Tko su bili jeleni dodirivači?

Tko su bili jeleni dodirivači?


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Prije otprilike 20 godina pročitao sam članak u jednom časopisu (ne mogu se sjetiti u kojem časopisu) o plemenu domorodaca (vjerujem da su bili sjevernoamerički) koji su imali tradiciju dodirivanje živih jelena. Skidali bi se u vezicu, gušili svoja tijela pepelom iz vatre kako bi prikrili svoj miris, zabijali travu i grančice u kosu, a zatim bi hodali vrlo tiho i polako (~ 80 sekundi po koraku) sve do jelena. Test je bio vidjeti mogu li prići jelenima, a da ih on to ne primijeti ili registrira da su živo biće, te im iščupati dlaku iz repa kao dokaz svog postignuća. Neke od tehnika koje su se koristile bile su pokušavati se ponašati kao grm, njišući se od povjetarca, neki su muškarci dobili kosu tako što su raširili ruke poput grana, dopuštajući prstima da pročešljaju jelenovo krzno dok je prolazilo, ne znajući za njihovu prisutnost, brzo čupajući rep kosa u posljednjoj sekundi.

Pokušavam ponovno otkriti ovo pleme ljudi, ali do sada nisam imao sreće u njihovom traženju. Zna li netko tko su oni bili?


"Čovjek koji dodiruje jelene", Bill Heavey, Field and Stream, listopad 2000., str. 44.

Članak je intervju prirodnjačkog autora Toma Browna mlađeg, koji tvrdi da ga je kao dijete podučavao izviđač Lipan Apača.


Povijest bijelog jelena

Znanstvenici vjeruju da su jeleni nekoć nastanjivali gorko-hladne regije oko Arktičkog kruga. Tek prije otprilike 4 milijuna godina prvi jeleni su migrirali u ono što danas zovemo Sjedinjene Države.

Jeleni su bili sastavni dio života domorodačkih Amerikanaca. Meso i koštana srž činili su veliki dio njihove prehrane. Indijanci su koristili kožu za odjeću, prostirke, deke, mrežice i slično. Izrađivali su vrhove strijela, toljage, udice za ribe i alat od kostiju.

Prvi doseljenici u Americi pirovali su se raznim životinjama, poput purana i tetrijeba. Tada su otkrili veliki virginijski bijeli rep. Američki starosjedioci naučili su koloniste kako učinkovito koristiti jelene, koristeći svaki komadić mesa, kože i kosti.

S vremenom je populacija jelena doživjela fluktuacije. Prvi veliki pad vezan je za trgovinu krznom. Američki domoroci ubijali su oko 5 milijuna jelena godišnje kako bi opskrbili trgovinu. Početkom 1800 -ih, zbog pada prodaje krzna i prirodnog širenja jelena na nova staništa, populacija je ponovno u porastu. Međutim, ovo povećanje nije dugo trajalo.

Rastući lov na tržnicama kasnih 1800-ih smanjio je populaciju bijelih repa na najniži nivo od 500 000, a u nekim je područjima novac i lova potpuno nestao. Godine 1900. donesen je Lacy Act, prvi savezni zakon o divljim životinjama. Lacy je zabranila međudržavni promet divljači i druge divljači, a iskorištavanje bijelih repa počelo se usporavati. 1908. godine 41 država osnovala je odjela za očuvanje, unapređujući zaštitu jelena.

Velika depresija bila je teška za Amerikance. No, došlo je vrijeme procvata bijelih repa na istoku, jugu i srednjem zapadu. Dok su ljudi hrlili iz zemlje kako bi ostavili život u gradovima, napuštene farme i kućna mjesta nikli su korov, žbunje i mladice. Biolozi i sportaši počeli su shvaćati da je promjenjivo stanište Amerike dobro za sve veći broj jelena. Nekada su se smatrali stanovnicima velikih, susjednih šuma, bijeli bi repovi zauvijek bili poznati kao životinje.

Krajem 1950-ih, biolog po imenu Crockford razvio je sustav pištolja za hvatanje jelena. Ta je tehnologija, zajedno s budućim izumima poput topovske mreže, odigrala ključnu ulogu u uspješnom opskrbljivanju bijelih repa diljem Sjedinjenih Država.

Do 1970. godine populacija bijelog repa neprestano je rasla u donjih 48 država. Lovci su godinama smatrali da je zločin ubiti srnu. No, značajna studija iz 1974. to je promijenila. Znanstvenica M.L. Walls je otkrio da bi dugoročno upravljanje rastućim stadima jelena trebalo uključivati ​​berbu i dolara i grla. Države su postupno počele provoditi sezone lova “na dane ” i “bez guste ’.

Populacija bijelih repa nastavila se povećavati tijekom 1980 -ih i#821790 -ih. Upravljanje čvrstim jelenima bio je jedan od razloga. A onda je došlo do širenja prigradskih naselja. U mnogim regijama sve je više ljudi izgradilo obiteljske kuće u nekada ruralnim područjima, stvarajući šahovnicu “farmettes ” i malih posjeda. Programeri su isklesali podrume, golf igrališta i trgovačke centre na farmama i u šumama. Ironično, ovo je stvorilo idealna staništa za džepove i džepove za prilagodljiv bijeli rep, koji ima neobičan smisao za život uz čovjeka. Taj se trend nastavlja i u novom tisućljeću i nije bez svojih loših strana. Sve veći broj jelena uništava grmlje, voćke i usjeve, uzrokujući stotine milijuna dolara godišnje štete na srednjem zapadu, sjeveroistoku i jugoistoku. Sukobi jelena i auto u velikom su porastu.

Danas je bijeli rep, Odocoileus virginianus, najrašireniji jelen na svijetu. Znanstvenici prepoznaju 30 podvrsta bijelog repa u Sjevernoj i Srednjoj Americi, te još osam u Južnoj Americi. Sjevernoamerička populacija bijelog repa procjenjuje se na 20-25 milijuna životinja. Bijeli rep daleko je najpopularnija igra u SAD -u, koju svake jeseni lovi oko 11 milijuna lovaca.


Povijest John Deera - od ranog pluga do poljoprivrednih traktora

Traktor John Deere jedna je od najtrajnijih ikona američkog života na farmi. Tvrtka za proizvodnju traktora John Deere osnovana je 1837. godine, a priča o njezinom osnivanju usko je povezana s razvojem čeličnog pluga. Deere -ova želja za poboljšanjem nesavršene konstrukcije pluga rezultirala je osnivanjem onog što je 177 godina postalo vodeća traktorska tvrtka u svijetu, danas poznata kao tvrtka Deere.

Priča o osnivaču tvrtke datira iz 1804. godine kada je John Deere rođen u Rutlandu, Vermont. Počeo je raditi kao kovački šegrt sa 17 godina, a u roku od četiri godine osnovao je vlastiti kovački posao. Deere -ovi radovi sastojali su se od izrade sijena, potkova i drugih potrebnih oruđa za poljoprivredu. Priroda njegove odabrane trgovine, u kombinaciji s lokalnom gospodarskom klimom, učinila je da se Deere seli iz grada u grad. S 33 godine odlučio se preseliti na zapad, odmarajući se u Grand Detouru, Illinois.

Veći dio posla John Deere -a uključivao je opetovane popravke plugova od lijevanog željeza i drva, dokazujući mu da ti projekti plugova nisu bili dovoljno jaki da probiju prerijsku busen i teško tlo Illinoisa. Unoseći vlastite promjene u dizajn, Deere je izgradio lagani plug od uglačanog čelika od slomljenog čeličnog lista pilane. Plug koji je stvorio učinkovito je probijao žilavu ​​bure na srednjem zapadu i sam se čistio, što znači da se mogao očistiti od rasječene busen pa ga nije potrebno stalno čistiti tijekom rada. Do 1838. sagradio je i prodao tri svoja pluga lokalnim poljoprivrednicima, 10 sljedeće godine, a 40 godinu nakon toga. Deere se udružio s Leonardom Andrusom i do 1846. godine zajedno su uspjeli napraviti gotovo 1.000 plugova.

Do 1847. Deere je osjećao da će posao biti bolji u Molineu, Illinois, smještenom na rijeci Mississippi. Bilo bi lakše i jeftinije transportirati njegovu robu rijekom. Prodao je svoj dio kovačke radnje svom partneru i preselio se u Moline. Do 1850. godine Deere je proizvodio 1600 plugova godišnje, kao i dodatne alate za popravak čeličnih plugova. Čelični plug John Deere smatrao se u to vrijeme najsuvremenijim poljoprivrednim oruđem. Korišteni materijal i oblik pluga bili su revolucionarni i stalno su se razvijali dok je Deere slušao povratne informacije svojih kupaca i sukladno tome prilagodio dizajn.

