanto (1572), Drake thrice sacked the almost defenseless colonies on the Spanish Main, from which he returned with enormous booty (1570, 1571, 1572-73).

Slightly better relations between the two countries ensued toward the close of this decade, when Elizabeth feared that, with the decay of Spanish power in the Netherlands, France might conquer the country for herself. So in 1578 a Spanish ambassador was received in London, though at the same time Drake was allowed to sail on his great buccaneering voyage around the world. On his return public opinion began to condemn aloud the "master-robber of the New World", but Elizabeth exerted herself warmly in his favor, gave him the honor of knighthood, and three years later, immediately before sending her army to fight the Spaniards in the Netherlands, she dispatched him once more to spoil the West Indies. It was then that Drake "convinced Spain that in self-defense she must crush England" (J.R. Seeley, Growth of British Policy).

Mr. Froude and the older panegyrists of Queen Elizabeth frequently justify the English piracies as acts of retaliation against the cruelties of the Inquisition, and maintain that Philip had given cause for war by encouraging plots against Elizabeth's throne and life. The prime motive of the Armada, they say, was to overthrow Protestantism. But these statements cannot be substantiated and are misleading (see Laughton, p. xxii Pollen, The Month, February, March, April, 1902). It is true that the ineffective attempts of Spain to shut out the rest of Europe from traffic with her colonies were unwise, perhaps unjust, and acted as an incentive to secret and unwarranted traffic. But it must also be remembered that trade monopolies flourished in England to such an extent that her pirates may have taken to that profession because honorable trading was so much impeded (Dascent, Acts of Privy Council, VII, p. xviii). On the other hand, one must unreservedly blame the cruelties of Alva and of the Spanish Inquisitors, which much embittered the struggle when it had once begun.


Aftermath

The defeat of the Armada, as much by bad weather, poor planning and bad luck as by battle, seemed a providential escape to English Protestants – literally gift sent by God. Nevertheless, war between England and Spain continued indecisively until 1604 – an ‘English Armada’, sent to destroy the port at Corruna 1589 was itself defeated with 40 ships sunk and 10,000 men lost.

In Ireland itself the immediate effects of the Armada are hard to gauge. The frantic military activity all over the west destabilized the always fragile political situation there. North Connacht rose in rebellion again in 1589, though again, mainly over local grievances. Brian O’Rourke who had harboured many Spaniards fled to Scotland but was handed over the English and hanged.

Certainly however, those areas, principally in the north, who had helped the wrecked Spaniards in 1588, helped to forge an enduring connection between Catholic Ireland and Catholic Spain.

During Hugh O’Neill and Hugh O’Donnell’s Nine Years War (1595-1603) against the English Crown, both lords were in constant communication with Phillip II, who aided them with weapons, money and finally a landing of Spanish troops at Kinsale in 1601-2.

Despite the fate of the Armada in Ireland, the late 16th century saw a strong bond created between Irish Catholics and the Spanish monarchy, through mutual hostility to Protestant England.

None of this should obscure the reality however that in the year of the Armada, the Irish weather and probably the majority of the Irish concerned helped to seal the fate of Spanish Armada.

This article is a version of a talk given at Kilrush, County Clare, on August 14, 2015 for the Office of Public Works (OPW). By My thanks to Padraig Og O Ruairc for inviting me.

Reference

[1] John O’Brien, The Other Clare, Vol 3, 1979, http://www.clarelibrary.ie/eolas/coclare/history/spanish_armada.htm

[2] See the Bull here http://tudorhistory.org/primary/papalbull.html

[3] Colm Lennon, Sixteenth Century Ireland, The Incomplete Conquest, Gill & MacMillan, Dublin 1994, p226

[4] Geoffrey Parker ,Empire War and Faith in Early Modern Europe, p50

[5] William Marmion, Irish regiments in the Spanish Army of Flanders https://www.theirishstory.com/2015/07/28/irish-regiments-in-the-spanish-army-of-flanders/#.VdNqkbJVhHw

[6] Lennon, Sixteenth century Ireland, p240-248

[7] Lennon, p249-255, Gallowglass refers to Gall Oglaigh, ‘foreign warriors’ traditional Scottish Gaelic soldiers for hire.

[8] Parker, Empire War and Faith p23-24

[9] Parker, Empire, War and Faith, p50

[12] Alessando Farnese Duke of Parma, an Italian who commanded the Spanish Army


Gledaj video: Povijest četvrtkom - Islamsko osvajanje Španjolske 1. dio