Tajanstveno pisanje na ploči iz Al-Balqe

Tajanstveno pisanje na ploči iz Al-Balqe


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Arapska alkemija

Arapska alkemija podrijetlom je tajanstvena kao i grčka, a čini se da su se te dvije značajne razlike. Poštovanje u kojem Physica et mystica koju su držali grčki alkemičari, Arapi su darivali drugo djelo, Smaragdna ploča Hermesa Trismegistosa, glasovitog helenističkog autora raznih alkemijskih, okultnih i teoloških djela. Početak "Ono što je gore slično je onome što je dolje, a ono što je dolje slično je onome što je gore", kratko je, teorijsko i astrološko. Hermes "triput veliki" (Trismegistos) bila je grčka verzija egipatskog boga Thotha i navodni utemeljitelj astrološke filozofije koja se prvi put bilježi 150. pr. The Smaragdna ploča, međutim, dolazi od većeg djela tzv Knjiga Tajne Stvaranja, koja postoji u latinskim i arapskim rukopisima, a za koju je muslimanski alkemičar ar-Rāzī mislio da je napisana za vrijeme vladavine kalifa al-Maʾmuna (ad 813–833), iako se pripisuje paganskom oglašavanju iz 1. stoljeća mistik Apolonije iz Tijane.

Neki su znanstvenici sugerirali da je arapska alkemija potekla iz zapadne azijske škole, a da je grčka alkemija izvedena iz egipatske škole. Koliko je poznato, azijska škola nije bila kineska ili indijska. Ono što je poznato je da je arapska alkemija bila povezana s određenim gradom u Siriji, Harranom, za koji se čini da je bio izvor alkemijskih pojmova. Moguće je da su ideologija destilacije i njezina glasnogovornica Maria - kao i Agathodaimon - predstavljali alhamiju Harrana, koja je vjerojatno migrirala u Aleksandriju i bila uključena u alkimiju Zosimosa.

Postojeće verzije Knjiga Tajne Stvaranja preneseni su tek u 7. ili 6. stoljeće, ali neki vjeruju da predstavljaju mnogo ranije spise, iako ne nužno one samog Apolonija. On je predmet drevne biografije koja ništa ne govori o alkemiji, ali ne govori ni to Smaragdna ploča niti ostatak Knjiga Tajne Stvaranja. S druge strane, njihove teorije prirode imaju alkemijski prsten i Knjiga spominje karakteristične materijale alkemije, uključujući, prvi put na Zapadu, sal amonijak. To je očito bila važna knjiga za Arape, čiji su većina ugledni filozofi spominjali alkemiju, iako ponekad s neodobravanjem. Oni koji su to prakticirali bili su još više zainteresirani za doslovnu izradu zlata nego što su to bili Grci. Najviše potvrđen i vjerojatno najveći arapski alkemičar bio je ar-Rāzī (c. 850–923/924), perzijski liječnik koji je živio u Bagdadu. Najpoznatiji je bio Jābir ibn Ḥayyān, za koji se sada vjeruje da je naziv primijenjen na zbirku "podzemnih spisa" nastalih u Bagdadu nakon teološke reakcije protiv znanosti. U svakom slučaju, jabirijski spisi su vrlo slični onima iz ar-Rāzīja.

Ar-Rāzī je klasificirao materijale koje je alkemičar koristio na "tijela" (metale), kamenje, vitriole, borakse, soli i "duhove", stavljajući u ove potonje vitalne (i sublimabilne) materijale, živu, sumpor, orpiment i realgar (arsenovi sulfidi) i sal amonijak. Mnogo je napravljeno od sal amonijaka, čija je reaktivna moć izgleda dala zapadnoj alkemiji novi udarac u život. Ar-Rāzī i jabirski pisci doista su pokušavali napraviti zlato, kroz katalitičko djelovanje eliksira. Obojica su mnogo pisali o sastavljanju "jakih voda", poduhvata koji je na kraju trebao dovesti do otkrića mineralnih kiselina, ali studenti nisu uspjeli pronaći dokaze za to otkriće u spisima arapskih alkemičara nego u onima Kine i Indije. Arapske jake vode bile su samo korozivne otopine soli.

Ar-Rāzījevo pisanje predstavlja apogej arapske alkemije, toliko da studenti alkemije imaju malo dokaza o njezinoj kasnijoj preusmjerenosti prema mističnim ili kvazireligijskim ciljevima. Čini se da se niti nije okrenuo medicini koja je ostala neovisna. No postojala je tendencija u arapskoj medicini da se veći naglasak stavlja na mineralne lijekove, a manje na bilje koje je bilo glavni lijek ranijih grčkih i arapskih liječnika. Rezultat je bila farmakopeja ne eliksira, već specifičnih lijekova anorganskog podrijetla koji se ne razlikuju jako od eliksira ar-Rāzīja. Ovu novu farmakopeju u Europu je odnio Konstantin Afrički, musliman obrazovan u Bagdadu, koji je umro 1087. godine kao kršćanski redovnik u Monte Cassinu (Italija). Farmakopeja se također pojavila u Španjolskoj u 11. stoljeću i odatle je prešla u latinsku Europu, zajedno s arapskim alkemijskim spisima, koji su u 12. stoljeću prevedeni na latinski.


Sadržaj

Rongorongo moderni je naziv za natpise. Na jeziku Rapa Nui to znači "recitirati, deklamirati, pjevati". [napomena 1]

Kaže se da je izvorni naziv - ili možda opis - scenarija bio kohau motu mo rongorongo, "retci urezani za pjevanje", skraćeno na kohau rongorongo ili "retke [za] pjevanje". [2] Također se kaže da je bilo određenih naziva za tekstove na temelju njihove teme. Na primjer, kohau taꞌu ("redovi godina") bili su ljetopisi, kohau îka ("redovi riba") bili su popisi osoba poginulih u ratu (îka "riba" bila je homofona ili se figurativno koristila za "ratne žrtve"), a kohau ranga "redovi bjegunaca" bili su popisi ratnih izbjeglica. [napomena 1]

Neki su autori razumjeli taꞌu u kohau taꞌu upućivati ​​na zaseban oblik pisanja različit od rongorongo. Barthel je zabilježio da je "Otočani imali još jedan spis (tzv."taꞌu skripta ") koja je bilježila njihove ljetopise i druge svjetovne stvari, ali to je nestalo." [3] Međutim, Fischer piše da je " taꞌu izvorno je bila vrsta rongorongo natpis. 1880 -ih, skupina starješina izumila je izvedenicu 'pismo' koja se također naziva taꞌu kojim se ukrašavaju rezbarije kako bi se povećala njihova trgovačka vrijednost. To je primitivno oponašanje rongorongo. "[4] Navodno treće pismo, mama ili vaꞌevaꞌe opisan u nekim publikacijama sredinom dvadesetog stoljeća, bio je "geometrijski [dekorativni] izum ranog dvadesetog stoljeća". [5]

Oblici glifova su standardizirane konture živih organizama i geometrijski dizajni visoki oko jednog centimetra. Drvene ploče nepravilnog su oblika i, u mnogim slučajevima, kanelirane (tablete B, E, G, H, O., P, a moguće T), s glifima isklesanim u plitkim kanalima duž duljine tableta, što se može vidjeti na slici tablete G desno. Smatra se da su nepravilni i često oštećeni komadi drveta korišteni u cijelosti, a ne na kvadrat zbog nedostatka drva na otoku. [6]

Mediji za pisanje Uređivanje

Osim nekoliko mogućih glifova izrezanih u kamen (vidi petroglife), svi preživjeli zaštićeni tekstovi ispisani su drvom. Prema tradiciji, tablete su izrađene od drveta toromiro. Međutim, Orliac (2005.) je ispitao sedam predmeta (tablete B, C, G, H, K, P, i reimiro L) sa stereo optičkim i skenirajućim elektronskim mikroskopima te je utvrđeno da su svi napravljeni od pacifičkog palisandra (Thespesia populnea) ista identifikacija je napravljena i za tablet M 1934. Ovo 15-metarsko stablo, poznato po svojoj boji kao "pacifičko ružino drvo" i zvano makoꞌi u Rapanuiju, koristi se za svete gajeve i rezbarije diljem istočne Polinezije, a očito su ih prvi doseljenici donijeli na Uskršnji otok. [7] Međutim, nije cijelo drvo bilo izvorno: Orliac (2007) je utvrdio da su tablete N, P, i S izrađene su od južnoafričkog žutog drveta (Podocarpus latifolius) i stoga da je drvo stiglo zapadnim kontaktom. Opisuje Fischer P kao "oštećeno i preoblikovano europsko ili američko veslo" A (koji je evropski pepeo, Fraxinus excelsior) i V. napominje da je za olupinu zapadnog broda rečeno da se koristilo za mnoge ploče i da je oboje P i S reciklirana je kao daska za rapanui kanu od driftwood -a, što ukazuje na to da su do tada ploče imale malu vrijednost za otočane kao tekstovi. [8] Nekoliko tekstova, uključujući O., isklesane su na kvrgavom drvu. [9] Činjenica da su se otočani sveli na ispisivanje šumskog drveta, te da su bez obzira na to bili izuzetno ekonomični u korištenju drva, mogla je imati posljedice na strukturu spisa, poput obilja ligatura i potencijalno telegrafskog stila pisanja koji komplicirala bi tekstualnu analizu. [10]

