Norwich Guildhall

Norwich Guildhall


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Norwich Guildhall - Povijest


Južna strana ceha Norwich.
Vrata na zapadnom kraju izvorno su bila ulaz u jugozapadnu kulu.
Fotografija i kopija S. Alsford

Početak izgradnje novog cehovskog zbora, 1407. godine, mora se shvatiti u kontekstu ustavnih promjena koje su proizašle iz kraljevske povelje iz 1404. godine, uključujući okrug, dodjeljivanje statusa županije, zamjenu gradonačelnika i šerifa za bivšeg izvršnog direktora balivala, te darovanje gradonačelnik i četiri kolege s ovlastima mirovnih sudaca. Ovo je uslijedilo nakon razdoblja kada je vladajuća klasa učvršćivala svoju moć, uz određeni otpor s drugih mjesta u zajednici, a prethodilo je razdoblju još intenzivnijeg sukoba oko ustava (vidi stranicu "Povijest srednjovjekovnog Norwicha: podjela interesa").

U nekom trenutku u mjesecima nakon dodjele povelje, rezolucijom je uspostavljeno tijelo od 80 građana koji će sudjelovati na okupljanjima, očito u ime i umjesto zajednice u cjelini. Ranije je biračko povjerenstvo bilo izabrano da djeluje za zajednicu pri izboru ovršitelja, sada je 80 trebalo djelovati za zajednicu, ali njihova je moć bila ograničena na nominacije i konačnu odluku na izborima gradonačelnika i vijeća, u londonskom stilu. To nije dobro sjelo u zajednicu.

U sporovima koji su uslijedili, bilo je pritužbi na zamjenu kraljevske povelje (1380.), u davanju ovlasti za donošenje podzakonskih akata, zajednice od strane gradskog vijeća (koje predstavlja zajednicu) kao agenta za davanje odobrenja bilo kojem takve podzakonske akte. Patricijat je u kontranapadu pokušao ukloniti iz povelje grada pozive na zajednicu kao ustavni entitet. Rješenjem spora uveden je zamršeniji postupak izbora različitih dužnosnika u isto vrijeme kada su članovi višeg vijeća dobili status doživotnog članstva i dostojanstvenu titulu vijećnika, te se više nije pretvaralo da predstavljaju zajednicu, već tu ulogu pada na veće tijelo (smanjeno na 60) sada čvrsto uspostavljeno kao niže vijeće.


Istočni zabat ceha Norwich.
Sahat -kula bila je ukras 1850.
Fotografija i kopija S. Alsford

Izgradnja novog doma za građansku vlast odražavala je ambicije vladajuće klase da ima potpuniju i nespornu kontrolu nad upravljanjem. Uvođenje novih imena – gradonačelnika, vijećnika, štićenika, cehova – sugerira imitaciju Londona. U isto vrijeme, nova gradska vijećnica bila je simbol poboljšanog statusa uključene općine. Predloženo je da razmjeri cehovske kuće, bez presedana izvan Londona, mogu nešto zahvaliti primjeru "velikih gradskih vijećnica koje su krasile bogate suknene gradove u niskim zemljama, s kojima je Norfolk imao bliske trgovačke kontakte" [I. Dunn i H. Sutermeister, The Norwich Guildhall, grad Norwich, oko 1978.].

Guildhall je zamijenio stariju dvoranu, Tolbooth, na svom nagnutom mjestu na sjevernoj strani tržnice manje impresivnu strukturu, i po veličini i po građevinskom materijalu, Tolbooth je služio za sudsku i financijsku administraciju, ali su izborne skupštine morale držati u velikoj kapeli na drugom mjestu. Promjene početkom petnaestog stoljeća, povećanje sudskih ovlasti gradskih službenika i broj različitih sudova, kao i zamjena narodne skupštine s velikim dvorazrednim vijećem, morali su biti čimbenici u odluci da se potroši nova zgrada . U tu bi se zgradu smjestila veća zatvorska jedinica od prethodnika, kao i gradski arhiv i riznica, a sve funkcije zahtijevaju čvrstu i izdržljivu strukturu. Izvorna funkcija Tolbootha, kao mjesta prikupljanja cestarina za robu stavljenu na tržište, a vjerojatno i licencnih pristojbi za štandove, prenesena je nakon toga#150 ako nije bilo ranije – u potkrovlje Murage, drugu zgradu u tržište, izvorno radi naplate posebnih cestarina za izgradnju zidova.


Sjeverna strana ceha Norwich.
Mogu se razaznati dva odvojena niza, koji možda oponašaju lađu i crkveni dvor.
Fotografija i kopija S. Alsford

Jezgrena zgrada dovršena je 1412. godine, zahvaljujući nametanju posebnih lokalnih poreza tri puta tijekom razdoblja izgradnje, te impresiji rada (očito neplaćenog, osim stolara, zidara i drugih vještih obrtnika), s radovima koji su ponekad trajali od zora do sumraka. Donacije i ostavštine građana također su pridonijele onome što je moralo biti znatan trošak, u usporedbi s godišnjim prihodima koji su bili dio normalnog gradskog proračuna. Podizanje krova, popločanog olovom, 1412. godine omogućilo je da se zgrada počne koristiti, najprije za smještaj zatvorenika u zatvor u zasvođenim podrumima. U istom razdoblju postavljale su se klupe za gradonačelnikov sud.

Rad se nastavio uređivati, poboljšavati i konstruirati dodatke za Guildhall tijekom cijelog stoljeća. Višespratni trijem izgrađen je 1420-ih godina, iako je obnovljen 1723. i ponovno u viktorijansko doba, zapravo cijeli raspon na južnoj strani (vidi fotografiju na vrhu) je post-srednjovjekovni. Zgrada je izgrađena od istog materijala kao i Norwichove srednjovjekovne crkve: kremeni krš sa oblogom od knapljenih kremena i ispunom od kremena. Kastele oko krova prikazane su na najranijoj ilustraciji i mogle su biti srednjovjekovne. Većina je prozora vjerojatno bila ostakljena, a neki su sadržavali i slike od vitraja, od kojih je malo preživjelo. Učinak zgrade morao je biti i namjeravao izazvati strahopoštovanje i poštovanje u građanima.

Istočni sljemenjak ukrašen je na sličan način kao Lynnina cehovska dvorana: šahovski uzorak od kremena u kontrastu sa slobodnim kamenom vjerojatno je simbolizirao gradsku računovodstvenu službu (blagajnu). Njegov je prozor jedini koji je preživio viktorijansku obnovu, a oružnici ispod njega ipak su dodatak iz šesnaestog stoljeća. Niže, u prizemlju, gdje je sada uz zid postavljena viktorijanska vodoskok, možda je izvorno bio ulaz u kriptu, najranija ilustracija zgrade prikazuje ono što se čini kao ulaz ili prozor s rešetkom u podrum. Nasuprot ovom zidu prepisivači su postavili štandove na kojima su građani mogli kupiti njihove usluge, a neke su se odnosile na izradu kopija službenih evidencija. Na suprotnom (zapadnom) kraju zgrade stajale su dvije kule, u jednoj se nalazila riznica, koja se srušila u ranom tjudorskom razdoblju, a druga je preživjela do osamnaestog stoljeća.

Veći raspon (zapad) na gornjem je katu imao skupštinsku prostoriju za puno vijeće, visoku dva kata, koja je ujedno služila i kao šerifov dvor, a na jednom kraju bila je privatna odaja. Manji raspon, očito izgrađen iznad temelja Tolbootha, na gornjoj je razini imao manju odaju u kojoj se sastajalo unutarnje vijeće vijećnika, udvostručeno kao gradonačelnikov sud. U prizemlju su bili zatvori za muškarce i žene, mala kapelica na trijemu služila je zarobljenicima. Tamnice u kripti bile su za opasnije kriminalce.