1875. godine John Deere je predstavio svoj prvi plug za vožnju. Bio je to gilpinski mrki plug s dva kotača, pogonjen konjskim pogonom. 1888. proizvodili su se plugovi na parni pogon, a 1892. drugi izumitelj, John Froelich iz Iowe, prodao je prva dva traktora na benzinski pogon. Ovi i mnogi drugi rani projekti traktora na benzinski pogon imali su svoj početak u Iowi, ali tvrtka John Deere u Illinoisu je ta koja je izašla iz čopora i postala lider u poljoprivrednoj opremi.

1971. slogan “Nothing Runs Like a Deere ” predstavljen je radi promicanja njihove nedavno objavljene linije motornih sanki. Do 1983. godine linija za motorne sanke je prekinuta, ali je slogan ostao.

Jedan od najranijih čeličnih plugova tvrtke Deere#8217 sada je smješten u Smithsonian Institutu.


Povratak bijelorepog jelena

Uvriježeno je mišljenje da je očuvanje divljih životinja izgubljeno. Uništavanje stada bizona, sudbina goluba putnika, opće je poznato. U naše vrijeme vidimo dizalicu i kalifornijskog kondora na rubu izumiranja. No, očuvanje divljih životinja nije prošlo bez uspjeha. I nitko nije bio spektakularniji od obnove bijelog jelena iz Virdžinije u šumama Istoka i Bliskog Zapada.

Prvotno je tridesetak sorti (podvrsta) bijelog jelena okupiralo Sjevernu Ameriku. Većina je nastanjivala rubove velike istočne šume tvrdog drva koja je sezala od atlantske obale do doline Mississippi. Zapadno od šuma prevladavali su jeleni i losovi mazge, iako su neki bijeli repovi lutali šikarom u podnožju oko rijeka Velike ravnice. Mali sonoranski bijeli rep nastanjivao je podnožje oko velike jugozapadne pustinje, a džepovi lokalnog obilja drugih podvrsta dogodili su se u sjevernim Stjenovitim planinama i na pacifičkom sjeverozapadu. Sjeverno od linije koja vodi otprilike od Minneapolisa do Portlanda, Maine, guste šume smreke, jele i bora pružale su malo hrane za jelene.

Bijeli rep postigao je najveću brojnost na otocima i oko močvara atlantskih i zaljevskih obala te u grmlju i travnjacima koji su razdvajali istočno tvrdo drvo i Velike ravnice. Nikada nije duboko prodrlo u netaknuto drvo gorja, gdje su isprepletene krošnje i udovi divovskog drveća zasjenili zemlju, provjeravajući razvoj bujne jelenske potrebe jelena za hranom. No čak su i na uzvisinama povremeni prekidi u šumskim krošnjama dopuštali rast hrane jelena i prisutnost jelena. Jezerske obale i obale rijeka podupiru šikaru šikare. Dabrovi, uobičajeni na svim istočnim potocima, pomagali su jelenima svojim rezanjem i poplavama. Uragani i tornado kosili su otkose koji su ubrzo ponovno prekriveni sadnicama, grmljem i vinovom lozom koja raste među zapetljanim naletima.

Većina istočnih Indijanaca vodila je polunomadsko postojanje, krećući se svakih nekoliko godina pod pritiskom neprijateljskog napada ili zbog iscrpljenih polja usjeva. Sva šumska plemena intenzivno su koristila vatru - kako bi očistila vrtne zakrpe i kuće, smanjila iznenadne napade, potjerala divljač ili poboljšala lov. Spaljene zemlje okruživale su većinu indijskih sela kilometrima, a svako napušteno ili neintenzivno obrađeno zemljište ubrzo je ponovo zaraslo idealnom hranom i jelenskim jelima. Doista, Indijanac je vjerojatno pomogao stvoriti mnogo više jelena nego što ih je ubio.

Ovo je bila većina priča o istočnim jelenima prije sedamnaestog stoljeća. Koliko ih je tada bilo, nitko ne zna. No, obrazac bijelog istraživanja i naseljavanja vjerojatno je ostavljao pogrešan dojam obilja. Kolonizacija je započela na obalnim nizinama, kao u Jamestownu, ili na napuštenim indijskim zemljama, kao u Plymouthu, a istraživanje unutrašnjosti obično je slijedilo rijeke, kroz neka od najboljih staništa jelena na istoku.

Kolonijalna poljoprivreda bila je produžetak indijskih metoda u kojima je bijelac također koristio vatru kako bi očistio zemlju. No, kolonijalna poljoprivreda bila je daleko ekspanzivnija i rijetko je bijelac dopuštao zemlji da se vrati u šumu. Očišćena zemljišta koja se nisu odmah koristila za nova naselja više puta su spaljivana radi održavanja travnjaka. Sve veći broj goveda, ovaca, konja, koza i svinja uzgajan je uglavnom na otvorenom uzgoju i natjecao se s jelenima gdje god se razvio odgovarajući uzgoj jelena. Nedugo nakon revolucije većina djevičanskih šuma istočno od Apalačaca bila je posječena, a zemlje spaljene - u mnogim slučajevima, ne jednom, već desecima puta.

Ipak, unatoč takvom uništavanju njihovog staništa, jeleni su ustrajali. Između široko razmaknutih gradova postojala su zemljišta gdje je svjetlosno spaljivanje i sječa poboljšalo njihov raspon. Bilo je močvara - poput Virdžinijske turobne močvare - koje su prkosile uništavanju vatrom i odvodnjom. Bilo je kamenih provalija i planina previše surovih za poljoprivredu ili ispašu. Svi ti skriveni jeleni. No, također su osigurali utočišta za pumu i drvenog vuka, tradicionalne prirodne neprijatelje bijelog repa. Ubrzo su postali obilasci tog još smrtonosnijeg predatora - lovca na meso i tržnicu.

Divljač i jelenova koža postali su temelj kolonijalne ekonomije prvim iskrcavanjem u St. Augustine, Jamestown i Plymouth. Nakon što je Indijac saznao da komad divljači vrijedi dvorište od bijele ili trgovačke sjekire, zarobio je, uhvatio u zamku i ubio jelene gdje god ih je naišao. Do 1630. mnoga su priobalna plemena imala pristup europskom vatrenom oružju, a jedan indijski lovac s pištoljem mogao je ubiti pet ili šest jelena u danu.

Jeleni su brzo napredovali duž atlantske obale tijekom sedamnaestog stoljeća. Dana 4. veljače 1646, grad Portsmouth, Rhode Island, naredio je zatvorenu sezonu u lovu na jelene "od prvog svibnja do prvog studenog, a ako netko u to vrijeme ispuca lovinu, oduzet će pet funti ..." Pravilnik je postavio obrazac za zakone koje je većina kolonija usvojila do 1720.

Preambula zakona Connecticut odražavala je službenu zabrinutost zbog budućnosti jelena: Ubijanje jelena u nesezonsko doba godine pronađeno je u velikoj mjeri predrasudama Kolonije, velik broj njih je lovljen i uništen u dubokom snijegu kada su vrlo siromašni i veliki s mladima, meso i kože vrlo male vrijednosti, a povećanje je uvelike ometalo.

1705. Generalna skupština u Newportu na Rhode Islandu primijetila je da je obaviještena da je velika količina jelena uništena u ovoj koloniji izvan sezone ... i da bi u budućnosti mogla dokazati veliku štetu ovog kolonija i ... cijela zemlja, ako se ne spriječi.

Bilo je raštrkanih osuda, ali nijedan od ovih kolonijalnih zakona nije učinkovito proveden, a do sredine osamnaestog stoljeća ostalo je malo jelena za zaštitu u blizini većih zajednica. Graničari su još uvijek živjeli od zemlje i uzimali su svoju divljač kad su to htjeli. Uz rubove odlazeće pustinje, lovci na indijskom i bijelom tržištu i dalje su češljali šikare za divljač u svim godišnjim dobima, daleko od dohvata najbližeg "jelenskog grebena", časnika koji je bio u potrazi za lovokradicama.