William J. Thomson izvijestio je o kalabaši, sada izgubljenoj, koja je pronađena u grobnici i "prekrivena hijeroglifima sličnima onima koji se nalaze na urezanim pločama". Tijekom ranog misionarskog razdoblja koje je započelo 1864. godine izviješteno je da su žene nosile platnenu koru ukrašenu "simbolima" ulomak jednog od ovih preživjelih, a čini se da je to rongorongo.

Usmena tradicija smatra da su je, zbog velike vrijednosti drva, koristili samo pisci, dok su učenici pisali o lišću banane. Njemački etnolog Thomas Barthel vjerovao je da je rezbarenje na drvetu sekundarni razvoj u evoluciji pisma zasnovano na ranijoj fazi urezivanja lišća banane ili omotača debla banane s olovkom od kosti, te da se medij lišća zadržao ne samo za pouke već za planiranje i sastavljanje tekstova drvenih ploča. [11] Eksperimentalno je otkrio da su glifovi bili prilično vidljivi na lišću banane zbog soka koji je izašao iz posjekotina i osušio se na površini. Međutim, kad se lišće osuši postalo je krto i ne bi dugo opstalo. [12]

Barthel je nagađao da je list banane mogao čak poslužiti i kao prototip tableta, a naborana površina tableta oponaša žilastu strukturu lista:

Praktični pokusi s materijalom dostupnim na [Uskršnjem otoku] dokazali su da gore spomenuti dijelovi stabla banane nisu samo idealan materijal za pisanje, već da postoji izravna podudarnost između visine redaka za pisanje i udaljenosti između žila na lišću i stabljikama stabla banane. Klasični natpisi mogu se složiti u dvije skupine prema visini linija (10–12 mm) vs. 15 mm) to odgovara prirodnom rasporedu žila na stabljici banane (u prosjeku 10 mm u donjem dijelu stabla srednje veličine) ili na listu banane ([.] Maksimalno 15 mm).

Smjer pisanja Uredi

Rongorongo glifovi napisani su obrnutim boustrophedonom, slijeva nadesno i odozdo prema gore. Odnosno, čitač počinje u donjem lijevom kutu tableta, čita redak slijeva nadesno, a zatim rotira tablet za 180 stupnjeva da bi nastavio u sljedećem retku. Prilikom čitanja jednog retka, redovi iznad i ispod njega pojavit će se naopako, kao što se može vidjeti na slici lijevo.

Međutim, pisanje se nastavlja na drugu stranu tableta na mjestu gdje završava prvu, pa ako prva strana ima neparan broj redaka, kao što je slučaj s tabletima K, N, P, i P, drugi će početi u Gornji lijevi kut, a smjer pisanja se pomiče odozgo prema dolje.

Veće tablete i štapići mogli su se čitati bez okretanja, ako je čitatelj mogao čitati naopako. [13]

Smjer pisanja određen je takvim tragovima kao što su glifovi koji se uvijaju kako linija mijenja smjer, glifovi koji su zgnječeni kako bi se uklopili na kraju teksta i - kada određena tableta nema takve tragove - paralelni prolazi između tableta.

Instrumenti za pisanje Uredi

Prema usmenoj predaji, pisci su koristili opsidijanske pahuljice ili zube malih morskih pasa, vjerojatno ručno izrađene alate koji su se još uvijek koristili za rezbarenje drva u Polineziji, za flautiranje i poliranje ploča, a zatim za urezivanje glifova. [14] Glifovi se najčešće sastoje od dubokih glatkih rezova, iako se nalaze i površinski rezovi kose. Na slici izbliza desno, glif se sastoji od dva dijela povezana linijom kose, što je tipična konvencija za ovaj oblik. Nekoliko istraživača, uključujući Barthela, vjeruje da su ti površinski rezovi napravljeni opsidijanom, te da su tekstovi isklesani u dva stupnja, prvo skicirani opsidijanom, a zatim produbljeni i završeni istrošenim zubom morskog psa. [15] Preostali rezovi kose tada su bili ili pogreške, konvencije dizajna (kao na desnoj strani) ili ukrasni ukrasi. [bilješka 2] Okomite žice ševrona ili pastila, na primjer, obično su povezane sa šišanjem kose, što se može više puta vidjeti u krupnom planu jednog kraja tablete B ispod. Međutim, Barthelu je rečeno da je posljednji pismeni kralj Rapanuija, Ngaꞌara, skicirao glifove u čađi nanesene ribljom kosti, a zatim im je ugravirao zub morskog psa. [17]

Tableta N, s druge strane, ne pokazuje znakove zuba morskog psa. Haberlandt je primijetio da se čini da su glifovi ovog teksta urezani izoštrenom kosti, o čemu svjedoči plitkost i širina utora. [18] N također "prikazuje sekundarni rad s opsidijanskim pahuljicama za razradu detalja unutar gotovih linija konture. Ništa drugo rongo-rongo natpis otkriva takvu grafičku ekstravaganciju ". [19]

Čini se da su druge tablete izrezane čeličnom oštricom, često prilično grubo. Iako su čelični noževi bili dostupni nakon dolaska Španjolaca, to baca sumnju na autentičnost ovih ploča. [napomena 3]

Uređivanje glifova

Glifovi su stilizirani ljudski, životinjski, biljni i geometrijski oblici i često tvore spojeve. Gotovo svi oni s glavama usmjereni su prema gore i vide se licem na licu ili u profilu desno, u smjeru pisanja. Nije poznato kakav je značaj moglo imati okretanje glifa prema dolje ili ulijevo. Glave često imaju karakteristične izbočine sa strana koje mogu biti oči (kao na glifu morske kornjače ispod, i jasnije na petroglifima morskih kornjača), ali koje često nalikuju ušima (kao na antropomorfnom petroglifu u sljedećem odjeljku). Ptice su uobičajene, a mnoge nalikuju fregati (vidi sliku izravno ispod) koja je bila povezana s vrhovnim bogom Makemakeom. [21] [napomena 4] Ostali glifovi izgledaju poput ribe ili člankonožaca. Nekoliko je sličnih petroglifima koji se nalaze po cijelom otoku.

Usmena predaja kaže da su Hotu Matuꞌa ili Tuꞌu ko Iho, legendarni osnivači Rapa Nuija, donijeli 67 ploča iz svoje domovine. [23] Isti osnivač zaslužan je i za donošenje autohtonih biljaka poput toromira. Međutim, ne postoji domovina koja je vjerojatno imala tradiciju pisanja u Polineziji ili čak u Južnoj Americi. Stoga se čini da je rongorongo bio unutarnji razvoj. S obzirom na to da je malo, ako je uopće bilo tko od Rapanui ljudi koji su ostali na otoku 1870 -ih godina mogao čitati simbole, vjerojatno je samo mala manjina ikada bila pismena. Doista, prvim posjetiteljima rečeno je da je pismenost privilegija vladajućih obitelji i svećenika koji su svi oteti u racijama peruanskih robova ili su ubrzo nakon toga umrli u nastalim epidemijama. [24]

Upoznavanje tableta Edit

Malo je izravnih veza napravljeno. Početak krčenja šuma za poljoprivredu na Uskršnjem otoku, a time i vjerojatno kolonizacija, datiran je u godine otprilike 1200, [25] implicirajući datum izuma rongoronga ne prije 13. stoljeća. Tableta P (Mali Sankt Peterburg) jedina je stavka koja je datirana ugljikom, ali rezultati samo ograničavaju datum negdje nakon 1680. [napomena 5] Glif 67 () smatra se da predstavlja izumrlu palmu Uskršnjeg otoka, [bilješka 6] koja je nestala iz evidencije peludi otoka otprilike 1650, što ukazuje na to da je sama skripta barem toliko stara. [26]