  1. 1 Nizozemski dizajn mogao bi potaknuti obnovu kružnog toka opasnosti
  2. 2 Dva restorana Norfolk u prvih pet tajnih i#39 mjesta za jelo na engleskoj obali
  3. 3 Princ William, George i Charlotte započinju utrke u Sandringhamu
  1. 4 Rijetko stanje ubija vozača kamiona i zapanjujuće
  2. 5 'Više kao ožujak ' - Pa kad ćemo vratiti sunčevu svjetlost?
  3. 6 Prodaja strojeva označava kraj 100-godišnje obiteljske poljoprivredne povijesti
  4. 7 Možete bježati, gospodine Hancock, ali se ne možete skrivati
  5. 8 Farke o svojoj ugovornoj situaciji u Cityju
  6. 9 U telefonskoj kutiji Norwich otvara se trgovina s kaktusima koja prodaje biljke od 95 funti
  7. 10 Upozorenje zbog prijevare snimanja hladnih poziva u Norfolku

• U četvrtak, 20. studenog u 18:00 Frank Meeres će govoriti o ubojstvima i prekršajima: Norwich Guildhall i gradski kriminalci.

Pridružite se povjesničaru i arhivisti Franku kako biste razgovarali o povijesti zgrade i njezinom udjelu u suđenjima nekim od najzloglasnijih gradskih kriminalaca. Krivovjerci, ubojice i lopovi suđeni su za svoje zločine u Guildhallu. Saznajte o kazni izrečenoj za krađu dvije boce, tragičnoj priči o mladoj Jane Sellers i o tome kako je korištena za vrijeme velikih pošasti.

• U četvrtak 27. studenog u 18:00 Maurice Morson govorit će o ubojstvima u Norwichu.

Tko je bila Martha Sheward i zašto su njezini ostaci pokopani ispod Guildhalla? Koja su se ispitivanja dogodila? A koga je ubojica uhitio glavnog policajca ispred zgrade?

U svom govoru Maurice, bivši gradski policajac koji je postao šef Norfolk CID -a, a sada je uspješan autor, otkrit će neka od jezivih ubojstava koja su se dogodila u gradu.

• Ulaznice za oba razgovora koštaju 5 GBP. Za više informacija posjetite www.heritagecity.org

Postanite navijač

Ove su novine središnji dio života zajednice dugi niz godina. Naša industrija se suočava s vremenima testiranja, zbog čega tražimo vašu podršku. Svaki doprinos će nam pomoći da nastavimo s proizvodnjom lokalnog novinarstva koje čini mjerljivu razliku za našu zajednicu.


Vremenska crta Norwicha

Pročitajte o nekim od najvažnijih datuma u Norwichu i rsquosu u povijesti, uključujući i vrijeme izgradnje dvorca Norwich, katedrale Norwich i drugih povijesnih i važnih zgrada. Kad je Crna smrt stigla u Norwich, Kett & rsquos pobuna i kada su razorni požari pogodili grad. Pogledajte važne datume u povijesti za robnu kuću Jarrold, senf Colman & rsquos, Sveučilište East Anglia, međunarodnu zračnu luku Norwich i nogometni klub Norwich City.

Norwich je malo anglosaksonsko naselje, sjeverno od rijeke Wensum s vlastitom kovnicom. Tijekom 10. stoljeća Norwich se brzo širio na južnu obalu rijeke

Danci pale Norwich - sa zgradama od drveta i slame to je bilo lako. Međutim, Norwich je obnovljen i ubrzo je počeo cvjetati

Normani počinju s radom na dvorcu Norwich

U vrijeme Domesday Book -a Norwich je imao oko 6.000 stanovnika i bio je jedan od najvećih gradova u Engleskoj. Glavna industrija bila je proizvodnja vune

Biskup seli svoje mjesto iz Thetforda u Norwich

Počinju radovi na izgradnji nove katedrale od kremena i žbuke

Norwich je Richardu I dodijelio gradsku povelju, dokument koji ljudima daje određena prava

Veliku bolnicu osnovao je biskup Walter de Suffield, a izvorni korisnici bili su siromašni učenjaci, bolesni i gladni siromasi i stari svećenici

Tijekom građanskog rata Norwich su otpustili pobunjenički baruni, ali se ubrzo oporavio

U Norwichu postoje neredi - s neslaganjem između vjernika i građana Norwicha oko dužnosti, granica i prava

Katedrala posvećena u prisutnosti Edwarda I.

Godine 1278. izgrađen je Kravlji toranj za naplatu cestarine

Norwich ima oko 10.000 stanovnika, a glavna industrija je proizvodnja vune. U ovom trenutku postoji i važna industrija kože

Kuga/Crna smrt stiže u Norwich

Bridewell je izgrađen i koristi se kao zatvor između 1583. i 1828. godine

Tijekom Seljačke bune pobunjenici su zauzeli Norwich. Međutim, Norwich nisu dugo držali, a biskup je okupio vojsku, pobunjenici su se povukli u North Walsham gdje su poraženi

Norwich dobiva novu povelju i dobio je gradonačelnika i dva šerifa

Guildhall je izgrađen između 1407. i 1413. i služio je kao sjedište gradske uprave s početka 15. stoljeća. Godine 1938. zamijenjena je novoizgrađenom Gradskom vijećnicom

Erpinghamska vrata, veličanstven kremen i kamena vrata podignuta su točno nasuprot zapadnom pročelju katedrale oko 1420. godine, a darovao ih je Sir Thomas Erpingham

Sir Peter Mancroft izgrađen je između 1430. - 1455. - najveća crkva u Norwichu

1463. grom u katedralu Norwich & rsquos udara grom i krov broda je uništen. 1480. izgrađen je novi špil

Norwich trpi jak požar, s još dva požara 1507. godine. S većinom zgrada od drva i slame vatra je bila stalna opasnost

Kett & rsquos pobuna u Norfolku bila je za vrijeme vladavine Edwarda VI. Razjareni postupanjem prema zemljoposjednicima, mnogi su se poljoprivrednici pobunili i pokrenuli pobunu u Wymondhamu, uništavajući ograde koje su postavili bogati zemljoposjednici. Predvođeni poljoprivrednikom Robertom Kettom, pobunjenici su 29. srpnja upali u Norwich i zauzeli grad. Pobunjenici su poraženi u drugom pokušaju, ovaj put od vojske pod vodstvom grofa od Warwicka u bitci za Dussindale. Kett i mnogi pobunjenici zarobljeni su i obješeni

Tkalci dolaze u Norwich iz današnje Nizozemske i Belgije, bježeći od vjerskih progona, dovodeći sa sobom svoje kanarince. Mještani su ubrzo usvojili uzgoj ovih ptica kao hobi, a do 18. stoljeća Norwich je postao poznat po svojim kanarincima. Tu je nogometni klub Norwich City dobio nadimak Kanarinci

Izbijanje kuge ubija oko trećine populacije Norwich & rsquos

Norwich ima oko 25.000 stanovnika, unatoč izbijanju kuge 1625. i 1665. godine

Betelska bolnica, za mentalno bolesne, izgrađena je

Prve novine u Norwichu izlaze 1721

Projektirao arhitekt Thomas Ivory, izgrađena je Skupštinska kuća. Postao je zabavni centar za okupljanja, koncerte i plesove za plemiće iz Norwicha

Prva banka osnovana je u Norwichu, a 1775. godine lokalna obitelj, John i Henry Gurney, pokrenula je banku koja i danas opstaje u sklopu Barclaysa

Osnovana je bolnica Norfolk i Norwich

Norwich ima 36.000 stanovnika

Kraljevsko kazalište preuredio je William Wilkins, lokalni graditelj i arhitekt

Tijelo ljudi nazvano Povjerenici za poboljšanje formirano je za asfaltiranje, čišćenje i osvjetljavanje ulica Norwicha

Jeremiah Colman osnovao je Colman & rsquos iz Norwicha 1814. godine u mlinu Stoke Holy Cross na rijeci Tas, četiri milje južno od Norwicha

U Norwichu velike boginje ubiju 530 ljudi

Jarrold & amp Sons Ltd osnovan je 1770. u Woodbridgeu, Suffolk, a preselio se u Norwich 1823. godine.