Nakon revolucije, duž dolina Ohija, Wabash -a, Cumberlanda i Mississippija, te na južnim obalama Velikih jezera, uništavanje divljine nastavljeno je u većim razmjerima. Do tog vremena lovci na tržištu, koji su još uvijek radili u kombiju civilizacije, stigli su do ruba prerije, najproduktivnijeg dijela izvornog asortimana bijelih repa. Raširena mreža kanala, cesta i tračnica držala ih je u blizini istočnih tržišta. Jednog dana 1818. godine grupa lovaca u mjestu Medina, Ohio, ubila je tristo jelena, dvadeset i jednog crnog medvjeda i sedamnaest vukova. (U prosjeku je to značilo oko dvanaest jelena po četvornoj milji.) Zimi 1859. lovci na meso ubili su posljednje jelene iz Iowe izleguvši ih u dubokom snijegu. Slična klanja redovito su se događala na cijelom Bliskom zapadu sve dok se jeleni mogu pronaći u dovoljno velikom broju da opravdaju trud.

Otvaranjem Zapada središte lova na tržnicu premjestilo se na Velike ravnice i Stjenovite planine. Tamo su najveći dio tereta podnijeli bizoni, pronghorn, losovi, mazge i ovce bighorn. No, bijela tijela u ranjivom području uz prerijsko dno završila su u gulašima vagonskih vlakova, konjičkih ophodnji i posada riječnih čamaca.

U Novoj Engleskoj i državama koje graniče s Velikim jezerima, krčenjem zemljišta i lovom na meso eliminirano je većinu jelena u njihovom izvornom dometu. No sječa sjevernih četinjača stvorila je novi i bolji raspon na sjeveru. Do 1870. jeleni su postali uobičajeni u sjevernim okruzima Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin, New Hampshire i Maine, gdje je pedeset godina ranije bilo malo ili nimalo. Jelenima je, međutim, sječa četinjača bila mješoviti blagoslov. Svaki od logora za sječu zapošljavao je lovce kako bi drvosječama osigurali svježe meso. Lovci na tržnici, koji su do sada istrijebili jelene južnije, nagrnuli su u novorazvijeno područje.

Koristeći pse, oružje, čelične zamke i žičane zamke, vješt lovac mogao bi u prosjeku dnevno uloviti deset jelena. U prosincu 1872. Litchfield, Minnesota, isporučio je šest tona odjevene divljači na tržnice u Bostonu. 1880. samo su teretni uredi u Michiganu prevozili više od sto tisuća jelena namijenjenih Chicagu i istoku.

Ovo izravno klanje bilo je dovoljno loše, ali su požari koji su uslijedili nakon sječe u sjevernoj borovoj šumi oko Velikih jezera bili još gori. Nakon rezanja drva, suha kosa crta ispunjena smolom-odbačene krošnje i udovi-prekrila je stotine tisuća hektara, čekajući samo iskru da je zapali. Jedna od prvih iskri pogodila je panjeve uz vjetar Peshtiga, Wisconsin, 8. listopada 1871. Prije nego što je požar izgorio, opustošio je više od 1.280.000 jutara zemlje i ugasio živote nekih dvanaest stotina ljudi (vidi “Vatra čini vjetar: Vjetar pali vatru ”, u AMERIČKO NASLJEĐE, kolovoz 1956.). Požari su uzastopno zahvatili sjevernu državu sve do početka stoljeća, ubivši gotovo sve živo biće na njihovom putu, uključujući jelene, a milijune hektara pretvorivši u korovsku pustaru gdje nijedan jelen nije mogao preživjeti.

Do 1880. godine znanstvenici i nekoliko pionira zaštitnika prirode počeli su izražavati zabrinutost za budućnost bijelog repa kao vrste. Deset godina kasnije populacija jelena u Sjevernoj Americi dosegla je dno. Apalači i veći dio zemlje zapadno do Stjenjaka praktički su bili bez jelena. Rhode Island, Connecticut, Maryland, West Virginia, New Jersey, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri i Nebraska svi su svoja stada bijelih repa prebrojali blizu nule. "Posljednji jelen" u Indiani ustrijeljen je u blizini Crvenog oblaka 1893. Južni Maine i južni New Hampshire nisu imali nijednog.

Samo su divlji dijelovi Adirondacka, planine Arkansas, udaljene močvare južne obale i obale Zaljeva dali utočište jelenima. T. S. Palmer iz U. S. Biological Survey (prethodnik U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service) procijenio je populaciju divljih bijelih jelena u Sjedinjenim Državama i Kanadi 1890. godine na oko tristo tisuća. Njegova je agencija uložila znatne napore u poticanje ljudi na uzgoj jelena u zatočeništvu, budući da se činilo da budućnost bijelog repa počiva na onima koji se drže u ograđenim parkovima jelena.

No, čak i dok se pad nastavio, sjeme obnove je počelo niknuti. U sjevernoj Novoj Engleskoj i pomorskim provincijama sječa je pretvarala izvorne crnogorične šume u mlada mješovita lišćarsko-listopadna šuma idealna za jelene. Stjenovita tla i negostoljubiva klima obeshrabrili su svaku masovnu invaziju na poljoprivredu. Do 1890. jeleni su se proširili sjevernim Maineom i New Hampshireom te duboko u New Brunswick i Quebec, daleko sjevernije od njihovog izvornog područja. U ovoj regiji vuk, jedini značajni sjeverni jelen-predator, bio je na rubu izumiranja.

Istočno od Apalača industrijsko doba drastično je promijenilo obrasce korištenja zemlje. Tisuće marginalnih poljoprivrednika, koji se nisu mogli natjecati s rastućom poljoprivredom Zapada, napustili su dotrajale farme, zaposlili se u tvornici ili otišli na zapad. U južnoj regiji Pijemont, mrzovoljac, kraj ropstva i konkurencija sa stranim tržištima natjerali su napuštanje tisuća polja pamuka. Napuštenu zemlju ubrzo su napali brzorastući borovi. Do 1885. godine na istoku Sjedinjenih Država bilo je milijune hektara sazrijevajućih borovih šuma "starih polja". Sam bor je siromašna hrana jelena, a ove nove šume podržavale su nekoliko jelena, ali sazrijevanje borova donijelo je na istok novi procvat sječe koji je bio u punom zamahu 1890. I kako su borovi posječeni, zamijenjeni su žbunjem , mješovita šuma tvrdog drveta i crnogorice koja čini idealan raspon jelena.

Podudaranje s povratkom ovog staništa jelena uglavnom bez jelena bio je razvoj modernog pokreta za očuvanje prirode. Prvi put je više od nekoliko ljudi počelo prepoznavati vrijednosti u divljini osim onih mjerljivih u mesu, koži i perju. U velikoj mjeri ovaj je koncept nastao, pomalo neskladno, od lovaca na sport u istočnim gradovima. Do otprilike 1830. bavljenje sportom prvenstveno je bila zabava bogatih. No, razdoblje nakon Građanskog rata proizvelo je novu srednju klasu s novcem, razonodom i, često, željom da privremeno pobjegne iz urbanog života. Raskošni turistički kampovi i hoteli procvjetali su na obalama divljih jezera i rijeka. Većina ovih odmarališta nudilo je, među ostalim vanjskim mogućnostima, izvrstan lov na jelene.

Kako se interes za rekreacijski lov širio, pioniri zaštitnici prirode tražili su načine za povećanje ograničene ponude jelena. Zakoni o igrama malo su se promijenili od kolonijalnih vremena. Tek 1870. sezone lova na jelene trajale su od tri do sedam mjeseci, ograničenja vreća nisu postojala, a upotreba pasa, raketa za noćni lov i lizanje soli bili su prihvaćeni sportski običaji.

Postupno su jedna država za drugom pooštravale zakone o igrama. Godine 1873. Maine je usvojio prvu granicu vreće za jelene - tri za svakog lovca u jednoj sezoni. Michigan i Minnesota nametnuli su ograničenje od pet jelena 1895. godine, a Wisconsin ograničenje od dva jelena 1897. Tjednima, pa čak i mjesecima, lovilo se ulje u otvorenim sezonama lova, a većina država zabranila je lov na jelene u cijelosti u okruzima u kojima je jelena bilo malo u 18g8 Massachusetts zatvoren cijela država na lov na jelene u razdoblju od pet godina. Do početka stoljeća svaka je država sjeverno od Virginije i Arkansasa zabranila noćno odstrel i upotrebu pasa za lov na jelene. Štoviše, do tada je gotovo svaka država imala službenu agenciju kojoj je povjerena zaštita divljih vrsta.