Tekstovi A, P, i V. može se datirati u 18. ili 19. stoljeće zbog toga što je upisano na europska vesla. Orliac (2005) je tvrdio da drvo za tablete C (Mamari) izrezan je sa debla drveta visokog oko 15 metara (bilješka 7), a Uskršnji otok odavno je pošumljen od drveća te veličine. Analiza drvenog ugljena ukazuje da je šuma nestala u prvoj polovici 17. stoljeća. Roggeveen, koji je otkrio Uskršnji otok 1722. godine, opisao je otok kao "bez velikih stabala", a 1770. González de Ahedo je napisao: "Ne može se pronaći niti jedno drvo koje može opremiti dasku do 15 cm [15] po širini. " Forster je s Cookovom ekspedicijom 1774. izvijestio da "na otoku nije bilo drveta koje bi prelazilo visinu od 3 metra". [28]

Sve ove metode datiraju drvo, a ne sami natpisi. Pacifičko ružino drvo nije izdržljivo i vjerojatno neće dugo opstati u klimi Uskršnjeg otoka. [26]

1770. Španjolska ekspedicija Edit

1770. Španjolci su anektirali Uskršnji otok pod kapetanom Gonzálezom de Ahedom. Održana je ceremonija potpisivanja na kojoj je neobjavljeni broj poglavara potpisao ugovor o aneksiji "označivši na njemu određene likove u vlastitom obliku pisma". [30] (Reprodukcija desno.)

Nekoliko je znanstvenika sugeriralo da je rongorongo možda bio izum inspiriran ovim posjetom i potpisivanjem ugovora o aneksiji. [31] Kao posredni dokaz, oni napominju da nijedan istraživač nije prijavio scenarij prije Eugène Eyraud 1864. godine, [bilješka 9] i mišljenja su da oznake s kojima su poglavari potpisali španjolski ugovor ne nalikuju rongorongu. Hipoteza ovih istraživača nije da je rongorongo sam bio kopija latinske abecede ili bilo kojeg drugog oblika pisanja, već da je koncept pisanja je u procesu antropolozi prenijeli termin trans-kulturna difuzija, koja je potom inspirirala otočane da izmisle svoj vlastiti sustav pisanja. Ako je to slučaj, tada se rongorongo pojavio, procvjetao, pao u zaborav i bio zaboravljen u roku od manje od sto godina.

Međutim, poznati slučajevi širenja pisma, poput Sequoyahovog izuma Cherokeeja slogovnog uvida u moć novina na engleskom jeziku ili Uyaqukov izum Yugtunskog pisma inspiriranog čitanjem iz kršćanskih spisa, uključivali su veći kontakt od potpisivanja jedinstveni ugovor. Glifovi bi se mogli grubo napisati kao rongorongo, što se moglo očekivati ​​od predstavnika Rapa Nuija koji pišu s novim instrumentom olovke na papiru. Činjenica da scenarij inače nisu promatrali rani istraživači, koji su na otoku proveli malo vremena, može odražavati da je to bio tabu, takvi su tabui mogli izgubiti moć zajedno s tangata rongorongo (pisari) do vremena kada se društvo Rapanui srušilo nakon europskih robovskih racija i nastalih epidemija, tako da su ploče postale sve šire rasprostranjene do Eyraudovih dana. [33] Orliac ističe da bi tablica C izgledala prije španjolskog posjeta najmanje jedno stoljeće.

Uređivanje petroglifa

Uskršnji otok ima najbogatiji asortiman petroglifa u Polineziji. [34] Isklesane su gotovo sve prikladne površine, uključujući kamene zidove nekih kuća i nekoliko poznatih moꞌai kipovi i njihovi pali gornji čvorovi. Katalogizirano je oko tisuću mjesta s više od četiri tisuće glifova, neka u bas-ili utonulom reljefu, a neka obojana u crveno-bijelo. Dizajni uključuju koncentraciju himernih figura čovjeka-ptice u Orongu, svečanom središtu tangata manu ("ptica-čovjek") kultna lica božanstva stvaranja Makemake čine morske životinje poput kornjača, tune, sabljarke, morskog psa, kitova, dupina, rakova i hobotnica (neki s ljudskim licima) pijetlova kanua i preko pet stotina komari (vulve). Petroglifi su često popraćeni isklesanim divotima ("kupulama") u stijeni. Promijenjene tradicije sačuvane su u pticama pticama s reljefom, koje su isklesane na jednostavnijim obrisima, a zatim isklesane komari. Iako se petroglifi ne mogu izravno datirati, neki su djelomično zaklonjeni predkolonijalnim kamenim zgradama, što sugerira da su relativno stare.

Nekoliko antropomorfnih petroglifa u obliku životinja imaju paralele u rongorongu, na primjer dvoglava fregata (glif 680) na palom moꞌai topknot, lik koji se također pojavljuje na desetak tableta. [bilješka 10] McLaughlin (2004.) ilustrira najistaknutije korespondencije s korpusom petroglifa Leeja (1992.). [napomena 10] Međutim, to su uglavnom izolirani glifovi, među petroglifima je pronađeno nekoliko tekstualnih nizova ili ligatura. To je dovelo do sugestije da rongorongo mora biti novija kreacija, možda inspirirana dizajnom petroglifa ili zadržavajući pojedinačne petroglife kao logograme (Macri 1995), ali nedovoljno stara da bi bila ugrađena u petroglifsku tradiciju. Najsloženiji kandidat za petroglifski rongorongo je ono što se čini kao kratki niz glifova, od kojih je jedan ligatura, isklesana na zidu špilje. Međutim, čini se da slijed nije isklesan u jednoj ruci (vidi sliku desno), a spilja se nalazi u blizini kuće koja je proizvela Poike tablet, sirova imitacija rongoronga, pa je Ana o Keke petroglifi možda nisu autentični.

Uređivanje otkrića

Eugène Eyraud, fratar laik iz Kongregacije de Picpus, sletio je na Uskršnji otok 2. siječnja 1864. godine, 24. dana odlaska iz Valparaísa. Trebao je ostati na Uskršnjem otoku devet mjeseci, evangelizirati njegove stanovnike. Napisao je izvještaj o svom boravku u kojem izvještava o svom otkriću ploča te godine: [35]

U svakoj kolibi nalaze se drvene ploče ili štapići prekriveni s nekoliko vrsta hijeroglifskih znakova: oni su prikazi životinja nepoznatih na otoku, koje domoroci crtaju oštrim kamenjem. Svaka figura ima svoje ime, ali oskudna pažnja koju posvećuju ovim pločama navodi me na pomisao da su ti likovi, ostaci nekog primitivnog spisa, za njih uobičajena praksa koju drže ne tražeći njeno značenje. [napomena 11]

U njegovu izvješću nema drugog spomena o pločama, a otkriće je ostalo nezapaženo. Eyraud je 11. listopada napustio Uskršnji otok, izuzetno lošeg zdravlja. Zaređen za svećenika 1865., vratio se na Uskršnji otok 1866. gdje je u kolovozu 1868., u dobi od 48 godina, umro od tuberkuloze.

Uništavanje Uređivanje

Godine 1868. biskup Tahitija, Florentin-Étienne "Tepano" Jaussen, primio je dar od nedavnih katoličkih preobraćenika s Uskršnjeg otoka. Bio je to dugačak kabel ljudske kose, možda ribarska vrpca, namotana oko male drvene ploče prekrivene hijeroglifskim ispisom. Zaprepašten otkrićem, napisao je ocu Hippolyte Roussel na Uskršnjem otoku kako bi prikupio sve ploče i pronašao domoroce sposobne za njihovo prevođenje. No Roussel se mogao oporaviti samo nekoliko, a otočani se nisu mogli složiti oko načina na koji će ih čitati. [36]

Ipak, Eyraud je vidio stotine tableta samo četiri godine ranije. Ono što se dogodilo s nestalim tabletama stvar je nagađanja. Eyraud je primijetio kako njihovi vlasnici imaju malo interesa za njih. Stéphen Chauvet izvještava da,

Biskup je ispitao mudraca iz Rapanuija, Ouroupana Hinapotea, sina mudraca Tekakija [koji je rekao da je] on sam započeo potrebne studije i znao isklesati likove zubom malog morskog psa. Rekao je da na otoku nije ostao nitko tko je znao čitati likove budući da su Peruanci uzrokovali smrt svih mudraca pa stoga komadi drveta više nisu zanimali domoroce koji su ih spalili kao drva za ogrjev ili namotali svoje ribolovne vrpce oko sebe!