Formirana je prva policija Norwich & rsquosa

Željeznica Norwich otvorena je 1844

Vijeće gradi opskrbu čistom vodom

U Norwichu se otvara prva javna knjižnica

Izgrađena je kanalizacijska mreža

Osnovana je srednja škola za djevojčice Norwich

U Norwichu počinje čišćenje sluma

Otvara se željeznička stanica Norwich City

Počinju radovi na izgradnji rimokatoličke katedrale u Norwichu

Osnovan je HM zatvor Norwich, a zatvorenici su prebačeni iz dvorca u novi zatvor

Osnovan je City College Norwich

Dvorac Norwich otvara se kao muzej

Sagrađena je Royal Arcade, koju je projektirao i izgradio arhitekt rođen u Derehamu George Skipper

Električni tramvaji voze u Norwichu#45 i prelaze više od 17 milja

U Norwichu živi 111.733 stanovnika

Osnovan je Nogometni klub Norwich City, a njihova kultna himna "The#Ball", City ', za koju se smatra da je najstarija nogometna pjesma na svijetu i koja se pjeva i danas, također se smatra da datira oko 1902. godine

Nogometni klub Norwich City preselio se u The Nest, napuštenu jamu s kredom

Otvara se prvo kino Norwich & rsquos. Poznat kao TDL ili Theater de Luxe, bio je to prva "palača slika" u gradu

1921. dovršeno je pretvaranje Rimokatoličke kapele u radno kazalište i osnovano kazalište Maddermarket

Ethel Colman prva je dama lord gradonačelnica Norwicha i kći senf diva Jeremiaha Jamesa Colmana

Heigham Park službeno je otvoren, a radovi su započeli 1921

Woodrow Piling Park otvoren je 1927

Otvoreni su park Sloughbottom i vrtovi Mile Cross

Službeno otvaranje zračne luke Norwich na mjestu u Mouseholdu

Park Waterloo otvoren je 1933

U Norwichu prestaju voziti električni tramvaji

Nogometni klub Norwich City preselio se na Carrow Road sa svog nekadašnjeg terena, The Nest

U travnju su njemačke snage bombardirale Norwich zračnim napadom

U Norwichu se gradi nova središnja knjižnica

Nogometni klub Norwich City osvojio je Liga kup

Sveučilište Norwich osnovano je 1963. godine i primilo je prvu kohortu od 87 studenata ove godine

Zračna luka Norwich preselila se u Horsham St Faith

Prvi blagdanski čarter letovi počinju letjeti iz zračne luke Norwich

Nogometni klub Norwich City promaknut je u vodeći rang

U Norwichu se otvara trgovina senfa Colman & rsquos, koja se zatvara u travnju 2017

Otvara se Norwich Arts Center

Otvara se centar za vizualnu umjetnost Sainsbury, smješten na kampusu Sveučilišta East Anglia & rsquos, a projektirali su ga arhitekti Norman Foster i Wendy Cheesman

Osnovano je kazalište lutaka Norwich. Prvi put je otvorena za javnost 1980., nakon prenamjene srednjovjekovne crkve sv. Jakova, u srcu Norwicha

Otvara se kazalište Sewell Barn

Nogometni klub Norwich City osvojio je Liga kup

Otvara se terminal zračne luke Norwich

Službeno pokretanje Norwich Research Parka

Otvara se trgovački centar Castle Mall, kojem je trebalo oko 4 godine za dovršetak, zauzimajući gotovo 7 hektara u središtu Norwicha

Izgorjela središnja knjižnica Norwich

Norwich Playhouse otvara se u malterancijama iz 19. stoljeća

Otvara se Riverside Leisure Complex

Osnovana Norfolk i Sveučilišna bolnica Norwich

Forum je dovršen, izgrađen na mjestu prethodne knjižnice Norwich koja je izgorjela 1994. godine

Otvara se trgovački centar Chapelfield

99.9 Radio Norwich počinje emitirati

Zgrada kazališta Royal je obnovljena

Norwich je 2009. bio domaćin grada & rsquos prvog Gay Pride događaja, za regije lezbijske, homoseksualne, biseksualne i trans životne zajednice

Počinje Norwich Film Festival

Prema popisu iz 2011. u gradu Norwichu živi 132.512 ljudi

Colman & rsquos gorušica zatvara se u travnju 2017

Gore navedeno je vremenski okvir Norwicha i namjerava poslužiti kao nešto od interesa i ne tvrdi da je potpuno točno. Iako je velika pažnja posvećena metodičkom istraživanju ovih datuma i događaja u Norwichu, možda postoje neke netočnosti (npr. Tijekom istraživanja, u knjigama i na internetskom materijalu za isti događaj pronađeni su različiti datumi!)

Ako želite vidjeti nešto dodano na ovoj vremenskoj traci za koje mislite da nije trebalo propustiti, slobodno nas kontaktirajte.


Vrsta mjesta:

Pristup foajeu i Caley's Cocoa Cafeu:
Pon -pet 10 - 4.30
Sub 10.30 - 5
Ned 11-3

Obilasci povijesnog Guildhalla - svakog petka (osim državnih praznika) 10 i 2

Otkrijte jedinstvenu povijest The Guildhall-a, najveće i najsloženije engleske provincijske srednjovjekovne gradske vijećnice u ovoj jednosatnoj turneji iz Guildhall Guides-a, koja otvara skriveno naslijeđe zgrade.

Pogledajte detaljnu Vijećnicu gradonačelnika s ukrasnom drvenom stolarijom i zapanjujućim vitrajima, gotovo netaknutu kasno-viktorijansku sudnicu s hrastovim oblogama i atmosfersku podzemnu podlogu koja je bila prije Guildhalla i koja je korištena za smještaj opasnih kriminalaca.

Područja ove zgrade trenutno funkcioniraju kao uredi, pa su neka područja uvijek nedostupna.


Grb Norwicha

Grbovi dizajnirani za identifikaciju skupina vojnika u žaru borbe također su korišteni u gradovima kako bi se identificirali i izvor njihovog autoriteta.

Oba simbola na Norwich kotaču rms -a su borilačka i ukazuju na dugu vezu s krunom koja je gradu davala određene privilegije. Ovaj građanski grb opisan je kao: “Gules, dvorac s trostrukim tornjevima i kupolastim argentom u bazi, lav prohodni gvardant Or ” . Jednostavno rečeno: crveni štit, srebrni dvorac, zlatni lav. Postoje, međutim, mnoge stilske varijacije: koliko god često dvorac s trostrukim tornjem nije kupolast.

Bez kupole ili kupole. Grb Norwich Cityja u gradskoj vijećnici (1938). Lijevo, na vratima Betelske ulice u odjel blagajnika i desno, unutar dvorane ‘Rates ’.

Dvorac je, naravno, normanski, no otprilike stoljeće nakon osvajanja pojavio se gradski lav za vrijeme vladavine Plantageneta. Čini se da je povezanost između lava i engleske krune započela za vrijeme vladavine kralja Ivana, no John -ov stariji brat, Richard Lionheart, bio je posebno povezan s lav passant guardant [1] odnosno hodanje s podignutom prednjom šapom (passant) i glava okrenuta ulijevo, cijelo lice (čuvar). Ovo je verzija životinje koja figurira na svim gradskim heraldičkim spravama. Osim što čuvaju ulaz u gradsku vijećnicu, brončani lavovi pod utjecajem Asirca, Alfred Hardiman, dvije su naše najljepše građanske skulpture, ali su u suprotnosti s ostalim lavovima Norwicha koji ne gledaju lijevo. To je možda zato što su arhitekti vidjeli lava izloženog na izložbi Britanskog carstva 1936. godine prije nego što su naručili njegova blizanca [2].

Gledajući ravno naprijed, jedan od lavova Alfreda Hardimana (1938.) ispred gradske vijećnice [3]

Veza s Richardom I odnosi se na povelju iz 1194. u kojoj je građanima dopustio da sami izaberu Reevea - ekvivalentno ‘predsjedniku ’ općine [4]. Temelj samouprave obično se datira pod povelju Richarda#8217 iako je prije toga možda postojao stupanj neovisnosti općine [5].

Guildhall, najveća srednjovjekovna građanska zgrada izvan Londona, izgrađena je 1407.-1412. Godine kako bi upravljala samoupravnim ovlastima koje je gradu dao Henrik IV. Kraljska povelja iz 1404. dodijelila je gradu status okruga i, poput Londona, omogućila građanima da izaberu gradonačelnika [6]. Dokumenti koje je izdalo vijeće ovjereni su gradskim grbom u obliku voštanog pečata izravno ili viseći.