Mnoge od ovih reformi bile su usmjerene izravno na lovca na tržište, čija je važnost za gospodarstvo naglo padala. Većinu su pokrenuli i borili se sportaši koji su organizirali politički moćna udruženja za zaštitu riba i divljači. Lovca na tržište konačno je natjerao da prestane s radom saveznim zakonom (Laceyjev zakon iz 1900.) koji je zabranio međudržavnu isporuku divljači ubijene kršeći državne zakone.

Do prijelaza stoljeća i jeleni i njihovo stanište po prvi su put dobili pravu zaštitu. Njihovi stari prirodni neprijatelji gotovo su nestali. Ljudi su se borili sa šumskim požarima umjesto da ih postavljaju i gledaju kako gore. Škriljevca i savezne šumarske agencije ponovno su zasadile stare opekline. Pokrivač se vraćao u zemlju.

Odgovor jelena na ove gotovo idealne uvjete, osobito na sjeveroistoku, bio je eksplozivan. S pokrivenih otoka na kojima su nesigurno preživjeli gotovo stoljeće jeleni su se istiskivali na sve strane. Oni u sjevernoj Novoj Engleskoj proširili su se prema jugu u poljoprivredne okruge. Jeleni u jugoistočnom Massachusettsu izletjeli su u središnje okruge, a prema jugu u Rhode Island i Connecticut. Jeleni Adirondack naselili su Catskills, zapadni Vermont i Berkshires u Massachusettsu. Do 1908. Ernest Thompson Selon, najpoznatiji prirodnjak tog doba, pretpostavio je da je populacija jelena u istočnom dijelu Mississippija oko petsto tisuća.

Ovo prirodno širenje i povećanje pomogle su organizacije sportaša i novoosnovane državne agencije za igru. 1878. klub sportaša u okrugu Rutland, Vermont, kupio je sedamnaest zarobljenih jelena (deset od njih od čuvara zatvora u New Yorku u Dannemorama) i pustio ih u šume zatvorene za lov od strane države. Do 1895. godine ova se jezgra povećala na nekoliko stotina.

Uspjeh eksperimenta u Vermontu inspirirao je nekoliko istočnih država da usvoje sličan pristup. U Pennsylvaniji je uspjelo gotovo izvan vjerovanja. Ubrzo nakon 1899. godine Pennsylvania Commission Commission počela je otkupljivati ​​jelene i puštati ih u državne šume. Godine 1905. prve jedinice opsežnog skloništa za jelene bile su opskrbljene životinjama zarobljenim u državnim šumama. Dvije godine kasnije bilo je dovoljno bijelih repa koji su jamčili ograničen lov. Godine 1907. lovci su vrećali dvjesto dolara u državi u kojoj uopće nije bilo divljih jelena manje od dvadeset godina ranije.

Sredinom 1920-ih činilo se da su jeleni posvuda u Pennsylvaniji. Stada od četrdeset ili više mogla bi se navečer prebrojiti uz gotovo svaku seosku cestu. Deseci se mogu isprati s bilo koje parcele drva. Provaljivali su u staje, kukuruzišta i voćnjake. Kolica na periferiji Harrisburga i Philadelphije često su bila zaprepaštena hrkanjem uplašenog novca ili oduševljena prizorom bijele zastave srne.

Veliki mjehurić jelena u Pennsylvaniji pukao je ubrzo nakon 1925. Biolozi divljači počeli su primjećivati ​​da životinje koje su uhvatili lovci postaju kržljave. Razvoj rogova bio je toliko slab da su se sportaši žalili da vide do stotinu jelena u danu, ali ne i jednog s rašljastim rogovima što bi ga učinilo legalnom igrom. Zatim, u gorkoj zimi 1926. godine, jeleni su počeli ginuti. Umrli su pojedinačno, na desetke, a ponekad i na stotine, u zasnježenim, pretrpanim zimskim dvorištima. Vernon Bailey, vodeći savezni mammalog, u nekoliko je tjedana ubrojio više od tisuću mrtvih jelena u četiri općine jedne županije.

Baileyna presuda potvrdila je ono što je već postiglo Povjerenstvo za igru ​​u Pennsylvaniji - moralo se napraviti drastično smanjenje populacije jelena da bi država spasila svoje šume i uopće jelena. Tisućama izgladnjelih jelena bili su ogoljeli svu zimnicu s ljudske glave.

Do tada je Pennsylvania, poput većine država koje su tada dopuštale lov na jelene, dopuštala svakom lovcu samo jedan dolar s barem jednim račvastim rogom svake godine. No, dolar se obično pari s nekoliko grla, a većina bodljikavaca i drugih podzakonskih dolara sposobna je za uzgoj. Zbog toga se populacija jelena udvostručila svake dvije ili tri godine unatoč rastućem godišnjem ubijanju. Svakog proljeća loza je proizvodila stotine tisuća mladunaca za koje nije bilo zimske hrane. Godine 1930. Povjerenstvo za igre u Pennsylvaniji, suočeno s ogorčenim protivljenjem javnosti, proglasilo je otvorenu sezonu na jelenima bez mljekara. Između 1931. i 1941. lovci su u Penn's Woodsu ubili više od 725.000 jelena. Ovaj oštar, ali neophodan tretman smanjio je stado s blizu milijunske marke na manje od pola milijuna. U godinama nakon toga, regulirane posebne sezone jelena bez rogova, sada općenito prihvaćene kao standardna praksa gospodarenja, stabilizirale su populaciju jelena na oko optimalnih četiri stotine tisuća.

Na jugu i na srednjem zapadu južno od Velikih jezera obnova jelena došla je kasnije. No sve države u ovim regijama profitirale su od razvijenih tehnika i grešaka koje su napravili Pennsylvania, New York i New England. Tek 1930. većina država između Stjenjaka i Apalačaca još je imala razmjerno malo jelena ili ih uopće nije imala. Južno od Potomaca u Apalačima jedino uspješno stado jelena bilo je u Nacionalnoj šumi Pisgah u Sjevernoj Karolini. Na drugim mjestima u Apalačiji planinari - po zakonu ili bez njega - smatrali su bilo koju jestivu divljinu poštenom igrom u bilo koje vrijeme.

Tijekom depresije mnoge od tih obitelji napustile su brda. Njihove farme, a ponekad i cijela sela, apsorbirane su u državne i nacionalne šume i parkove. Brzo se razvio još jedan golemi dio staništa glavnih jelena - još uvijek gotovo bez jelena. Ponovno se vraćanje pokrova slučajno poklopilo s još jednim velikim napretkom u pokretu za očuvanje divljih životinja.

Do 1937. gotovo sve državne agencije za zaštitu divljih životinja primale su mali ili nikakav prihod osim od prodaje dozvola za lov i ribolov. Često su državna zakonodavna tijela preusmjeravala veliki dio tih sredstava na izgradnju autocesta i druge projekte koji nisu povezani s očuvanjem divljih životinja.

Zatim je 1937. Kongres donio Pittman-Robertsonov Zakon o saveznoj pomoći u obnovi divljih životinja. Zakon je odredio postojeću trošarinu od 11 posto na sportsko oružje i streljivo za korištenje država u financiranju odobrenih projekata obnove divljih životinja. Također je propisano da za ispunjavanje uvjeta za federalna sredstva država mora primijeniti sve prihode od dozvola za lov na vođenje svoje agencije za zaštitu divljih životinja. Svaka država je to brzo ispunila.

Na istoku je jelen bijeli rep bio jedan od prvih glavnih korisnika. U iznimno kratkom roku napori na obnovi u jednoj državi za drugom urodili su plodom. Mala stadna stada koja su preživjela mračne dane iSoo -a množila su se i širila. Transplantacije nekoliko životinja narasle su na tisuće u nekoliko godina. I dok su se njegove šume ponovno punile jelenima, jedna država za drugom ponovo je otvarala svoju dugo zatvorenu sezonu lova. Godine 1965., kada je Kansas osjetio da ima dovoljno bijelih repa koji jamče otvorenu sezonu, svaka država istočno od Stenovitih planina ponovno je postala država "velikih utakmica".

Iako je lov mnogima neukusan, u nedostatku izvornih prirodnih provjera rasta populacije jelena bitan je za dobrobit jelena i šuma o kojima ovise. U jesen i ranu zimu 1968. lovci u Sjedinjenim Državama donijeli su kući gotovo milijun i pol bijelih jelena upola manje nego što ih je postojalo u cijeloj Sjevernoj Americi prije samo pedeset godina! No to je bilo manje od petine ljetne populacije bijelog repa.