A. Pinart je neke vidio i 1877. godine. [Nije] mogao nabaviti ove tablete jer su ih starosjedioci koristili kao kolute za svoje ribolovne vrpce!

Orliac je primijetio da duboka crna udubljenja, dugačka oko 10 centimetara (3,9 inča), na linijama 5 i 6 rektoa tablete H je utor načinjen trljanjem vatrenog štapa, koji prikazuje tu ploču H bio je korišten za vatru. [37] Tablete S i P bio je izrezan na obložene daske za kanu, što se uklapa u priču o čovjeku po imenu Niari koji je napravio kanu od napuštenih ploča. [38]

Budući da su bolesti i napadi peruanskih robova koje je uveo Europa, uključujući konačni razorni napad 1862. i kasniju epidemiju velikih boginja, smanjili populaciju Rapa Nui na ispod dvije stotine do 1870-ih, moguće je da je pismenost do tada izbrisana Eyraud je otkrio ploče 1866. [bilješka 12]

Tako je 1868. Jaussen mogao izvući samo nekoliko tableta, a još tri je nabavio kapetan Gana iz čileanske korvete O'Higgins 1870. 1950 -ih godina Barthel je pronašao raspadnute ostatke pola tuceta ploča u pećinama, u kontekstu pokopa. Međutim, nijedan glif nije se mogao spasiti. [42] [bilješka 13]

Od 26 općeprihvaćenih tekstova koji su preživjeli, samo je polovica u dobrom stanju i vjerodostojna. [44]

Antropološki računi Uredi

Britanska arheologinja i antropologinja Katherine Routledge poduzela je sa svojim suprugom 1914. - 1915. znanstvenu ekspediciju u Rapa Nui kako bi katalogizirala umjetnost, običaje i pisanje otoka. Uspjela je intervjuirati dvoje starijih doušnika, Kapieru i gubavca po imenu Tomenika, koji su navodno imali određeno znanje o rongorongu. Sesije nisu bile jako plodne jer su se te dvije stvari često proturječile. Iz njih je Routledge zaključio da je rongorongo idiosinkratična mnemotehnička naprava koja nije izravno predstavljala jezik, drugim riječima, proto-pisanje, te da je značenje glifova prepisivao svaki pisac, tako da je kohau rongorongo nije mogao pročitati netko tko nije obučen za taj određeni tekst. Smatrala je da su sami tekstovi litanije za svećenike-pisce, držani odvojeno u posebnim kućama i strogo tapu, koji bilježi povijest i mitologiju otoka. [45] [bilješka 14] U vrijeme kasnijih etnografskih izvještaja, poput Métrauxa (1940.), većina onoga što je Routledge zabilježila u svojim bilješkama bila je zaboravljena, a usmena povijest pokazala je snažan vanjski utjecaj popularnih objavljenih izvještaja.

26 rongorongo tekstova sa slovnim kodovima ispisano je na drvenim predmetima, svaki s između 2 i 2320 jednostavnih glifova i komponenti složenih glifova, za više od 15.000. Predmeti su uglavnom duguljaste drvene ploče, s iznimkama Ja, moguće sveti poglavarski štab poznat kao Santiago štab J i L, upisano na reimiro prsni ukrasi koje nosi elita x, ispisano na raznim dijelovima a tangata manu ("birdman") kipić i Y, europska burmutica sastavljena od dijelova izrezanih iz tablete rongorongo. Ploče, poput prsnih prsluka, kipića i štapova, bile su umjetnička djela i vrijedni posjedi, a očito su dobili pojedinačna vlastita imena na isti način kao i ukrasi od žada na Novom Zelandu. [46] Dvije tablete, C i S, imaju dokumentirano pred-misionarsko podrijetlo, iako drugi mogu biti stariji ili stariji. Osim toga, postoji nekoliko izoliranih glifova ili kratkih nizova koji bi se mogli pokazati kao rongorongo. [47]

Klasični tekstovi Uređivanje

Barthel se osvrnuo na svaki od 24 teksta koje je prihvatio kao izvorne, sa slovom abecede, od tada su u korpus dodana dva teksta. Dva lica tableta razlikuju se po sufiksima r (recto) ili v (verso) kada se može utvrditi niz čitanja, kojem se dodaje redak o kojem se raspravlja. Tako Pr2 je stavka P (Velika ploča Sankt Peterburga), rekto, drugi red. Kada se niz čitanja ne može utvrditi, a i b koriste se za lica. Tako Ab1 je stavka A (Tahua), strana b, prvi red. Šest strana burmutice napisane su kao stranice a do f. Gotovo sve publikacije slijede Barthel konvenciju, iako popularna Fischerova knjiga koristi idiosinkratičan sustav numeriranja.

Barthel
kodirati
Fischer
kodirati
Nadimak / opis Mjesto Bilješke
A RR1 Tahua (veslo) Rim 1825 glifova ispisanih na evropskom ili američkom veslu od 91 cm. Drvo jasena.
B RR4 Aruku kurenga 1135 glifova na 41-centimetarskoj ploči sa rubovim drvetom.
C RR2 Mamari 1000 glifova na 29 cm cm neflutiranoj tableti od ružinog drveta. Sadrži kalendarske podatke piktografskije od ostalih tekstova.
D RR3 Échancrée Pape‘ete 270 glifova na 30 cm dubokoj ploči sa urezima. Tableta je prvi put dana Jaussenu, kao kalem za konopac kose. Dvije strane napisane su različitim rukama. Yellowwood?
E RR6 Keiti (Leuven) 822 glifa na kalupiranoj ploči od 39 cm. Uništen u požaru u Prvom svjetskom ratu.
Ž RR7 Fragment Chauveta New York [napomena 15] Ulomak od 12 cm s 51 snimljenim grubo izvedenim glifom. (Neki glifovi prekriveni su naljepnicom.) Palmino drvo?
G RR8 Mali Santiago Santiago 720 glifova na 32-centimetarskoj ploči od ružinog drveta. Verso može uključivati ​​genealogiju i ne nalikuje uzorcima drugih tekstova.
H RR9 Veliki Santiago 1580 znakova na 44-centimetarskoj ploči od ružinog drveta. Gotovo duplikati P i P.
Ja RR10 Osoblje Santiaga 2920 glifova ispisanih na štabu načelnika 126 cm. Najduži tekst i jedini koji ima interpunkciju. Među uzorcima drugih tekstova, samo nalikuje Gv i Ta.
J RR20 Veliki reimiro London Ukras na grudima od 73 cm ukrašen s 2 znaka. Možda je stara.
K 19 RR London 163 grubo izvedena glifa parafrazirajući Gr na tableti od ružinog drveta od 22 cm.
L 21 RR Mali reimiro Ukras na prsima od 41 cm ukrašen linijom od 44 glifa. Možda je stara. Ružino drvo.
M 24 RR Veliki Beč Beč Tableta od 28 cm ružinog drveta u lošem stanju. Strana b uništeno je 54 glifa sa strane a. Rani sastav čuva više teksta.
N RR23 Mali Beč 172 složeno isklesana glifa, labavo parafrazirajući Ev, na komadu žutog drva od 26 cm.
O. RR22 Berlin Berlin Komad valovitog drva od 103 cm s 90 čitljivih znakova sa strane a. U lošem stanju, nijedan od glifova sa strane b može se identificirati.
P RR18 Veliki Sankt Peterburg St. Petersburg 1163 glifa ispisano na oštrici evropskog ili američkog vesla od 63 cm. Yellowwood. Koristilo se za daske. Gotovo duplikati H i P.
P RR17 Mali Sankt Peterburg 718 glifova na stablu ružinog drva od 44 cm. Gotovo duplikati H i P. Krupni plan Qr3–7 je prikazan u infookviru.
R RR15 Mali Washington Washington 357 glifova, gotovo svi u izrazima koji se ponavljaju u drugim tekstovima, na komadu od 24 cm.
S RR16 Veliki Washington 600 čitljivih znakova na komadu žutog drva od 63 cm. Kasnije rezano za dasku.
T RR11 Kanalirani Honolulu Honolulu 120 čitljivih simbola na 31-cm kalupiranoj ploči. U lošem stanju, sa strane b je nečitko.
U RR12 Snop Honolulu 27 čitljivih znakova na 70-cm europskoj ili američkoj gredi. U lošem stanju. Dvije strane napisane su različitim rukama.
V. RR13 Honolulu veslo 22 čitljiva glifa na oštrici europskog ili američkog vesla od 72 cm. U lošem stanju. Jedan redak teksta, plus zasebni par znakova sa strane a tragovi teksta sa strane b.
W RR14 Ulomak Honolulua Opisani ulomak od 7 cm s 8 glifova s ​​jedne strane.
x RR25 Tangata manu
(Ptica iz New Yorka)
New Yorku Statueta ptica ptica od 33 cm s 37 površinski ispisanih glifova razdvojenih u sedam kratkih razbacanih tekstova.
Y RR5 Paris burmutica Pariz Kutija od 7 cm izrezana i sastavljena od 3 blanjana komada tablete 85 sirovih glifova samo izvan kutije. Drvena građa za splav?
Z T4 Poike palimpsest Santiago Drvena građa za splav? 11 cm. Očigledno palimpsest Fischer ne smatra čitljiv sloj teksta originalnim.