Lijevo i desno: rani voštani pečati C15 iz zbirke Colman ’s zbirke Norfolk Record Office COL5/1. Centar: “Uobičajeni ili gradski pečat, sada u upotrebi ” Blomefield 1806 [6]

Ponosan status grada kao ‘civitas‘, oblik gradske države, priznat je na karti Norwicha u Cuninghamu ’s iz 1558, što je vjerojatno najranija sačuvana tiskana karta bilo kojeg engleskog grada ili grada.

Karta Norwicha od strane građanina Williama Cuninghama, ‘Doktor u Physickeu ’ 1558 (Britanska knjižnica)

U gornjem desnom kutu možemo vidjeti dvorac i lava kojega su povećala dva pristaše koji se, kao što ćemo vidjeti, pojavljuju u raznim oblicima kroz povijest grada.

Stoljeće prije toga, oko 1450. godine, vijećnik John Wighton - čija je radionica vitraja napravila veliki istočni prozor sv. Petra Mancrofta - zastaklio je prozor vijećnice u Guildhallu. Učinio je to za gradonačelnika i bogatog trgovca vunom Roberta Toppesa koji je svoj posao vodio iz Zmajeve dvorane u King Streetu (vidi 7 za potpuniji prikaz slikanog stakla Norwich School).

Između dva anđela nalazi se vlastiti grb Toppesa i#8217, koji ispod svakog anđela umanjuje gradski grb.

Gradski grb sredinom C15, s prozora Toppes u Guildhallu

Nasuprot stražnjem ulazu u Cinema City, gradski grb se može vidjeti među nizom od 13 štitova isklesanih na istočnom kraju crkve sv. Andrije#8217 i datiranih u obnovu crkve 1500.-1506.

Norwich oružje na crkvi sv. Andrije ’ Crkva oko 1505. Zapazite pojednostavljeni dvorac i suprotni lav

Dobar primjer gradskog grba C16 može se vidjeti u Surrey Houseu, ranoj zgradi C20 koju je za Norwich Union projektirao George Skipper. Vitraž je relikt iz kuće grofa od Surreya koji je ranije stajao na ovom mjestu u današnjoj ulici Surrey.

Iz kuće C16 grofa od Surreya u ulici Surrey, Norwich

Zvao se grof od Surreya, Henry Howard, sin vojvode od Norfolka “najludo ponosniji dječak koji je u Engleskoj ” i ponos je doveo do njegove propasti. Surrey je odrastao u dvorcu Windsor s izvanbračnim sinom Henryja VIII. Henry Fitzroya. Kralj je povjerovao da Surrey-ustrajni anti-protestant-planira uzurpirati zakonitog sina Henryja VIII, Edwarda VI, kada je naslijedio krunu. Čini se da je okidač bio kada se Surrey razmetnuo svojim podrijetlom iz engleske kraljevine pričvršćujući (četvrtine) ruke Edwarda Ispovjednika za svoje. Pogubljen je zbog izdaje u tridesetoj godini, ali je njegov otac, koji je trebao dijeliti tu sudbinu, spašen kada je Henry VIII umro dan prije planiranog pogubljenja [8].

Na pozadini pretjeranog ponosa povezanog s grbovima, drugo oklopno staklo u prostoriji Ante u Surrey Houseu [9] poprima dodatni sloj značenja.

Oko 1900. godine, tri mramorna mozaika gradskog oružja postavljena su na ulazima u građanske zgrade: Guildhall, dvorac Norwich i Tehnički institut (danas Norwich University of Arts). Ali ne mogu pronaći nikakve zapise o talijanskim obrtnicima koji su živjeli u ulici Ber, a za koje se izvijestilo da su ih napravili.

Na južnoj strani Guildhalla nalazi se Bassingham Gateway, podrijetlom iz kuće London Street Johna Bassinghama, zlatara u vrijeme vladavine Henrika VIII. Kad je 1855.-18. London Street proširen, gateway je kupio William Wilde za 10 £ i ubacio ga u Magistrate ’s ulaz u Guildhall [10].

Uspoređujući ovo s fotografijom vrata Plugeta Georgea Plunketta iz 1934. godine [10], oštar rezbarija bi izgledala kao dio poslijeratne obnove. Lav je sada izrazito orijentalni.

Iako postoje male varijacije u načinu na koji su prikazane, dvorac i lav konstanta su u grbu grada. Pristalice su varijabilnije - bočne figure koje se pojavljuju na nekim verzijama krakova. Na karti Cuninghama iz 1558 (gore) pojavili su se kao kerubini.

1511. krov gradonačelnikove odaje u Guildhall-u se srušio, a pri obnovi 1535.-15. Šahovska ploča istočnog pročelja dobila je grbove, gradski grb dvorca i lava zaštićen je naoružanim anđelima, a neodređeni oblik lebdio je iznad štit [3].

Grad ima jedan od tri grba na istočnom kraju Guildhalla. (Središnji krakovi [nisu prikazani] bili su oni Henrika VIII, ali više nisu čitljivi)

Iznad ovog grba na istočnom zidu nalazi se kupola sa satom iz 1850. godine, posvećena gradonačelniku Henryju Woodcocku. Sa strane sata nalaze se dva nenaoružana anđela, od kojih svaki grči grb grada.

Zanimljivo je da pozlaćeni natpis na donjem rubu sata daje moto vojvoda od Norfolka (Sola Virtus Invicta, Samo je vrlina nepobjediva) koji dugo nisu imali veze s gradom ili županijom [3]

Ilustracija u Blomefieldovoj autoritativnoj knjizi o povijesti Norwicha [6] također ima dva anđela kao pristaše, ovaj put naoružane, no objekt iznad štita teško je čitati u ovom obliku.

Oružje grada Norwicha. Iz Blomefielda [7] 1806

Knjiga Hudson i Tingey iz#1902 o povijesti Norwicha iz 1906. [4] također prikazuje štit s dva anđela čuvara, au ovom slučaju objekt iznad ruku rješava se kao šešir. Jedan izvor opisuje ovo kao šešir upravnika, yeoman ’s (yeoman warder ’s?) [2], drugi kao krznena kapa [12]. (Nakon što je objavio ovaj članak, bivši šerif Beryl Blower rekao mi je da je ovo možda gradonačelnikova svečana kapa održavanja i vidim da Blomefield kaže da kapu održavanja nosi nositelj mača u svim javnim prilikama).

Norwich City Arms utisnut na naslovnici Hudsona i Tingeya, 1906. [4]

Šešir se također pojavljuje na plavoj svjetiljci u policijskoj postaji, koja je pričvršćena na zapadnoj strani Vijećnice, ali nema anđela čuvara.

Policijska postaja, Betelska ulica 1938

Sama gradska vijećnica je centralni grb, čak je bilo i planova da se na vrhu tornja nalazi anđeo prije nego što ga seče iz razloga troškova [3]. Gradsko oružje pojavljuje se iznad ulaza u odjel gradskog blagajnika u Betel ulici sa svim svojim dodacima: šešir i anđeli u stilu Art Deco s boka tradicionalnog grba.

Eric Aumonier koji je također dizajnirao Art Deco skulpturu za londonsko podzemlje

Primjeri ‘punog kompleta ’ mogu se vidjeti i na ugraviranom staklenom prozoru iznad stepenica koje vode iz prizemlja Gradske vijećnice …

Dizajnirao Eric Clarke, a slikao James Michie [13]

… i na ratnom spomen obilježju Lutyens ’, okrenuto prema gradskoj vijećnici u ulici St Peter ’s.

Dodatni elementi (šešir i anđeli) koji su se pojavili neko vrijeme nakon prvotne dodjele grba lava i dvorca kompliciraju ono što je nekad bio jednostavan i učinkovit dizajn. Oružani koledž ne prepoznaje anđele s boka ne isporučujući s pristašama ruke poput crtića na ova dva projekta srednjeg razdoblja C20 označile su povratak jednostavnosti (iako pitanje hoće li se dvorac kupolirati ili ne još nije riješeno) .

Kupolasto ili neokupovano. Lijevo, škola Hewitt desno, Alderson Place, Finkelgate. Ova dva građanska projekta nadzirao je gradski arhitekt David Percival otprilike 1958. godine

Desna verzija gradskog oružja također se pojavljuje na Percival-ovoj preuređenju iz 1960. na Ružarijevoj cesti.

© 2018 Reggie Unthank

Hvala Cliveu Cheesmanu, Richmond Heraldu s College of Arms za informacije o grbu Norwich.