Budući da je gotovo sav prikladan uzgoj u Americi potpuno opskrbljen, ovo je vjerojatno sav bijelorep koji američke šume mogu podržati. Ali dovoljno je. Prošle napore na očuvanju pogotka ili propusta zamijenili su znanstvena istraživanja, provođenje zakona i upravljanje staništima. U većini država fleksibilni propisi o lovu drže populaciju jelena u ravnoteži s opskrbom hranom i još uvijek osiguravaju opstanak svake godine više nego primjerenog uzgoja stoke. Što se tiče budućnosti, stalna potražnja američkog gospodarstva za drvnim proizvodima i zaštićenim slivovima trebala bi osigurati održavanje velikih blokova mladih šuma koje jeleni moraju uspijevati. Bjelorepi bi se brojno trebao nalaziti dugi niz godina.


Jelenski otok: Povijest ljudske tragedije zapamćena

In October, 1675 (Just five months after the start of the King Philip’s War, 1675-1676) some 500 Nipmucks from what is now South Natick were forcibly removed to Deer Island, a barren strip of land off Boston Harbor, as a concentration camp for Indians (later it would become a holding area for Irish immigrants fleeing the Great Famine (1800s), a major hospital (1847), a prison (c. 1882-1988), and now a wastewater treatment facility and national park), was established by the Massachusetts Council that same year. King Philip’s War, or Metacomet’s Revenge, as it came to be known, was the first large-scale military aggression in the American colonies and the bloodiest conflict between settlers and Indians in 17th century Puritan New England. Without adequate food, clothing, shelter or medicine, the pro-English Algonquian coverts, who had been converted to Christianity by the zealous Congregationalist minister from Roxbury named John Elliot, half of the Indians confined on the Island died of starvation or exposure during their imprisonment when John Eliot visited them in December, he could only report with horror, “The Island was bleak and cold, their wigwams poor and mean, their clothes few and thin.” These were the same Indians who once welcomed the English in 1621 with their Sachem, Massasoit.

In the years prior to King Philip’s War, Eliot worked with his devoted teacher (and servant of 35 years) Job Nesutan to learn the language. Later, Eliot worked with Nesutan and other Indians in translating the Holy Bible into the local Natick dialect of Massachusett or Massachusêuck (first published in 1663 at Harvard University) had taught hundreds of Indians to read and write and had established fourteen “praying towns,” Indian settlements built as Christian communities.

The first and largest was Natick, Massachusetts. Eliot took seriously his goal of conversion. He was convinced that only by being able to communicate with Native people in their own language could he achieve the goal of spreading Christianity prompting greater migrations of English to come to New England’s rocky shores as Indians were becoming more 𠇌ivilized” as a result.

However, from the very start of the war, the new English colonists became fearful of Eliot’s converts joining Philip’s reign of terror. Convinced of these fears, the Massachusetts Council ordered all Christian Indians to be barged down the Charles River in shackles and incarcerated on the island for the duration of the war. It was also known that slavers came to steal Indians off Deer Island to engage in the lucrative trade of human trafficking in Barbados or Jamaica.

But after enduring decades of fraudulent land deals, Massasoit’s son, Philip, determined to wage war to oust the colonists from New England and push them back over the sea from whence they came. He nearly succeeded. Beginning in June of 1675, not only Wampanoags, but Narragansetts, Nipmucks, and Pocumtucks rallied behind Philip to destroy the English.

To Puritan minister Increase Mather it seemed that the Indians had “risen almost round the country,” torching one town after the other. Before the final shots were fired over half of all the English settlements in New England𠅎verything west of Concord—had been laid waste. As Boston merchant Nathaniel Saltonstall explained in a letter to a friend in London, “Nothing could be expected but an utter desolation.” Philip’s Indians attacked and destroyed 25 frontier settlements: Andover, Bridgewater, Chelmsford, Cumberland, Groton, Lancaster, Longmeadow, Marlborough, Medfield, Medford, Millis, Plymouth, Portland, Providence, Rehoboth, Scituate, Seekonk, Simsbury, Springfield, Sudbury, Suffield, Warwick, Weymouth, and Wrentham, including what is modern-day Plainville.

The war ended with Metocomet’s death, August 12, 1676 with 600 colonists and 3,000 Native Americans dead, including several hundred native captives who were tried and executed others were enslaved and sold in Bermuda and elsewhere. The Deer Island prisoners were released, and over half of the Indians confined to the Island had died, others too sick to enjoy their liberty for long.

Almost 400 years have passed as we remember this tragic point in our collective history. The Deer Island Memorial Committee, headed by Executive Director Jim Peters, Massachusetts Commission on Indian Affairs, along with other committee members, had issued an RFP to create a memorial commemorating the Nipmuc Indians who died there. Lloyd Gray (Mohawk) has been contracted to create the memorial. It is anticipated that there will be a ceremony as part of the unveiling during the last weekend in October, 2013. It will be a time for reflection, commemoration and healing. In the language of Eliot’s Praying Indians, 𠇊yeuhteá࿊sh,” we stand firm (strong) and will continue to do so.


White-tailed Deer Timeline

1900 – Market/subsistence hunting and unregulated harvest eliminate nearly all deer from the state.

1917 –Total statewide deer population estimated at 500 animals. Legislature bans deer harvest.

1917 to 1922 – From western Oklahoma moving east, counties previously open to deer hunting are systematically closed to deer hunting.

1922 – All deer hunting in Oklahoma is prohibited.

1933 – First regulated deer season (five days) is held. Hunt is restricted to six southeast counties and Major County in western Oklahoma, resulting in the harvest of 235 bucks. Also, this year marks the beginning of safety regulations for wearing a red upper outer garment (later to become “hunter” orange).

1934 – No deer season authorized.

193537 Area is expanded to seven southeast counties only. Harvest total is 331 in 1935 375 in 1936 and 347 in 1937.

1938 – No deer season authorized.

1939-40 – Harvest totals: 384 in 1939 and 318 in 1940.

1941-43 – All deer hunting is closed. Many OGF personnel are called to active military service.

1943 – Deer restoration program started with the trap and transplant of 22 deer.

1944 – 379 deer harvested.

1945 – A total of 469 deer are harvested. Restoration efforts continue, with most deer trapped from either the Wichita Mountains NWR or Ft. Sill, but includes 50 captured from Aransas Pass NWR on the Texas Gulf Coast.

1946 – Participation in the deer gun season jumps to more than 7,000 (certainly due to returning World War II Vets looking for recreation). The first archery season (one day) is held. No deer harvested. A total of 35 deer are transplanted from the Wichita Mountains NWR to the U.S. Naval Ammunition Depot near McAlester (in less than a decade the military installation, now known as the McAlester Army Ammunition Plant, would serve as a source herd for trapping activities).

1946 – Oklahoma had its first archery season (1 day) on November 11, 1946, in seven southeast counties. No deer were harvested.

1949 – Special Archery season (five days) is designated only at Camp Gruber, resulting in the first buck taken by bow and arrow during a regulated season. The deer, taken by Roland Barber, is the state’s first archery buck and was a fallow deer. It was part of Camp Gruber’s small herd that had been established in the area during the late 1930s.

Photo (left): Roland Barber harvests the first deer taken with a bow and arrow in Oklahoma. The 120-pound fallow buck was harvested November 2, 1949, at Camp Gruber.

1951 – First whitetail deer taken by bow and arrow during a regulated season since the days that Native Americans hunted deer for subsistence is harvested by Larry Embry, Jr.,13. The deer was harvested at Camp Gruber.

Photo: Larry Embry Jr harvested the first whitetail at Camp Gruber on November 11, 1951, with a bow.

The Daily Oklahoma November 13, 1951, has the full story.

1954 – First statewide gun deer season (5 days) results in a harvest of 1,487 bucks.

1969 – First primitive firearms season (three days) is held, resulting in two deer harvested. Hunt is restricted to part of LeFlore County.

1970 – Statewide 16-day deer gun season. The total harvest of 6,882 bucks.

1972 –Nine-day deer gun season with all open counties and special two-day antlerless season. Total harvest 7,670 deer.