Sirovi glifovi pronađeni su na nekoliko kamenih predmeta i nekim dodatnim drvenim predmetima, no smatra se da je većina njih krivotvorina stvorena za tržište ranog turizma. Nekoliko od 26 drvenih tekstova sumnjivo je zbog neizvjesnog podrijetla (x, Y, i Z), nekvalitetna izrada (Ž, K, V., W, Y, i Z), ili da je isklesan čeličnom oštricom (K, V., i Y), [bilješka 3] i stoga, iako se mogu pokazati kao pravi, ne treba im vjerovati u početnim pokušajima dešifriranja. Z podsjeća na mnoge rane krivotvorine u tome što nije iscrpljen, ali može biti palimpsest na autentičnom, ali sada nečitkom tekstu. [48]

Dodatni tekstovi Uredi

In addition to the petroglyphs mentioned above, there are a few other very short uncatalogued texts that may be rongorongo. Fischer reports that "many statuettes reveal rongorongo ili rongorongo-like glyphs on their crown." He gives the example of a compound glyph, , on the crown of a moꞌai pakapaka statuette. [49] [note 16] Many human skulls are inscribed with the single 'fish' glyph 700 , which may stand for îka "war casualty". There are other designs, including some tattoos recorded by early visitors, which are possibly single rongorongo glyphs, but since they are isolated and pictographic, it is difficult to know whether or not they are actually writing. In 2018, a possibly authentic ink-on-barkcloth sequence dating from 1869, dubbed the "Raŋitoki fragment", was recognized.

Glyphs Edit

The only published reference to the glyphs which is even close to comprehensive remains Barthel (1958). Barthel assigned a three-digit numeric code to each glyph or to each group of similar-looking glyphs that he believed to be allographs (variants). In the case of allography, the bare numeric code was assigned to what Barthel believed to be the basic form (Grundtypus), while variants were specified by alphabetic suffixes. Altogether he assigned 600 numeric codes. The hundreds place is a digit from 0 to 7, and categorizes the head, or overall form if there is no head: 0 and 1 for geometric shapes and inanimate objects 2 for figures with "ears" 3 and 4 for figures with open mouths (they are differentiated by their legs/tails) 5 for figures with miscellaneous heads 6 for figures with beaks and 7 for fish, arthropods, etc. The digits in tens and units places were allocated similarly, so that, for example, glyphs 206, 306, 406, 506, and 606 all have a downward-pointing wing or arm on the left, and a raised four-fingered hand on the right:

There is some arbitrariness to which glyphs are grouped together, and there are inconsistencies in the assignments of numerical codes and the use of affixes which make the system rather complex. [note 17] However, despite its shortcomings, Barthel's is the only effective system ever proposed to categorize rongorongo glyphs. [50]

Barthel (1971) claimed to have parsed the corpus of glyphs to 120, of which the other 480 in his inventory are allographs or ligatures. [note 18] The evidence was never published, but similar counts have been obtained by other scholars, such as Pozdniakov & Pozdniakov (2007).

Published corpus Edit

For almost a century only a few of the texts were published. In 1875, the director of the Chilean National Museum of Natural History in Santiago, Rudolf Philippi, published the Santiago Staff, and Carroll (1892) published part of the Oar. Most texts remained beyond the reach of would-be decipherers until 1958, when Thomas Barthel published line drawings of almost all the known corpus in his Grundlagen zur Entzifferung der Osterinselschrift ("Bases for the Decipherment of the Easter Island script") which remains the fundamental reference to rongorongo. He transcribed texts A kroz x, over 99% of the corpus the CEIPP estimates that it is 97% accurate. Barthel's line drawings were not produced free-hand but copied from rubbings, which helped ensure their faithfulness to the originals. [52]

Fischer (1997) published new line drawings. These include lines scored with obsidian but not finished with a shark tooth, which had not been recorded by Barthel because the rubbings he used often did not show them, for example on tablet N. (However, in line Gv4 shown in the section on writing instruments above, the light lines were recorded by both Fischer and Barthel.) There are other omissions in Barthel which Fischer corrects, such as a sequence of glyphs at the transition from line Ca6 do Ca7 which is missing from Barthel, presumably because the carving went over the side of the tablet and was missed by Barthel's rubbing. (This missing sequence is right in the middle of Barthel's calendar.) However, other discrepancies between the two records are straightforward contradictions. For instance, the initial glyph of I12 (line 12 of the Santiago Staff) in Fischer [53] does not correspond with that of Barthel [54] or Philippi, [55] which agree with each other, and Barthel's rubbing (below) is incompatible with Fischer's drawing. Barthel's annotation, Original doch 53.76! ("original indeed 53.76!"), suggests that he specifically verified Philippi's reading:

In addition, the next glyph (glyph 20, a "spindle with three knobs") is missing its right-side "sprout" (glyph 10) in Philippi's drawing. This may be the result of an error in the inking, since there is a blank space in its place. The corpus is thus tainted with quite some uncertainty. It has never been properly checked for want of high-quality photographs. [56]

As with most undeciphered scripts, there are many fanciful interpretations and claimed translations of rongorongo. However, apart from a portion of one tablet which has been shown to have to do with a lunar Rapa Nui calendar, none of the texts are understood. There are three serious obstacles to decipherment, assuming rongorongo is truly writing: the small number of remaining texts, the lack of context such as illustrations in which to interpret them, and the poor attestation of the Old Rapanui language, since modern Rapanui is heavily mixed with Tahitian and is therefore unlikely to closely reflect the language of the tablets. [57]

The prevailing opinion is that rongorongo is not true writing but proto-writing, or even a more limited mnemonic device for genealogy, choreography, navigation, astronomy, or agriculture. Na primjer, Atlas of Languages states, "It was probably used as a memory aid or for decorative purposes, not for recording the Rapanui language of the islanders." [58] If this is the case, then there is little hope of ever deciphering it. [note 19] For those who believe it to be writing, there is debate as to whether rongorongo is essentially logographic or syllabic, though it appears to be compatible with neither a pure logography nor a pure syllabary. [59]

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 14 15 16
22 25 27AB 28 34 38 41 44 46 47 50 52 53
59 60 61 62 63 66 67 69 70 71 74 76 91
95 99 200 240 280 380 400 530 660 700 720 730 901
This basic inventory of rongorongo, proposed by Pozdniakov & Pozdniakov (2007), accounts for 99.7% of the intact texts, except for the idiosyncratic Staff.

The Unicode Consortium has tentatively allocated range 1CA80–1CDBF of the Supplementary Multilingual Plane for encoding the Rongorongo script. [60] An encoding proposal has been written by Michael Everson. [61]

  1. ^ abEnglert defines rogorogo as "recitar, declamar, leer cantando" (to recite, declaim, read chanting), and tagata rogorogo (rongorongo man) as "hombre que sabía leer los textos de loskohau rogorogo, o sea, de las tabletas con signos para la recitación" (a man who could read the texts of the kohau rongorongo, that is, of the tablets bearing signs for recitation). Rongorongo is the reduplication of rongo "recado, orden o mandato, mensaje, noticia" (a message, order, notice) tagata rogo is a "mensajero" (a messenger). [2]Kohau are defined as "líneas tiradas a hilohausobre tabletas o palos para la inscripción de signos" (lines drawn with a string (hau) on tablets or sticks for the inscription of signs). [2] The Rapanui word rongo /ɾoŋo/ has cognates in most other Austronesian languages, from Malaydengar /dəŋar/ to Fijianrogoca /roŋoða/ and Hawaiianlono /lono/ , where these words have such meanings as "to listen", "to hear", itd.
  2. ^ Barthel tested this experimentally, and Dederen (1993) reproduced several tablets in this fashion. Fischer comments, [16]

On the Large St. Petersburg ([P]r3) [. ] the original tracing with an obsidian flake describes a bird's bill identical to a foregoing one but when incising, the scribe reduced this bill to a much more bulbous shape [. ] since he now was working with the different medium of a shark's tooth. There are many such scribal quirks on the "Large St. Petersburg" [tablet P]. The rongorongo script is a "contour script" (Barthel 1955:360) [. ] with various internal or external lines, circles, dashes or dots added [. ] Often such features exist only in the hair-line pre-etching effected by obsidian flakes and not incised with a shark's tooth. This is particularly evident on the "Small Vienna" [tablet N].