7 razloga da volite povijesni Norwich

Norwich je jedini engleski grad u Nacionalnom parku (Norfolk Broads) i do industrijske revolucije bio je drugi najveći grad u zemlji.

‘Norwich ima sve’ prema Nikolausu Pevsneru.

Poznat po pubovima, crkvama, kulturnoj sceni i krivudavim popločanim ulicama, Norwich je jedini engleski grad u Nacionalnom parku (Norfolk Broads) i do industrijske revolucije bio je drugi najveći grad u zemlji.

Ovdje slavimo 7 razloga da volimo povijesni Norwich:

1. Srednjovjekovna čuda

Norwich je najcjelovitiji srednjovjekovni grad u Velikoj Britaniji i dom je mnogih netaknutih, popločanih ulica iz tog razdoblja. Norwich Guildhall najveća je preživjela srednjovjekovna građanska zgrada izvan Londona, a grad ima jednu od najvećih normanskih katedrala u Britaniji. Uz brijest brijestova i u Tomblandu postoje mnoge prepoznatljive zgrade Tjudora.

2. Najveće pokriveno tržište u Europi

Na svom sadašnjem mjestu tržište djeluje više od 900 godina, ali prvotno tržište otvoreno je u drugom dijelu 11. stoljeća za normanske trgovce i doseljenike. Nekoliko puta je obnavljan i redizajniran, a danas je to najveće natkriveno tržište u Europi, na štandovima se prodaje hrana i odjeća iz cijelog svijeta. Norwich je bio glavno trgovačko središte u 14. stoljeću, što je grad učinilo velikim i prosperitetnim: Guildhall na popisu I stupnja izgrađen je uz tržnicu kako bi služio kao središte lokalne uprave do 1938. kada je izgrađena nova gradska vijećnica.

3. Složena vjerska povijest

Govorilo se da Norwich ima crkvu za svaku nedjelju i pub za svaki dan u godini. Unatoč tome, Norwich je također opisan kao "najbožji grad" u Engleskoj kada se više od 40% stanovnika izjasnilo da "nema vjeru" na popisu 2011. godine. To je ujedno i jedini engleski grad koji je Papa u potpunosti ekskomunicirao, nakon što su izbili neredi u 13. stoljeću. Kapija sv. Ethelbert's#8217s je zakazani spomenik, koji lokalno stanovništvo plaća kao pokoru za nasilje.

4. Grad književnosti

Godine 2012. Norwich je postao prvi engleski grad književnosti pod zaštitom UNESCO -a, a 1608. to je bilo mjesto prve knjižnice koju je osnovala korporacija u zgradi u korporativnom vlasništvu izvan Londona. U međuvremenu, visoko cijenjeni tečaj kreativnog pisanja na Sveučilištu East Anglia proizveo je nobelovca Kazua Ishigura i nekoliko dobitnika Bookerove nagrade.

5. It’s not all medieval

Alongside its medieval history, Norwich is also home to an array of 20th century buildings, many of which are listed. Denys Lasdun’s Norfolk and Suffolk Terrace (better known as the Ziggurats) at the University of East Anglia are Grade II* listed and amongst the boldest designs of any post-war university. Directly opposite, Foster Associates Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts: a vast hanger-like space, is also Grade II* listed.

In the centre of the city The Forum, designed by Hopkins Architects, was opened in 2001 and the large plaza out front is a well-loved meeting place for young people.

6. The first council to get online

Thanks to its forward-thinking Treasurer, Mr A.J. Barnard, the City of Norwich was one of, if not the first, local authority to use computer technology. The Elliott 405 computer was delivered to Norwich City Hall in 1957, and became operational in April of the same year: the event was celebrated with a press conference and hosted by the Lord Mayor.

7. Strangers and canaries

The symbol of the city, the canary, was an import: brought by refugees from the Low Countries, who came to the area seeking refuge from religious persecution in Holland Belgium in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the early 20th century the local football team, Norwich City, began to be referred to as the canaries. The weaving trade was also brought by the refugees, and Grade I listed Strangers Hall got its name from the ‘strangers’ from Belgium and Holland who lived there.

Norwich is special as one of England’s great historic cities, and we are concerned about proposals for the planned redevelopment of Anglia Square. Find out more here.


Sadržaj

The county town of Norfolk, Norwich is a city on the River Wensum in the East of England. Its origins are unclear, but by the reign of King Æthelstan (924–939) the city was a major trading centre and one of the most important boroughs in England. [1] The Anglo-Saxon settlement was centred around Tombland, a large open space at the point where the roads into Norwich converged. [1] The plain of Tombland was the site of Norwich's market. [1]

Following the Norman conquest of England (1066–1071), Norwich was radically redesigned. Norwich Cathedral was built immediately to the east of Tombland and much of the old town to the southwest of Tombland was cleared for the motte of Norwich Castle. A new Norman town was built west of the Castle, in an area known as Mancroft. [1] [note 1] The new town at Mancroft included a market of its own to provide for the Norman settlers and merchants moving into the area, and possibly also to supply the castle's garrison. [1] The exact date of the foundation of the market at Mancroft is not recorded, but it is known to have been operational by the time the Domesday Book was compiled in 1086. [1] Granting the right to trade in Norman England was a part of the Royal Prerogative and, as with most fairs and markets of the period, the market at Mancroft was operated under licence from the King. The King's Clerk had jurisdiction over all trade conducted at the market, and tolls and rents were collected on behalf of the King. [3]

Almost no records survive of the Norman market in the 11th to 13th centuries. [1] It is known that shortly after the market's establishment, a tollhouse was built nearby, which served as a collection point for taxes on trade. [1] Although the precise location of the tollhouse is not recorded, it was immediately north of the market on part of the site now occupied by the Guildhall. [1] At some point soon after its construction, the tollhouse also became the centre for the civil administration of the city. [1] Although the Tombland market retained its charter to host an annual horse fair, [4] over time the market at Mancroft supplanted that at Tombland as the principal market of the area. [1] At the end of the 11th century, the Tombland market was removed during construction work on Norwich Cathedral. [4]

By the start of the 14th century, Norwich was one of Europe's major cities. East Anglia was at this time one of the most densely populated areas in England, producing large amounts of grain, sheep, cattle and poultry. Much of this produce was traded in Norwich, an inland port roughly at the centre of the region. [5] The City, meanwhile, had industrialised, its growth based on textiles, leather and metalworking, as well as being the administrative centre of the region. [6] By 1300, Norwich had a population of between 6,000–10,000, [5] with a total of around 20,000 people living in the area. [7] (One 19th century historian estimated Norwich's population pre-1349 at as high as 70,000. [8] ) It was one of the largest and most prosperous cities in the country, [5] and was considered the second city of England. [7] Aside from occasional fairs, the majority of all goods produced in or imported to the region passed through the market at Mancroft. [5] While there is some evidence that the market operated daily for a period around 1300, it generally operated on Wednesdays and Saturdays. [5]

Layout Edit

The market had by this time taken on roughly the layout it retains today. It was a long rectangular open space aligned north–south, with the tollhouse (the Guildhall after 1413) marking the northern end and the very large church of St Peter Mancroft marking the southern end. [9] (St Peter Mancroft was built in 1430–55 incorporating an earlier church built in 1075 and was financed by the market's merchants. It retains its association with the market all stallholders retain the right to hold their weddings in the church and to be buried in the churchyard. [10] ) The marketplace sloped downwards from west to east. A long straight passageway called the Nethererowe or Nether Row (later renamed Gentleman's Walk) marked the eastern boundary. Another passage called the Overerowe, or Over Row (later renamed St Peter's Street, and since 1938 occupied by City Hall), marked the western boundary. [9]

The mediaeval market was divided into sections, each dealing with a particular trade. The stalls of the market were arranged in rows. They varied in width from 2 feet (60 cm) to 15 feet (460 cm). [5] Highly valuable, in the early years of the market they were generally owned by major institutions such as trade guilds and religious bodies, and generated a high income from rents. [5] They also provided a steady income for the King, and later the city, from perpetual rents. [3] The marketplace was surrounded by retail buildings, construction of which began in about 1300. These were fixed, permanent structures, some of which had multiple storeys and cellars. [5]