1975 – Cy Curtis Awards Program initiated by the Department to recognize trophy deer (harvested during the 1972 season and thereafter). For eligibility, whitetail deer must have a minimum typical score of 135 or a non-typical minimum of 150 using the Boone & Crockett scoring system. In the first year, only seven deer are entered. The program is named in honor of the man most responsible for the restoration of whitetail deer in Oklahoma.

1976 – Department begins broadscale antlerless harvest in 19 counties by issuing antlerless permits by special drawing. Total harvest 11,548 – 26 percent does.

1982 – Antlerless permit system deemed unpopular due to perceived inequities, and replaced by antlerless days available to all hunters. Total harvest 19, 255 – 23 percent does.

1986 –The Department ceases any further trap and transplant efforts with sufficient populations of deer available to repopulate all suitable habitats statewide.

1990 – Statewide deer population estimated at 250,000 deer. Total harvest 44,070 deer – 24 percent does.

1992 – Total harvest tops 50,000. Much to the surprise of many, a new state record buck is taken by an archer in Oklahoma County (Chris Foutz took the buck, which measured 179 6/8 typical score), proving that quality deer can come from just about anywhere in Oklahoma even the state’s most urbanized county.

Photo (left): Chris Foutz with 179 6/8 scored deer harvested with a bow in Oklahoma County on December 23, 1992.

1999 – Statewide deer population estimated at 425,000 deer. Total harvest yields 82,500 deer – 36 percent does.

2000 – Deer population levels spawn a multitude of stakeholder desires and management possibilities. For the first time, deer harvest numbers top 100,000.

2001 - First Special Antlerless season is held in December and expanded deer archery season in January.

2003 - First statewide youth antlerless deer gun season is held in October and yields 2,285 deer.

2004 - Statewide deer population estimated at 475,000 deer. Bowhunters set a new harvest record with 14,639 deer taken. Statewide harvest is 94,689 - 40% does.

2005 - Statewide harvest is 101,111 including 40% does. The number of counties that recorded more than 1,000 deer harvested increased to 43.

2006- Hunting regulations remain unchanged from 2005.

2007 – Not one, but two tremendous whitetail bucks are harvested from Pushmataha County during the deer gun season one by John Ehmer that scored an impressive 194 typical, and one by Jason Boyett that scored 192 5/8 typical. Boyett takes his buck on Nov. 18, surpassing the previous state record that had held the top spot for an entire decade (see Larry Luman photo below). Then just 10 days later, on Nov. 28, Ehmer takes his outstanding buck from the same county. By now, a total of 4,500 deer (including 19 mule deer entries) have been entered into the Cy Curtis Program.


2013- Physical deer check stations are replaced with an electronic check-in system, called E-Check. The Wildlife Department initiates the "Hunters in the Know Let Young Bucks Grow" campaign.

2014- Hunters are able to submit photos of their deer jaws, and have their deer aged by Wildlife Department biologists.

2015- marked the participation record for archery hunters for the third year in a row.


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Anyone who has stood on or driven along Ocean Springs' Beach or East Biloxi's Highway 90 has glanced or looked at Deer Island. They may have even wondered about this deserted island and its past history. The western and eastern tips are wind swept sand where mainly sea oats, grasses, and various small plants grow. The eastern and southeastern areas are mostly salt-water marshes with stands of pine trees sprinkled throughout. There are several bayous or inlets, some being large enough for a skiff to enter. The western and northern areas are covered with stands of pine trees and some oak trees. Through the years hurricanes have taken their toll by eroding portions of the southern shores and in 1985 Elena cut out a section of the western end.

Deer Island was occupied and used as hunting ground as early as 8,000 B.C. Artifacts from the four major periods of Native American history have been found on Deer Island. Those periods are Paleo Indian, Archaic, Woodland, and Mississippian Periods. During the Mississippian Period 1,000 A.D. to 1700 A.D. Native American artifacts indicate some early and late occupation but the largest occupation occurs from about 1200 A.D. to 1550 A.D. This corresponds with two Mississippian sites on the Biloxi peninsula. One site was on the east end of the southern shore and the other on the northern shore of the peninsula. The only thing that remains today is the artifacts and shell midden. Shell middens are areas where Native Americans discarded their refuse and other items. Some portions of the Native American sites on Deer Island are underwater due to eroding shorelines. Unfortunately those that are not underwater, pothunters and others have ravished for years. Pothunters are individuals looking for whole clay vessels. They dig the site up looking for these vessels but during the process they destroy the site and artifacts. They never record or report what they find because they know what they are doing is wrong and against the law.

The 1699 arrival of the French ushered in a new period along the Mississippi Gulf Coast and Deer Island. The French explored the whole Gulf Coast but it was not until 1717 that any indication of Deer Island being occupied. The Commissary M. Hubert petitions the French Ministry of the Colonies to grant him the concession, land grant, of Deer Island to raise rabbits. Later he withdraws his petition after learning that another inhabitant already has the Deer Island concession. Unfortunately he does not name the person who has the Deer Island concession. On November 2, 1738 M. Louboey, Governor of Louisiana, writes about Deer Island in a letter to M. Maurepas, Minister of the Colonies. He indicates that the small nation know as the Capinans have abandoned its village on the Pascagoula River and retired to Deer Island. The Capinans were a small tribe connected with the Biloxi and Pascagoula tribes. Their villages were located on the Pascagoula River when the French first arrived.

Records dated 1746 indicated that a cattle ranch is being operated on Deer Island by a settler who owns and operates a shallop (ship) of sixty tons. During the 1790s a Pierre La Fontaine, a ship owner from Deer Island has been paying tolls to enter St. John Bayou in Louisiana. It would appear that Pierre and the early settler may be one and the same.

On the twenty first of April 1798 fourteen persons on Deer Island were confirmed by the Bishop Francisco Penalver y Cardenas of the Diocese of New Orleans. Among the confirmed was 100-year-old Louis Christian Ladner as well as other Ladners, Cueves, Carquottes and other early gulf coast settlers. Between 1840 and 1850 Father Gerin, a Catholic priest from Biloxi, would visit Deer Island about once a month.

The Harrison County 1850 census lists 11 people living on Deer Island. These 11 consist of three families and one single person. Albertus King Aken 30 was listed as a farmer and being from New Jersey his wife Jane 26, Bay St. Louis their son Joseph 9, and Mr. Aken's sister Laura Aken 19. Mr. Aken at one time was lighthouse keeper at Cat Island. About 1865, Mr. Aken began harvesting the sap from the pine trees and set up a still from the manufacturing of turpentine. In 1917 L. Lopez Company, per an agreement with Mr. Aken, set the first shells for an oyster reef in the waters off Deer Island.

Joseph Field Aken, who grew up on Deer Island, would marry Harriet Waters of Horn Island during the Civil War. Harriet was born on September 18, 1839 in Pascagoula and raised on Horn Island where she first married Peter Baker on December 28, 1852 at the age of thirteen. Peter and Harriet struggled to make a living on Horn Island. Confederate and Union soldiers took cattle from the family. Final Harriet and her children left Peter who she later divorced. Harriet, in later years would be known as Grandma Aken along the Gulf Coast. On Deer Island she helped Joseph run the turpentine business and the oyster reefs. They lived by hunting, crabbing, fishing, oystering, as well as what could be raised on the island. Joseph died July 13, 1913, leaving Harriet to carry on and raise 17 children. Grandma Aken would also raise and give a home to 25 boys and a girl Rhoda Louise Williams. She continued to hunt and harvest oysters late in life. Even when she became almost blind she would not let that slow her down. She would set on her porch and knit fishing nets for the family.

In her young days it was said that she could handle a gun as well as any man.
She was considered an excellent hunter, swimmer, and she had walked every inch of Deer Island. During her active years she would row a skiff from the island to various locations on the main land.

Grandma Aken had reached her hundredth birthday in 1939. Friends and family journeyed to Deer Island with gifts and cakes for the happy occasion. Though she had been ill Grandma Aken sat in her large armchair and in her natural agreeable manner received her guests. Boats were secured for the occasion and guests were ferried to and from Deer Island. Rev. E.A. Demiller, rector of the Church of the Redeemer, conducted religious services on the island. In addition to Mrs. Aken’s birthday, her great granddaughter who was born the same day, Mary Jane Hall’s birthday was also celebrated.

Six months later Grandma Aken would die on Deer Island. The seawall was crowded with friends as her coffin was carried on the Sea Queen from Deer Island to Oak Street pier. She was interred at the Old Biloxi Cemetery, thus closing another chapter on Deer Island.