Books and reading are in the throes of a revolution

Not everyone is happy about this. Book lovers, publishers and booksellers alike are watching the book-v-ebook sales battle with great interest, and when Tom Tivnan of The Bookseller reported recently that ebook sales had dipped for the first time, he sounded almost relieved: “For those who predicted the death of the physical book and digital dominating the market by the end of this decade, the print and digital sales figures […] for 2015 might force a reassessment.” Physical books may have the upper hand for now, but the debate is a long way from being settled.

Book lovers, publishers and booksellers alike are watching the book-v-ebook sales battle with great interest (Credit: Getty Images)

The odd thing is that the current angst over the book’s changing face mirrors a strikingly similar episode in history. Two thousand years ago, a new and unorthodox kind of book threatened to overturn the established order, much to the chagrin of the readers of the time.

Scroll with it

Rome in the 1st Century CE was awash with the written word. Statues, monuments and gravestones were inscribed with stately capital letters citizens took notes and sent messages on wax-covered wooden writing tablets and the libraries of the wealthy were stocked with books on history, philosophy and the arts. But these were not books as we know them – they were scrolls, made from sheets of Egyptian papyrus pasted into rolls anywhere from 4.5 to 16 metres (14.76ft to 52.49ft) in length. For all their ubiquity, however, they were not without their flaws.

Ancient Rome was awash with the written word – but with scrolls made of sheets of Egyptian papyrus rather than books (Credit: John Clark, The Care of Books)

For one thing, it took both hands to read a scroll properly. Unless the reader was seated at a desk (in which case paperweights or wooden pegs could be used to pin down the springy papyrus), the only way to read a scroll was to unwind it carefully from the right hand and, passing it to the left, to roll it up again. Writers and copyists usually wrote in columns a few inches wide, so that the bulk of the fragile papyrus in the scroll could be kept safely rolled up. Even so, archaeologists have found scrolls whose bottom edges have been worn away where they rubbed against the reader’s clothing.

This, then, was the second major problem with scrolls: papyrus was not an inherently long-lived material, especially if removed from its hot, dry Mediterranean comfort zone. Having taken a liking to a historian who shared his name, Tacitus, emperor from 275 to 276, had to send out new copies of the historian’s works each year to replace those that had rotted away in Gaul and Germania. Papyrus will also crack and tear if it is folded too often, leading naturally to the gently curved shape of the scroll itself – and so to the fact that most scrolls carried writing only on one side. Only if the text on the front of a scroll was no longer needed would its owner flip it over and use the other side a double-sided scroll was just too difficult to read otherwise.

Shrouded in mystery

Sometime in or before the First Century CE a new kind of book appeared that promised to address the scroll’s shortcomings. The evidence is sparse but telling: archaeologists have discovered a few key scraps of papyrus whose text unexpectedly continues from the front to the back, and whose neat margins one might expect to find in a paged book. And that is exactly what these fragments are: they are leaves from the first paged books the world had ever seen. We know that the Romans called this new kind of book the kodeks (iz caudex or tree trunk, because of its similarity to their wooden writing tablets), but how the codex came to be in the first place is shrouded in mystery. The first written mention of the codex appears in the words of a Roman poet named Martial, who encouraged his readers to buy his books in this new, paged format:

“You who long for my little books to be with you everywhere and want to have companions for a long journey, buy these ones which parchment confines within small pages: give your scroll-cases to the great authors – one hand can hold me.”

Written between 84 and 86 CE, Martial’s sales pitch tells us not only that paged books were known of in the First Century CE but also that some of them, at least, were made from a new material called parchment. This alternative to papyrus, invented in a Greek city-state some centuries earlier, was made from cleaned, stretched animal skins by means of a bloody and labour-intensive process, but its smoothness and strength made it an ideal writing material. Archaeologists have since confirmed Martial’s claims via fragments of parchment codices dated to the First Century – and yet, these few tantalising finds aside, we still know very little about where or why the codex was invented, or who might have done so. Even the question of whether the first codices were made of papyrus or parchment has never been satisfactorily answered.

A model of a ‘Nag Hammadi’ codex, made in the style of a cache of 4th Century books found in Egypt in 1945 (Credit: Irina Gorstein (book model), Adam Kellie (photography))


The Legend of Tayos

The legend lies in the large megalithic blocks of stone—which are polished and cut with laser-like precision—that make up some of the rooms of the cave and the numerous mysterious metallic plates engraved with ideographic writing of which Hungarian-Argentine researcher Juan Moricz spoke about in the sixties.

The best evidence of the mysterious metallic places can be traced to Italian Salesian Carlos Crespi Croci, who had explored the area in the 1940s and acquired from the Shuar Indians some of the objects they allegedly removed from the cave.

Various pieces were given to father Crespi as thanks for members of the Shuar community and were kept in the Private Museum of Carlos Crespi Croci in Cuenca (Ecuador). Of these objects, only a few photographs and videos remain, since most of them were sold and others stolen after a fire in 1962. After the fire, nothing was left in the museum, not even pieces of ceramics which would have surely resisted the fire.

Since his death in 1982, nothing is known of the plates, only the testimony and limited writings and images of Crespi with objects.

In 1973, Erich Von Daniken wrote about the enigmatic structure where books were made out of metal, and that the region near the cave—and the cave itself—were evidence of an extremely advanced—if not extraterrestrial civilization.

Author Juan Moricz is said to have found signs of an extremely developed ancient civilization inside the Cave. In a signed affidavit dated 8 July 1969, he spoke about his meeting with the Ecuadorian president, where he received a concession that allowed him total control over this discovery—provided he could produce photographic evidence and an independent witness that corroborated the discovery of the underground network. Several newspapers reported on the expedition that Moricz had organized writes author Philip Coppens.

According to Moricz, the Metallic Library of the Cave of the Tayos records an ancient history that took place on Earth which goes back in time to 250,000 years.

In 1972, Moricz met with von Däniken and took him to a secret side entrance through which they could enter into a large hall within the labyrinth. Apparently von Däniken never got to see the library itself, just the tunnel system.

Von Däniken included the event in his book The Gold of the Gods:

“The passages all form perfect right angles. Sometimes they are narrow, sometimes wide. The walls are smooth and often seem to be polished. The ceilings are flat and at times look as if they were covered with a kind of glaze… My doubts about the existence of the underground tunnels vanished as if by magic and I felt tremendously happy. Moricz said that passages like those through which we were going extended for hundreds of miles under the soil of Ecuador and Peru.”

As a result of the claims published in von Däniken’s book, an investigation of Cueva de los Tayos was organized by Stan Hall from Britain in 1976. One of the largest and most expensive cave explorations ever undertaken, the expedition included over a hundred people, including experts in a variety of fields, British and Ecuadorian military personnel, a film crew, and former astronaut Neil Armstrong. Why would Neil Armstrong—who had returned from the moon not long ago then—travel with an expedition to a remote cave in the Ecuadorian amazon?

Neil Armstrong inside the cave in 1976.

The team also included eight experienced British cavers who thoroughly explored the cave and conducted an accurate survey to produce a detailed map of the cave. There was no evidence of Von Däniken’s more exotic claims, although some physical features of the cave did approximate his descriptions and some items of zoological, botanical and archaeological interest were found. The lead researcher met with Moricz’s indigenous source, who claimed that they had investigated the wrong cave and that the real cave was secret

The British expedition extracted 4 large sealed wooden crates without exposing to the owners (the Shuar) their content, the matter ended (according to a Spanish researcher) with shots fired between the Shuar and the English expedition.

The oldest traces of habitat in the caves date from the upper Paleolithic period (48 000—12 000 BC) where the cave provided protection during the end of the glaciation.