The northern section of the main market place, immediately south of the tollhouse, housed fishmongers, butchers, ironmongers and woolsellers. [9] This section of the market also housed the murage loft after 1294, where tolls to fund the building of Norwich's city walls were collected. [5] The southern section of the main market place, north of St Peter Mancroft, housed a bread market and a number of stalls associated with Norwich's significant cloth and leather industries. A broad space between the main marketplace and the Nethererowe was kept clear for the use of country smallholders, who would set up temporary booths and tents to sell their wares. [3]

South of St Peter Mancroft was a second marketplace dealing in wheat, poultry, cattle and sheep. [9] Pigs, horses, timber and dye were not traded in the main market, but had dedicated markets elsewhere in the city. [5] (The modern Norwich place names of Timberhill, St John Maddermarket and Rampant Horse Street derive from their origins as the sites of the mediaeval timber, dye and horse markets respectively. [5] )

Transfer to city control Edit

In 1341, King Edward III visited Norwich for a jousting tournament, coinciding with the completion of the city's defensive walls. Edward and his mother, Isabella of France, were very impressed by the city and, as a token of appreciation for bearing the costs of the defensive fortifications, Edward granted the franchise of the market to the city in perpetuity. [3] The control by the King's Clerk over trade at the market was ended and tolls and rents from the market from then on went directly to the city's bailiffs (the rulers of the city). [3]

With the powers of the King's Clerk abolished, the bailiffs of Norwich set about regulating the operation of the market for what they felt was the greatest benefit to the city. To encourage fair competition among the market's traders, it was forbidden to sell foodstuffs before the Cathedral bell had tolled for Lady Mass (6.00 am). [3] The practice of forestalling (meeting merchants on their way to the market either to buy their goods for resale, or to prevent them from attending the market and thus make goods of the type they were selling scarce and hence more expensive) was forbidden. Trading anywhere other than in the market was strongly discouraged and the right to re-sell goods at a profit was restricted to Freemen of the city. [3] [note 3] The prices of bread and beer were fixed, [note 4] and a set of standardised weights and measures was introduced, against which measures used by merchants would regularly be checked. [3] Shortly after the transfer of the market to the city a market cross was erected near the centre of the main market (opposite the present day entrance to Davey Place), the design of which is not recorded. [11]

In mid-1348, the outbreak of bubonic plague known as the Great Mortality (later referred to as the Black Death), which had swept across Europe during the past year, reached England for the first time with an outbreak in the south coast port of Melcombe. [12] The plague spread gradually over the rest of the country with devastating effect, causing a mortality estimated at between 30%–45%. [13] In late March 1349, the outbreak reached East Anglia and, for reasons which are not understood, increased drastically in intensity. [13] In 1349–50 alone, more than half the population of East Anglia died. [14] In 1369, East Anglia, whose farming economy had collapsed in the wake of the plague, was struck by famine.

Although the market continued to operate, in the immediate aftermath of the plague it was at a much reduced level and many stalls were left empty for some years after. [15] The famine of 1369 overwhelmed Norwich's burial grounds, necessitating an expansion of St Peter Mancroft's churchyard. The southernmost rows of stalls in the main marketplace, which had been occupied by drapers and linen merchants, [9] were removed to clear space for an enlarged churchyard. [15] By 1377, the population of Norwich had fallen from at least 20,000 before the outbreak to below 6,000. [14]

Although social order was maintained throughout the plague years, the economy of the region was devastated. [16] [note 5] However, the surviving merchant community were very influential in the city and, in the wake of the catastrophe, set about increasing the council's influence around the market, buying many of the surrounding shops. [15] The council also bought a set of wharves along King Street near Dragon Hall in 1397 and decreed that all goods entering Norwich by water be unloaded there. This ensured almost complete control of Norwich trade by the merchants who now dominated the council. [15]

The market soon began to recover from the plague years to become a major trading hub again. Records of 1565 show 37 butchers' stalls alone in the market, and Norwich also became a major centre for the import of exotic foods. Sugar, figs and prunes were traded in the market in the 16th century, and it is recorded that 20,000 oranges and 1,000 lemons were provided for the 1581 St Bartholomew's Day fair. [17]

Guildhall and new market cross Edit

In 1404, Norwich secured a royal charter granting it autonomy as "The County of the City of Norwich". The local council was restructured into a body headed by a Mayor and administered by Sheriffs and Aldermen the Mayor also formally became Clerk of the Markets, but in practice the running of the markets was always delegated to deputies. [15]

By this time, the tollhouse was proving inadequate as the seat of local government and between 1407 and 1413 it was demolished, along with an adjoining site which had housed a vegetable market, and was replaced by a new Guildhall. In keeping with Norwich's status, it was one of the largest civic buildings in England outside London and housed all aspects of local government and justice for the new council. [15] [note 6] The Guildhall cost between £400–£500 to build. [18] (As it was built primarily using pressed labour, modern equivalents of the building costs are virtually meaningless. The annual income of the city council at the time the Guildhall was built was around £120. [18] ) The eastern face of the Guildhall was built in a distinctive black and white checked design, representing the exchequer. [18] The undercroft of the tollhouse was retained for use as a dungeon, while a new basement served as a lock-up from the opening of the Guildhall until the 1980s. [18]

The murage loft in the market, redundant since the completion of the city walls, took over the functions of the old tollhouse and became the offices of the market supervisor and the collection office for market tolls and taxes. [15]

Between 1501 and 1503, Mayor John Rightwise had the original market cross demolished [19] and replaced with an elaborate new cross. This was octagonal in shape, stood on a plinth 30 feet (9 m) wide, and rose to a height of 60 to 70 feet (18 to 21 m). The central structure contained an oratory, occupied by a priest. [11]

Rightwise's new market cross only survived in its original form for a short time. During the English Reformation of the 1530s, the rood on the pinnacle was pulled down and the oratory became a storeroom. The octagonal plinth became a shopping arcade of small stalls. In 1549, a temporary gallows was erected at the cross for the mass execution of 60 of the participants in Kett's Rebellion, who had congregated in the marketplace during their brief capture of Norwich. [20] In 1574, a local law was enacted demanding that all unemployed men were to assemble at the market cross each morning at 5.00 am, along with the tools of their trade, and remain there for an hour in the hope that they would be offered work a bonesetter was hired to treat any men who claimed they were unfit for work through injury. The success of this scheme is not recorded. [19]

By the 17th century, the building was known as the Market House, and was used for the sale of grain and other goods sold by the bushel a set of approved measures were chained to the pillars for public use. [11] The archaic title of "Keeper of the Cross" was bestowed on the man appointed to sweep the marketplace weekly. [21] [note 7]

The market cross also served as the focal point of Norfolk's parliamentary elections. Candidates would bring large crowds of voters in by cart from the surrounding countryside and ply them with large quantities of free alcohol to ensure their support. [22] Candidates would pay for lodgings for the voters, but, in closely fought elections, more voters than usual would be shipped in and every inn in the city would fill, forcing voters to sleep in and around the cross. Sir Thomas Browne described the voters around the market cross as "like flocks of sheep" during the unusually close elections of 1678, at the height of the Exclusion Crisis. [22] Following the counting of the vote, the winning candidate would be carried three times around the market, followed by torch-bearers and trumpeters. By this time, the crowds would generally be extremely drunk on the liquor provided by the candidates, and elections would often degenerate into drunken revelry or fighting. [22]

Although it was popular with travelling vendors, particularly of small fancy goods, [11] the maintenance of the market cross was costly and unpopular with Norwich's citizens. In 1732 the cross was demolished, and the stone was sold for £125. [21] In 2005 the base of the cross was rediscovered in excavations during renovation of the market area, but has since been re-covered. [23] Its site is now outlined in red stones embedded in the market floor. [19]

With few fixed structures in the main marketplace, the plain traditionally served as a public open space on days when the market was not operational. [21] Before the Reformation in the 1530s, its main use was as a venue for religious festivals, particularly the annual procession of the Craft Guilds at Corpus Christi. [21] Most public religious festivals were abandoned following the Reformation and the subsequent dissolution of many of the mediaeval guilds, and the leading event on Norwich's civic calendar became the annual inauguration of the mayor, which took place each May. [25] [note 8]