Grandma Aken was one of the most beloved and enduring individuals on Deer Island. Yet, one of the most interesting characters was The Hermit of Deer Island. Jean Guilhot, a Frenchman, who had operated a citrus grove in the Bahamas and a turtle soup cannery in Florida. He arrived in Biloxi in 1921at 46 years of age and began working as a barber. He met and married a widow, Pauline Lemiene, who with her son Elmer had a house on Deer Island. Elmer would later marry Rhoda Louise William, the adopted daughter of Grandma Aken, and have two children Elmer and Elaine who were born on Deer Island. On Deer Island he gave up being a barber and became an oyster fisherman. A few years later his wife died, but Guilhot continued to live on Deer Island and make his living by tonging oysters. During the 1947 Hurricane Guihot climbed a tree and weathered the wind and water. The storm flooded the island and destroyed his home but he built a new shack from driftwood. By this time his skin was like leather from the sun and saltwater. He lived on a diet of cheese, fruit, and various seafood but refused to eat meat.

In early 1950, Louis Gorenflo, captain of the tour boat Sailfish offered to pickup and deliver groceries to Guilhot. On a small pine sapling 75 feet from shore, Guilhot would place his grocery list and Gorenflo would retrieve the list and on the next visit return the groceries. At first Guilhot would only retrieve the groceries after the Sailfish departed. Gradually, he began to row out and meet the Sailfish. Later he would sing songs in French and English for the tourists. The tourists would take his picture and throw coins in to Guilhot's boat. On May 27, 1959, Guilhot died in his sleep at the age of 82. One account of his passing implies that it occurred on Deer Island. His family attests that he died at the residence of his stepson Elmer Lemien on Tucker Road in the St Martin community. According to the Bradford O’Keefe funeral records Jean Guilhot died at Latimer Route 2 Jackson County. Jean Guilhot’s death closed another chapter of history on Deer Island. The Hermit of Deer Island lives now only in the memories of those who knew and saw him.

One of the most interesting and short-lived developments on Deer Island occurred in June of 1915. The Deer Island Improvement Company purchased property from Grandma Aken and opened an amusement park. The park was equipped with dance pavilion 60 x 100 feet and featured a huge bath house with a roof complete with a garden and refreshments, fishing, row boat rentals, carnival rides, penny arcade, and daily concerts. Visitors were transported by a ferry system to and from Deer Island by way of the Lameuse Street pier. The company also sold property for cottages and camps, which in no time began to appear. The venture was a huge success but that fall the 1915 Hurricane hit the coast and wiped out the amusement park, several cottages, and summer camps. The investors never recovered and in 1917 the property was returned to Grandma Aken and her heirs.

After Grandma Aken’s death many of her decedents continued to live on Deer Island. From her first marriage to Peter Baker, a native of Arandahl, Norway, their children Frank Ben, Joseph, and Hannah Olena grew up on Deer Island. Baker Family history indicates that Peter Baker’s last name was originally Olsen but he changed it to Baker. From Grandma Aken’s marriage to Joseph Aken their 5 daughters Ella 1871, Nora 1873, Margaret 1875, Cora 1879, and Julia 1881were born and grew up on Deer Island.

Joseph Baker would marry Madeline Gelineo and move to Biloxi. He would be a carpenter by trade. Their children were George and Edward who lived in Biloxi and Marion who lived in New Orleans, Mrs. Henry Lechner and Mrs. Holly Ford of Biloxi. Joseph died on July 16, 1956 in Biloxi.

Frank Ben Baker was born on Deer Island July 6, 1869 and married Dorothy Ryan. Frank and Dorothy would live with their children on Deer Island. Their sons Ralph and Arthur would continue to live on Deer Island. Their daughters Vera would marry Fred Lusk and Dorothy would marry Elbert Meaut and move to Biloxi. Frank died on December 3, 1947 on Deer Island.

Hannah Olena Baker married James Wentzell and they had two children, J.W. Wentzell and Charles Wentzell. Ella Aken would marry William Thompson on June 29, 1892 and have one child named Ada and would make their home on Deer Island. Nora married Charles McCaleb on September 24, 1890 and lived in Biloxi. Margaret married Harry Edwards on March 1, 1893 and moved to New Orleans. Cora Aken would marry on November 12, 1893 in Biloxi to Thomas Kneale from New Orleans. They had seven children before she divorced Thomas. She never remarried but ran Kneale Grocery at 414 Nixon. She died February 6, 1943 in Biloxi. Julia Aken would marry Armond Rousseau and live in Biloxi.

One individual who purchased property from the Deer Island Improvement Company was Joseph Fortune Meyer. Some readers will recognize Joseph Meyer’s name from the art world. Joseph Meyer was born in France the son of Francois Antoine Meyer and Jeanne Francoise Bebin. The family moved to America and took up residence in Biloxi before the Civil War. Francois Meyer was a potter whose business and home was on Biloxi’s Back Bay. Francois would teach his son Joseph the pottery trade. Joseph Meyer would become friends with another Biloxian by the name of George E. Ohr. After the Civil War, the Meyer family relocated to New Orleans where Joseph operated a pottery. It would be in New Orleans that young George Ohr would be taught by Joseph Meyer the pottery trade. Both Joseph Meyer and George Ohr were hired by Newcomb College to instruct pottery classes at the Newcomb Art School. Today both men’s works of pottery are considered extraordinary art ware.

After Joseph purchased the Deer Island property he continued to live in New Orleans. His Deer Island home became a resort to escape the city life and enjoy the quietness. In a letter dated May 20, 1920 written to his daughter Norma, Joseph describes a visit to Deer Island. On May 16, Joseph indicates that his wife, Charles Wolfarth from Biloxi, and himself went to Deer Island. They found the weather cloudy and very windy. Joseph had written to Frank Ben Baker to meet them at Oak Street but upon arrival Mr. Baker had not shown up. Joseph thought the rough weather may have been the reason so attempts were made to signal to Mr. Baker from Riley’s wharf and then from Johnson’s Fish and Oyster wharf, but to no avail. Mr. Raley proposed to bring them over. Joseph indicated that the crossing was very rough. Upon their arrival they were greeted by Frank’s wife Dorothy Baker. She indicated that Frank Baker had gone across with son Arthur to secure Mr. Hewes’ boat that had broken loose and was a drift. After their visit the return to Biloxi was also affected by a terrific squall. They tried to signal someone to come and get them but it was too misty. During a lull Joseph convinced Mr. Sidney Reynolds to take advantage of the lull to return them to the mainland. Due to the squall some schooners had taken shelter between Deer Island and the mainland. When they reach a point about 300 feet off the anchored schooners the wind began to blow again from the east and just as they touched the wharf the rain fell in sheets. Joseph indicated that before to long they were perfectly drenched.

In another letter Joseph describe the serenity of the Island. Until his death on March 16, 1931 Joseph continued to visit Deer Island on regular bases. The Baker family would refer to Joseph Meyer very affectionately as Uncle Joe. Like Grandma Aken and The Hermit of Deer Island Joseph Meyer would also leave his mark of society.

Frank Ben and Dorothy Baker’s descendants continued to live on Deer Island. One son Ralph eventually moved from Deer Island to Biloxi. Of their two daughters, Vera married Fred Lusk and Dorothy married Elbert Meaut, and both moved to Biloxi. Their son Arthur would continue to live on Deer Island. While Arthur was a young man, Joseph “Uncle Joe” Meyer had introduce him to his future wife, Eva Walther of New Orleans. Arthur and Eva married and had six children: Arthur, Frank, Donald, Alvin, Ronald, and Fred. They raised their six boys on Deer Island. When their son Ronald married Velma Demet, they made their home on Deer Island. Three of Ronald and Velma’s six children David, Larry, and Cynthia, would begin their lives on Deer Island.

The Aken and Baker families had lived on Deer Island for six generations. What one has to realize is that Deer Island was continually occupied from the 1700s to 1969. During the 1800s to early 1900s, life on Deer Island would be view as a typical way of life for the times. Yet with the advent of electrical power to homes all along our coast, there began a change and a new way of life. On Deer Island life continued the same as before electric with the exception of a 32 volt system of lights generated by storage batteries. Of course, one would turn the light on, take care of business, and then turn the light off. By the mid 1950s, the Baker family added a gasoline generator to power the lights and other appliances. Free flowing artesian water was fed from the well to a gravity tank to furnish the family’s water needs. Weekly, the Family would secure grocery items from Esse Gonsoulin’s Grocery & Market located at 1101 East Beach. One of the interesting facts about the Baker family was that the children attended the Biloxi Public Schools by taking a boat to Oak Street in Biloxi in the morning and back in the afternoon.