Approximately 9000 BC, the civilization leaves the cave thanks to the improvement of Earth’s climate and they move towards the south towards parts of Peru and the north of Chile.

In the Neolithic age, the cave is believed to have been inhabited from 3000 BC. by a Pre-Shuar civilization, which was already using ceramic artifacts, evidence of which we can find at the University of Munich which even performed radiocarbon dating. Approximately around 1500 BC. the first Shuar begin to settle in the area and merge with the natives of the cave. The Shuar guard the cave with great respect and believe that there rest the spirits of their ancestors.

To date, there is no reliable evidence of the veracity of this metal library.

The only things recovered from the cave—which are found resting in the Catholic University of Quito—are several archaeological pieces and remains of a so-called spondylus shell, that was especially valuable for the primitive cultures of the Ecuadorian coast.

Interestingly, architect and historian Melvin Hoyos, Director of Culture and development in the Municipality of Guayaquil had some very interesting things to say about the cave:

“To begin with, I think that the cave of the Tayos is not a cave, but a work of the hand of man, there is nothing in nature that can resemble the Cave of the Tayos. It has the ceiling completely cut flat with a 90-degree angle to the wall. It is very similar to other tunnels of similar characteristics and age in other parts of the world, which leads us to think that before the Wisconsin glaciation there was a network of tunnels on the planet, but to accept this we would need to accept the existence—before said Glaciation—of a highly developed civilization. “


More and More Tunnels

  • A couple from Bishop, California discovered a circular hole in the ground while exploring for petroglyphs. They climbed down the hole which bottomed out to a horizontal corridor. On one of the walls was carved a face out of the mouth of which poured water. Suddenly the water started to gush out of the face and from other openings, and the couple was forced to abandon the tunnel. Later, both recalled that they heard music down there.
  • In West Virginia, workers found some caverns with strange hieroglyphics written on the walls. They also claimed to hear faint voices and what sounded like machinery coming from beyond the walls of the cavern.
  • Two men searching for bat guano (which has some value as fertilizer) at the foot of Mount Lassen found a deep cave. They followed it inside for a mile or two and noticed that the floor was worn smooth, as if it had been used for a road. Eventually they met three strange "men" who asked if they are "surface people," and then took them deeper in the cave on an electromagnetically powered hovercraft. The story gets stranger from there.
  • Travelers Ferdinand Ossendowski and Nicholas Roerich claim to have discovered a subterranean society below central Asia, which they referred to as Agharta or Agharti. They say it is home to 20 million people, and their civilization extends throughout all the subterranean passages of the world.
  • A 12-man speleological team broke into an ancient tunnel system in northern Arkansas and encountered the inhabitants of the subsurface world.
  • Exploring another cave in Arkansas, just north of Batesville, explorers found a tunnel illuminated by a greenish phosphorescence where they met a race of beings who stood 7 to 8 feet tall and had bluish skin. The beings, who have advanced technology, told the explorers they are the direct descendants of Noah.

Brazil is said to have many entrances to an underground world. Several people claim to have proof:


Steps [ edit | uredi izvor]

  • Interact with the entrance of xolo city
  • Excavate and restore a lingam stone from the Moksha device hotspot.
  • Interact with the entrance of xolo city with the restored lingam stone in your inventory. This consumes the stone and gives you access to the city.
  • Excavate and restore a 'Raksha' idol and a gold dish from the Saurthen debris hotspot.
  • Place the restored gold dish on top of the xolo temple pyramid to the south of the room.
  • Place the restored 'Raksha' idol on top of the xolo building just to the west of the pyramid.
  • Return to the Archaeology Campus and interact with the mysterious monolith.

A Gentleman’s Ring

“Hey, a chunk of iron!” exclaims Margaret Dawson, a nurse and volunteer excavator, as she sorts through black earth at a site on Hatteras Island called Cape Creek. She and her husband Scott, a local teacher, founded the Croatoan Archaeological Society—named after the island’s native inhabitants—in 2009 and have sponsored Horton’s annual digs ever since.

Hidden in a live oak forest close to Pamlico Sound, Cape Creek was the site of a major Croatoan town and trade hub. Under Horton’s supervision, volunteers are busy searching through fine-mesh screens filled with mud from a nearby trench. The Dawson’s two young daughters are quick to spot tiny Venetian glass beads.

During a two-day excavation in July, the sieves produced ample Native American as well as European materials, including deer and turtle bones, homemade and imported brick, Native American pottery, hunks of European iron, parts of a 16th century gun, and a tiny copper eyelet that may have been used in clothing.

In 1998, archaeologists from East Carolina University found a ten-carat gold signet ring here engraved with a prancing lion or horse, an unprecedented find in early British America. The well-worn object may date to the 16th century and was almost certainly owned by an English nobleman.

Like most of the European finds at Cape Creek, however, the artifact was mixed in with objects that date to the mid-17th century, a full lifetime after the Roanoke colony was abandoned.

Horton argues that members of the lost colony living among the Croatoan may have kept their few heirlooms even as they slowly adopted Indian ways.

One of the most unusual recent discoveries is a small piece of slate that was used as a writing tablet, along with a lead pencil. A tiny letter “M” can just be made out on one corner. A similar, though much larger, slate was found at Jamestown.

“This was owned by somebody who could read or write,” Horton says. “This wasn’t useful for trade, but was owned by an educated European.”

Another artifact unearthed recently at Cape Creek is part of the hilt of a rapier, a light sword of a type used in England in the late 16th century. In addition, a large copper ingot, a long iron bar, and German stoneware show up in what appear to be late 16th century levels. These may be signs of metallurgical work by Europeans—and possibly by Roanoke settlers—since Native Americans lacked this technology.

“There are trade items here,” Horton says, gesturing at the artifacts. “But there is also material that doesn’t come from trade.” Were these the personal possessions of the colonists?


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'Finely translated and startlingly audacious. Elements of [Proust's] greatness are already in place: his ability to combine the qualities of the satirist and the moralist his curiosity about the workings of the human heart. There is even the first glimpse of his lasting discovery - that art, thought and analysis can draw the thorn of suffering.' ― Književna revija

&lsquoRevelatory&hellip offers a lush and emotionally raw view into [Proust&rsquos] evolution as a writer. The nine entries, annotated by footnotes, address topics such as love and suffering, homosexuality, and, of course, time lost and regained&hellip The stories have plenty of scholarly appeal, but they are elegant on their own&hellip Each tale features exquisite moments with expert annotations from Friasse. This volume is a fantastic discovery.&rsquo ― Publisher's Weekly, starred review

&lsquoA hundred years after his Prix Goncourt, the author of In Search of Lost Time returns, stronger than ever!&rsquo ― Michel Schneider, Le Point

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O autoru

Marcel Proust (1871�) is a titan of twentieth century European literature. The stories that make up The Mysterious Correspondent were written when the author was still in his twenties. Having been discovered by the late Proust specialist Bernard de Fallois in the 1950s, they were held back from publication in France until 2019.

Charlotte Mandell is a French literary translator of over 40 books that include Gustave Flaubert, Guy de Maupassant, Honoré de Balzac, Mathias Énard and Jean-Luc Nancy.


Georgia Guidestones — mysterious instructions for the post-apocalypse

The American Stonehenge

On a barren field in Georgia, US, five granite slabs rise in a star pattern. Each of them weighs over 20 tons and on top of them, there is a capstone. Nobody knows who built it or why they were placed there, but one popular opinion that their purpose is to guide humanity after a predicted post-apocalyptic event that will come in the not so distant future. The huge blocks send a message out to the world in eight different current languages, as well as four extinct ones (ancient Greek and Egyptian hieroglyphs for example). The set of ten guidelines has baffled people around the world, with descriptions ranging from perfect and utopian to satanic or quirky. But no matter what the case, these ten commandments should definitely get you thinking:

Održavajte čovječanstvo ispod 500.000.000 u vječnoj ravnoteži s prirodom.

Guide reproduction wisely – improving fitness and diversity.

Ujedinite čovječanstvo sa živim novim jezikom.

Rule passion – faith – tradition – and all things with tempered reason.

Zaštitite ljude i nacije poštenim zakonima i pravednim sudovima.

Neka svi narodi presude interno rješavajući vanjske sporove na svjetskom sudu.

Izbjegavajte sitne zakone i beskorisne službenike.

Uravnotežite osobna prava s društvenim dužnostima.

Prize truth – beauty – love – seeking harmony with the infinite.