The inauguration ceremony was conducted by the civic authorities and by the surviving, and still powerful, Guild of St George, and combined elements of a public festival and a religious carnival. [26] Four whifflers (city officials carrying swords) marched ahead of the procession to clear a path. Behind the whifflers, the incoming and outgoing mayors rode side-by-side, preceded by trumpeters and standard-bearers carrying the banners of England and St George, and followed by the city's Sheriffs and Aldermen in ceremonial gowns of violet and red, respectively. The procession was flanked by the city's waits (musicians playing loud wind instruments, usually the shawm) (a mediaeval double reed wind instrument with conical wooden body), and accompanied by dick fools (clowns carrying wands and wearing red and yellow gowns adorned with bells and cats' tails) and a man costumed as a dragon. [26]

As well as the mayoral inaugurations, the marketplace was also the setting for other public events, particularly mourning processions on the deaths of monarchs, coronation celebrations, [note 9] royal birthdays and celebrations of military victories. [26] Firework displays and bonfires would be held on these occasions, accompanied by the local militia firing volleys and the ringing of the bells of the surrounding churches, while local residents and shopkeepers would illuminate their windows with lit candles. [26] Often, particularly in the 18th century, temporary triumphal arches would be erected beside the Guildhall. [22] Free beer would traditionally be distributed at these events, which would on occasion degenerate into drunken disorder. [27]

The market was also the location for public punishment of wrongdoers, and stocks and a pillory were set at a prominent position at the eastern end of the Guildhall. The stocks were used for the punishment of relatively minor offences such as breaching the regulations on the price of bread, public brawling or incivility to the Mayor [22] wrongdoers would on occasion also be paraded around the market wearing paper hats bearing details of their offence. [19] The pillory was used for more serious offences such as sedition. On at least two occasions in the late 16th century people convicted of sedition were nailed to the pillory by their ears on completion of their time on the pillory their ears were cut off. Public whippings of criminals were also conducted in the marketplace. [22] Although not all executions in the period are recorded, it is known that public hangings also took place in the market square and around the market cross. [20]

By the 17th century, the market had also become the venue for many travelling entertainments. Exotic animals were displayed, including lions, tigers, camels and jackals, and displays by conjurers, puppeteers, singers, acrobats and other entertainers also regularly took place. Displays of human deformities were also popular records exist from the 1670s and 1680s of the Mayor granting exhibition licences to, among others, "a monstrous man with 2 bodies brought from the Indies by Sir Thomas Grantham", "a girl of sixteen with no bones", "a monstrous hayrie child", and "a monstrous man taken from amongst the hills of Corinthia, he feeds on the roots of trees etc". [20] Stages erected by charlatans selling medicines and demonstrating miracle cures were often erected near the Guildhall, prompting regular complaints from fishmongers that the crowds were blocking access to their stalls on at least one occasion one of these travelling doctors had his licence withdrawn 'because of possible damage to the city's economy by the distraction of "idle minds" from their work'. [20]

Improvements in Norfolk's road infrastructure and the development of the stagecoach system made Norwich an increasingly popular destination with travellers. Norwich was recovering from the plague years and was a major city, with attractions and social events second only to London itself. The increasingly prosperous country landowners of Norfolk and Suffolk began visiting Norwich more frequently and staying for longer when they did so. [28]

By the end of the 17th century many of the strict regulations regarding trade in Norwich were lifted or relaxed, and Norwich became a fashionable shopping town. Shops catering for the growing wealthy classes, such as booksellers, vintners and gunsmiths, grew around the market plain, [28] especially in the large buildings along the eastern side of the market, the Nethererowe, which became so popular with the gentry it became known as Gentleman's Walk. [29] Gentleman's Walk acquired a number of luxury shops, including John Toll's drapers from which Elizabeth Gurney (later Elizabeth Fry) watched the election of 1796, [30] the wine and spirit dealership of Thomas Bignold who in company with other local shopkeepers founded a mutual association to provide fire insurance for the area's shops which became Norwich Union, [31] and Saunders Coffee House, patronised by the young Horatio and William Nelson. [30]

By this time, a row of stalls bordering on St Peter Mancroft's churchyard had developed into a row of three- and four-storey houses running east to west, and a second row of buildings running north to south ran through the main market square. This row of houses cut off the main market from the eastern strip housing the butchers and fishmongers, known as the Upper Market, leaving only two narrow passageways as direct links between the two-halves of the market square. [32] (Although the buildings dividing the upper and lower markets were demolished in the 1930s, one of these connecting passages survives as Pudding Lane. [32] The name "Pudding Lane" derives from "ped", an archaic word for the large baskets from which itinerant traders sold goods in the market. [33] )

With increased numbers of people visiting Norwich, trade boomed in the inns around the marketplace. [32] In addition to the existing taverns, at least four very large coaching inns opened along Gentleman's Walk. By the latter half of the 18th century, stagecoaches were leaving one or other of the inns almost daily to London, and the inns also served as the hub of a network of frequent services throughout East Anglia. [34]

Built around long narrow yards, as well as serving food and drink and providing lodgings, these coaching inns also served as temporary warehouses, auction rooms and gambling halls for travellers doing business in the market. [35] The best known was the Angel, parts of which dated to the 15th century. As well as providing the other functions of the Norwich inns, its yard also served as a popular theatre and venue for other performers. (Despite its significance as a city, Norwich did not have a dedicated theatre until 1758. [35] ) However, in 1699 part of the building collapsed during a performance by Thomas Doggett's troupe of players, killing a woman and injuring many of the audience. The reputation of the Angel was severely damaged, and although still used for small-scale entertainments such as puppet shows, it was never again used for full-scale theatrical performances. [35]

Meanwhile, the livestock market south of St Peter Mancroft was becoming overwhelmingly crowded on market days. Eventually part of the eastern side of the castle mound was levelled, and in 1738 the livestock sales were moved to this new site. The old hay market remained on the old site for more than a century, until it was also moved to the new livestock market site in the early 19th century. [32] The new livestock market was one of the last significant livestock markets in a British city centre, and developed a reputation as "the cruellest in the country". [36] [note 10]

The relocation of the livestock market had done little to resolve the problems of congestion in and around the market. [39] Many of the mediaeval access routes to the market were too narrow for wheeled transport, and the narrow alleys were also dark, dangerous and mostly unpaved. [40] Although the market had been resurfaced during the 18th century, this had been with flint pebble cobblestones which were easily dislodged and trapped refuse. [41] William Chase, editor of the first Norwich Directory, lobbied in the late 18th century for civic improvements and a rationalisation of the streets around the market. However, the economy of Norwich depended heavily on the textile industry, which had suffered badly from the loss of export markets during the French Wars, and funds for improvements were limited. By the beginning of the 19th century the only significant improvement had been the paving of Gentleman's Walk. [40] In 1805 a number of Improvement Commissions were established to propose solutions to the problems facing the area, but little action was taken. Local councils had no powers to levy rates to fund general civic improvements and as a consequence funds for improvement works had to be raised either through tolls and rents, via public appeals, or through long term borrowing, and the city was initially unable to raise sufficient funds. [39]

In 1813 the yard of the King's Head coaching inn was widened to create Davey Place, [35] a new street between the market and Back of the Inns, at that time a narrow passageway which ran parallel to Gentleman's Walk behind the coaching inns. [42] (Although the inns no longer remain, Back of the Inns survives as a street name. [43] ) In 1820 the Gasolier, Norwich's first gas lamp, was installed in the market outside the entrance to Davey Place. [39] Exchange Street, a new road running north from the northeast corner of the market, was completed in 1828 and a roadway was installed alongside the existing footpath. [42] [44] London Street, the main road connecting the market with the older areas of the city around Tombland and the Cathedral was widened in 1856. [42] In 1860 the decrepit fish market adjacent to the Guildhall, by now over 700 years old, was replaced with a new neoclassical building. [45] In 1863 Gentleman's Walk was paved properly with York stone, and in 1874 the cobbles of the marketplace were replaced by timber blocks. [39] Although by this time the market operated on all working days, Sunday trading laws meant it was closed on Sundays. The market space on Sundays was used for public assemblies and gatherings. [46]

Meanwhile, Norwich railway station had opened in 1844. [47] Although many Norwich residents were reluctant to use the railway, and goods carriers initially found it more convenient to continue to collect goods from the coaching inns, [34] as railway usage gradually increased the number of coaches and carts calling at the inns slowly dwindled, reducing congestion. [44] In 1899 the Angel inn—renamed the Royal Hotel in 1840 on the occasion of Queen Victoria's wedding—finally closed, and was replaced with George Skipper's Royal Arcade, a shopping centre in the Art Nouveau style. [48]