The Baker family lived on Deer Island until the events of August 1969. Hurricane Camille had entered the Gulf of Mexico and was threatening Mississippi and Louisiana. On Sunday morning August 17, Arthur and Eva Baker gathered their family and left their home unaware that it would be the last time. That evening Camille came ashore as a category 5 storm causing unbelievable destruction. After Camille the Baker family would live on two boats tied to the Baker Pier on Deer Island for 3 months. The two boats were the Doris Mae and the Progress. The family finally left Deer Island the first week of November and moved to Biloxi. This ended a long line of Bakers, and Aken family members who had lived their lives on Deer Island. Even though the Baker family still owns three sections of Deer Island, no one has officially lived on Deer Island since 1969. Yet to the Baker and Aken family decedents Deer Island has remained a place for family socials and their play ground.

We have discussed Deer Island early Native American history, its colonial
history and some of its most enduring individuals. We have yet to touch on
the legends and tales that embraced Deer Island, our coast, and our culture.
There has been numerous tales of pirates and of gold being buried on the
barrier islands. One of the most interesting stories appeared in the Biloxi
Herald on April 1, 1902. It seems that an elderly Biloxian, who was not
identified by the paper, told this story to the editor. In 1859 an elderly
gentlemen by the name of Senor Cardenas was a passenger on the steamboat
Creole that was headed to Biloxi. When he became ill Captain Charles
Walker asked the Biloxian to care for Senor Cardenas. The Biloxian stayed in
the cabin with Senor Cardenas and cared for him but Senor Cardenas died
during passage. Per Senor Cardenas request, Captain Walker handed the
Biloxian a sealed letter and a note. In the note Senor Cardenas asked the
Biloxian to have his remains shipped to New Orleans and to keep the sealed
letter until someone called for it.

On February 17, 1902 (some 43 years later) Senor Cardenas son appeared at the Biloxian's door. After receiving and reading the letter Don Cardenas asked the Biloxian if a tree grew in Biloxi with a ring created by nature in its limbs. The Biloxian says yes and took him to location of the oak refereed to as the Ring in the Oak. Don Cardenas climbed the tree and took his bearings off the ring to a location on Deer Island. The Biloxian and Don Cardenas rowed over to Deer Island and using the instructions in the letter dug up a metal box and two old swords. According to the story the box contained gold coins of Spanish origin. The Biloxian received a handsome reward and Don Cardenas returned to New Orleans. The article indicated if you don't believe the story go to J. B. Lemon's drug store in Biloxi and look at the sword and old coins he had placed there. One interesting note is that the Cardenas mentioned here spell their names the same as Bishop Cardenas who confirmed the families on Deer Island in 1798.

The stories of ghost, pirates, civil war, storms, and other legends have haunted Deer Island for centuries. Several proposed developments have occurred from the 1950s to the present, but Deer Island has weathered all of them. Just like the aftermath of a hurricane, Deer Island is a little battered but it seems to restores itself in time. It may be that Grandma Aken and The Hermit of Deer Island taught us a lesson that must be read from in-between-the-lines. That is, it may be better to conform to Deer Island and the life it offers instead of trying to conform Deer Island to us. The State of Mississippi recently purchased a large section of Deer Island with exception to the western sections owned by Baker family descendents. Only time will tell what will become of Deer Island, thus closing another chapter in Mississippi Coast History.

The Biloxi Herald, April 1, 1902
The Biloxi Herald, February 22, 1896 page 8 columns 1, Peter Baker
The Biloxi Herald, Saturday July 12, 1913, Joseph Aken, Old Biloxian Dead
The Biloxi Herald, September 18, 1939, Grandma Aken turn 100 years, page 9
Times Picayune, March 22, 1940 Harriet Aken 100 dies, page 1
The Biloxi Herald, March 24, 1940, Deer Island Resident Today Celebrates Century of Life Grandma Aken death
The Daily Herald, January 4, 1928, Page 10, Column 4, Joseph Meyer Lived in Biloxi
A History of Mississippi, edited by Richard Aubrey McLemore, Volume One
Mississippi Provincial Archives French Domination by Rowland, Sanders, and Galloway
Joseph Meyers Letters, Ohr/O’Keefe Museum of Art collection.
Stevens Collection located in the Historical & Genealogical Section of the Biloxi Library
Oral Baker Family History from conversations with Alvin Baker, Arthur Baker, and Cynthia Baker Powell.
Lemein Family History conversation with Mrs. Elaine Lemein Rolls
Aken Family History from emails with Elaine Kneale Knafla.


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How did the white deer herd at the former Seneca Army Depot get started and why has it lasted?

The white deer at the former Seneca Army Depot in Romulus have been protected since the late 1940s by the fence that has surrounded the depot. They now number about 200.

(Stephen D. Cannerelli [email protected])

Romulus, N.Y. -- How did white, white-tailed deer at the former Seneca Army Depot get there and why has the herd lasted so long?

The depot, which was hurriedly built back in 1941 as World War II loomed, was fenced in for security reasons. And within that 24 miles of fenced in land were several dozen, regular brown-colored white-tailed deer and numerous other wildlife.

The history of the white deer herd at the depot, the world's largest, traces its roots back to 1949, when the depot's commander, Col. Franklin Kemble, was first alerted of their presence and gave orders not to shoot them.

Kemble told his men, "'If any of you guys shoot them, you're on the next plane to Greenland," said Dennis Money, president of Seneca White Deer and a retired project environmental analyst who worked at Rochester Gas and Electric.

The white deer were not albinos, which have pink eyes. These deer simply carried a recessive gene for white hair. They had brown or gray eyes.

The white ones lived and interbred with the brown deer. The combined, protected herd continued to grow and by the mid-1950s numbered more than 2,000. Two tough winters, though, resulted in a number of them starving.

The military teamed up with the state Department of Environmental Conservation and devised a plan to keep the herd healthy and genetically solid, Money said. They started offering nearly two weeks of hunting each fall, attended by past and current military personnel, along with (now former) civilian employees at the depot. The depot staff also planted food plots and mowed the grass in certain sections to encourage the growth of plants that the deer savor.

At first only brown deer could be shot, but in time the white deer were numerous enough to be included. Currently, the numbers of hunters are restricted to about a little more than three dozen a day and they have to participate in a lottery to see who gets to shoot white ones, said Stephen Absolom, the depot's environmental coordinator and installation manager in a 2010 interview.


When I was a boy I learned about a tribe of natives (Lipan Apache) that had an initiation into manhood which involved plucking a hair from the tail of a live deer. These people had developed a mode of stealth that allowed them to walk right up to deer–head on–without the deer sensing their presence or noticing their advance. I adopted the technique for moving through the woods silently, but never to the point where I could stealthily touch a deer.

I'll skip the masking your scent and disguising your appearance parts and just give you the silent walking part.

First of all, you must have good balance, so take a semi-squat stance to lower you body weight. With each step, you will balance on one foot, while you test the ground ahead of you with the smallest toe of your other foot. You want to plant your foot where it isn't going to make any noise, first touch the ground with your small toe, using it to part the grass or move leaves, then gently rock onto your lateral arch down to your heel as you shift your weight onto your forward foot and flatten it out onto the ground, the last part of your foot to touch the ground is your big toe. Complete the step by transferring all your weight to your forward foot, then feel ahead with the other.

The deer touchers did this very slow, averaging about 80 seconds per step, in a breeze they could rock with the grass and branches and go about 60 seconds a step. The super slow speeds were so the deer wouldn't register them moving, even if they were staring straight in their direction.

When nothing's watching you you can move quickly through the woods stepping this way, just touch with your small toe first and ease into each step, when you get good you tend to glide more than you stride. The part to practice is making contact with the ground without making a crunch, it's easy to do on a path, but harder to do when moving through the bush.

As far as what clothes and shoes to wear: the deer touchers went barefoot and wore nothing but a loincloth and ash from a fire, but any soft soled shoe will work for foot wear, toeshoes would be the best. For clothing you don't want to wear anything synthetic, nylon and polyester make that whishing sound when you walk. Soft cotton or wool is best for moving silently, think ninja knickers, light and breathable.


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Komentari:

  1. Taunos

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