Be not a cancer on the earth – Leave room for nature – Leave room for nature

While some of them are clearly noble and laudable (like having fair laws and avoiding petty ones), some of them have stirred controversy — especially “Maintain humanity under 500,000,000 in perpetual balance with nature”, and “Guide reproduction wisely – improving fitness and diversity”. If we were to apply these now, we’d have to kill over 90% of the planet.

However, this is a perfect example of a misinterpretation, because it has to be kept in mind that these “commandments” have to be applied nakon the alleged apocalyptic event. It’s not clear why “they” settled on 500 million, but the bottom line is that even though we hate to admit it — the world is overpopulated right now it’s way overpopulated. We are indeed finding better and better ways to manage our resources and use sustainable or renewable forces, but in just the last 50 years, the population of the Earth has more than doubled, and if we keep this up, the prognosis is pretty dire indeed. But back to our Georgia Stones.

Georgia Guidestones humanity commandment.

The construction of a post-apocalyptic monument

Whoever built them definitely knew what they were doing: the slabs stand proud and sturdy and will endure through the centuries with minimal damage. They also have a remarkable set of other features. For example, they feature a built-in channel that indicates the celestial pole, a horizontal slot that shows the annual travel of the sun as well as a system that marks noontime throughout the year. But why they have these features and lack others that would apparently be more useful for dazed survivors is still a mystery.

It all started on a Friday in June 1979. An elegantly dressed gray-haired man showed up in Elbert County and introduced himself as R. C. Christian — a reference to Christian Rosenkreuz — or Christian Rose Cross in English, and said he represents a small group of loyal Americans. Rosenkreuz is a legendary character that founded the Order of the Rose Cross. He quickly became one of the most important and mysterious figures of the time, by blending Christianity with some teachings of Arab and Persian sages. R. C. Christian admitted this is not his real name, but refused to reveal anything about his identity. Joe Fendley, president of the company that specializes in granite construction, didn’t care too much about this — that is, until he found out what monument R. C. Christian had in mind.

He explained that it would be a compass, calendar, and clock and also be engraved with a set of “guides” written in 8 of the world’s languages. Fendley believed he was dealing with a crazy man and wanted to get rid of him, so he explained that a large number of tools and machines would be required, but Christian just nodded. He then quoted a price several times greater than the real one, but again, Christian seemed indifferent, so Fendley sent him to Wyatt Martin, president of the Granite City Bank. Martin is probably one of the people who have seen and spoken to the mystery man the most.

Ten guides, a clock, a calendar, and a compass

The astrological specifications were incredibly complex, so the construction company had to employ the help of an astronomer from the University of Georgia. The complex indicates the day of the year, equinoxes, and solstices among others. But the main feature is the 10 guides engraved in the several languages.

The mission statement raises the first few questions marks: let these be Guidestones to an age of reason. But controversy started even before the monument was finished — many claiming it to be the devil’s work. By 1980, when they started building the monument, Martin remembers that people started telling him to stop and accused him of being part of an occult movement.

The main problem is that the commandments engraved on the stones are quite eccentric, to say the least. It didn’t take a lot to compare the first two commandments to the practices of Nazis, among others, but again, this doesn’t mean that a large part of mankind has to disappear – the guides apply in a post-apocalyptic event, where the population is undoubtedly very small this can be very hard to digest, but seeing things from their point of view is quite interesting, and any comparison with the Nazis or far right ideology is unreasonable. I mean, if a horrendous tragedy happens, and somehow the world population is reduced to just a few hundred million then yes, it would be a good idea to have some care regarding the number of humans.

Guide number 3 instructed people to use a common language — which would, of course, greatly reduce numerous difficulties throughout today’s world achieving such a task is, however, impossible at the moment due to evident practical reasons. This is the part that bothered annoyed the Christians, who quoted the bible saying that a common tongue is the mark of the Antichrist — yeah, makes a lot of sense for me, too. Same thing with RULE PASSION—FAITH—TRADITION—AND ALL THINGS WITH TEMPERED REASON — for some, faith has to be the alpha and omega with nothing else in between. For others, yours truly included, finding a sustainable balance is a much nobler goal.

The structure, sometimes referred to as an “American Stonehenge”, sure stirred a lot of controversies, but it got us thinking — which means that at least a part of its objective was achieved. Even ignoring the more controversial commandments, the final 6 should definitely be worth achieving. After all, what’s wrong with avoiding unnecessary officials and prizing truth?

Prize truth – beauty – love – seeking harmony with the infinite i Be not a cancer on the earth – Leave room for nature – Leave room for nature. There’s a really powerful vibe in here.


More On This.

"The Gabriel Stone is in a way a Dead Sea Scroll written on stone," said James Snyder, director of the Israel Museum. The writing dates to the same period, and uses the same tidy calligraphic Hebrew script, as some of the Dead Sea Scrolls, a collection of documents that include the earliest known surviving manuscripts of Hebrew Bible texts.

The Gabriel Stone made a splash in 2008 when Israeli Bible scholar Israel Knohl offered a daring theory that the stone's faded writing would revolutionize the understanding of early Christianity, claiming it included a concept of messianic resurrection that predated Jesus. He based his theory on one hazy line, translating it as "in three days you shall live."

His interpretation caused a storm in the world of Bible studies, with scholars convening at an international conference the following year to debate readings of the text, and a National Geographic documentary crew featuring his theory. An American team of experts using high resolution scanning technologies tried -- but failed -- to detect more of the faded writing.

Knohl, a professor of Bible at Hebrew University in Jerusalem, eventually scaled back from his original bombshell theory but the fierce scholarly debate he sparked continued to reverberate across the academic world, bringing international attention to the stone. Over the last few years it went on display alongside other Bible-era antiquities in Rome, Houston and Dallas.

Bible experts are still debating the writing's meaning, largely because much of the ink has eroded in crucial spots in the passage and the tablet has two diagonal cracks the slice the text into three pieces. Museum curators say only 40 percent of the 87 lines are legible, many of those only barely. The interpretation of the text featured in the Israel Museum's exhibit is just one of five readings put forth by scholars.

All agree that the passage describes an apocalyptic vision of an attack on Jerusalem in which God appears with angels on chariots to save the city. The central angelic character is Gabriel, the first angel to appear in the Hebrew Bible. "I am Gabriel," the writing declares.

The stone inscription is one of the oldest passages featuring the archangel, and represents an "explosion of angels in Second Temple Judaism," at a time of great spiritual angst for Jews in Jerusalem looking for divine connection, said Adolfo Roitman, a curator of the exhibit.

The exhibit traces the development of the archangel Gabriel in the three monotheistic religions, displaying a Dead Sea Scroll fragment which mentions the angel's name the 13th century Damascus Codex, one of the oldest illustrated manuscripts of the complete Hebrew Bible a 10th century New Testament manuscript from Brittany, in which Gabriel predicts the birth of John the Baptist and appears to the Virgin Mary and an Iranian Quran manuscript dated to the 15th or 16th century, in which the angel, called Jibril in Arabic, reveals the word of God to the prophet Mohammad.

"Gabriel is not archaeology. He is still relevant for millions of people on earth who believe that angels are heavenly beings on earth," said Roitman. The Gabriel Stone, he said, is "the starting point of an ongoing tradition that still is relevant today."

The story of how the stone was discovered is just as murky as its meaning. A Bedouin man is said to have found it in Jordan on the eastern banks of the Dead Sea around the year 2000, Knohl said. An Israeli university professor later examined a piece of earth stuck to the stone and found a composition of minerals only found in that region of the Dead Sea.

The stone eventually made it into the hands of Ghassan Rihani, a Jordanian antiquities dealer based in Jordan and London, who in turn sold the stone to Swiss-Israeli collector David Jeselsohn in Zurich for an unspecified amount. Rihani has since died. The Bible scholar traveled to Jordan multiple times to look for more potential stones, but was unable to find the stone's original location.

Israel Museum curators said Jeselsohn lent the stone to the museum for temporary display.

Lenny Wolfe, an antiquities dealer in Jerusalem, said that before the Jordanian dealer bought it, another middleman faxed him an image of the stone and offered it for sale.

"The fax didn't come out clearly. I had no idea what it was," said Wolfe, who passed on the offer. It was "one of my biggest misses," Wolfe said.

What function the stone had, where it was displayed, and why it was written are unknown, said curators of the Israel Museum exhibit.

"There is still so much that is unclear," said Michal Dayagi-Mendels, a curator of the exhibit. Scholars, she said, "will still argue about this for years."


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