Although the civic authorities initially resisted installing tramways in the city centre owing to concerns about nuisance and disruption, they eventually relented by the end of the 19th century Norwich had a total of 16 miles (26 km) of tram routes, including a route along Gentleman's Walk itself. [44] While schemes to rationalise the layout of the market's stalls had been proposed since the 18th century, they had foundered on the fact that so many of the stalls were privately owned. [44]

In the wake of the First World War the council's Markets Committee began a programme of gradually buying back all the privately owned stalls, with the intention of encouraging demobilised servicemen to work on the market. Within a few years the market was entirely publicly owned, and the council took responsibility for the upkeep of the market. [44] The city also bought out and closed many of the 30 or more inns in the area, transferring their licences to the growing suburbs. [49]

Meanwhile, the Guildhall, designed to serve the post-plague city with a population of around 6,000, was hopelessly inadequate as the administrative centre of a major modern city. As an interim solution the row of buildings dividing the upper and main markets had mostly been taken into public ownership and converted into civic offices, [44] and in January 1914 the 1860 fish market had also been enlarged and converted into offices. The Liberal welfare reforms of the early 20th century and the Local Government Act 1929 had greatly increased the role of local government in public health and welfare, and by the 1930s Norwich council was suffering from a severe lack of office space. [44]

The council opted for a radical redevelopment of the area around the upper market. [50] The row of buildings from St Peter Mancroft to the Guildhall, which divided the upper and lower markets, were demolished, opening up the marketplace, as were the buildings along the western side of the market. [50] The mixture of stalls and booths which occupied the market itself were all removed, and replaced by 205 stalls in uniform parallel rows, topped with multi-coloured sloping roofs (known locally as "tilts"). [51] [52] During the rebuilding of the market square, the existing stalls were relocated to a number of temporary locations in the area to allow them to continue trading, including the courtyard and rear of the City Hall development and surrounding streets. [53] In 1938 the coverings of the stalls were given the multi-coloured stripes for which they became famous. [54] [55]

In 1932, despite concerns from some local residents and businesses about the huge expense at a time of recession, a new building was envisaged to replace the demolished civic buildings, spanning the entire length of the western edge of the now unified marketplace. From over 140 entries a design by Charles Holloway James and Stephen Rowland Pierce was selected. [50] [56] Heavily influenced by Scandinavian architecture, the design attracted negative criticism at the time, with John Piper saying that "fog is its friend". [57] Opened by King George VI in 1938 as City Hall, [57] [note 11] the building proved extremely successful, and was described by Nikolaus Pevsner as "the foremost English public building between the Wars". [50] Norwich's war memorial, designed by Edwin Lutyens and opened in 1927 outside the Guildhall, was moved to a long narrow memorial garden on a raised terrace between City Hall and the enlarged market shortly after the opening of City Hall. [59] The Guildhall remained in use as a law court until 1985, and its basement remained in use as cells until that time. [18]

Although superficially the market remained little changed in the decades following the 1930s redevelopment, by the 1960s it was falling into disrepair, and it no longer met modern hygiene regulations. [60] A lack of funds delayed improvement works, and renovation works did not begin until February 1976. Hot and cold running water and refrigeration were provided to those stalls handling food, and many of the stalls were converted into lockable units. [51] New electrical mains cables were installed throughout the market, the site was resurfaced, and the elegant but ageing 19th century lavatories were demolished. [60] Aside from the demolition of the Victorian toilets, the only significant visible alteration was the addition of corrugated plastic covers over the walkways between the stalls. [51] [52] Although competition from supermarkets was by this time affecting shopping patterns, and the decline of market gardening meant a virtual end to stall-holders selling their own produce, the market survived competitive pressures. Many stalls diversified into specialist foods, clothing and other goods and the high number of stalls allowed the market to sell a range of goods as great as that provided by the supermarkets. [51]

While the 1976 renovations prolonged the life of the 1930s market, by the 1990s the market was once more becoming decrepit. The covers erected in 1976 over the walkways blocked sunlight, leaving much of the market dingy and poorly lit. The walkways themselves, already narrow, were becoming even more restricted as stalls erected external displays and additional weatherproofing. Removable shutters used to secure the stalls overnight were stacked against the sides of the stalls during trading hours, causing further obstruction, while on those stalls fitted with doors the doors opened outwards to maximise the limited space inside the units. In addition, the floors of stalls followed the slope of the hill, a gradient of about 1:12, causing health problems for those market workers who had to stand at this angle for prolonged periods during the day. [61] Norwich City Council decided that these problems needed to be addressed, and in December 2003 invited the public to choose between three proposals for a rebuilt market. [62]

These plans were extremely controversial. All three envisaged reducing the number of stalls from 205 to 140–160 to increase space, and all three involved splitting the market into isolated clusters of stalls, significantly altering its character and appearance. The Eastern Daily Press organised a campaign against the perceived unattractiveness of the designs, the proposed reduction in the number of stalls which would mean stallholders losing their jobs and the remaining stallholders facing rent increases to cover the difference, and the change to the character of central Norwich that such a radical redesign of the market would entail. A petition of over 12,000 signatories rejecting all three proposed designs was gathered. [63]

Following a public meeting on 26 January 2004 the council backed down, and Hereward Cooke, deputy leader of the council, said that "We are finding out what the stall-holders and people of Norwich want and we will try our best to fulfill their wishes". Architect Michael Innes proposed a new design, which was accepted by the council. [63] The new design was put in place in 2005. [64]

Innes's design retained the market's layout of parallel rows of stalls with striped coloured roofs. The new stalls were built as steel and aluminium prefabricated units consisting of four stalls each, each stall having a level floor accessed by a step. These "pods" were arranged in rows, with 2-metre (6 ft 7 in) wide walkways between the "pods". Transparent retractable canopies were installed above the aisles, which could be opened and closed centrally. [65]

To allow the market to continue trading while the rebuilding took place, a set of temporary stalls were built in Gentleman's Walk and surrounding streets. A third of the market's stalls at a time traded from these temporary stalls while their stalls in the main market were replaced, a process taking four months for each third of the market. [64] The rebuilding was officially completed on 25 March 2006. [66] Although generally popular with traders and shoppers, the redesign was criticised by Vrijeme, who described it as "an anaemic shopping mall for health and safety inspectors: straight lines, wipe-clean boxy cubicles, all life and love drained out." [67]

Meanwhile, in November 2004 engineers identified cracks in the terrace supporting the Memorial Gardens, and they were closed to the public as a potential hazard. Eventually in 2009 work began on renovating the gardens. Lutyens's memorial was dismantled and cleaned, and reassembled at a higher level to be visible from the street it was also rotated 180° to face City Hall, rather than the market. The terrace was strengthened, and the gardens were landscaped around a new sculpture by Paul de Monchaux on the original site of the memorial. [68]

Supermarkets continued to affect shopping patterns. In 1979 fruit and vegetable stalls occupied 70 of the market's 205 stalls by 1988 greengrocers occupied only 28 stalls, and by 2010 there were only seven remaining fruit and vegetable stalls on the market. [69] A wide variety of other stalls have taken their place, and the market remains active. One of the largest markets in Britain, it is a tourist attraction as well as remaining heavily used by local residents, and is a focal point of the city. [66]


Norwich Guildhall - History

Norwich Guildhall. The southern side view from outside City Hall

Norwich Guildhall je Grade I building on Gaol Hill in Norwich, Norfolk. It was constructed between 1407 and 1413 to enable the greater self-governing powers conferred upon Norwich by the Charter of 1404 to be administered more efficiently.

Henry IV had introduced a ‘Charter of Incorporation’ to Norwich, granting special privileges to the city and raising its importance to a new level. The charter allowed burgesses to elect a Mayor, collect taxes and hold their own courts of law and with the removal of the popular assembly, was a chance for the government to become more locally representative. Crucially, the charter gave Norwich Grad status.

Zgrada
By 1435 the tower and porch had been added and in 1440 all of the city records were brought over, a reminder of its political responsibility. By 1453 the final windows of the magnificent building were glazed, essentially marking the building’s completion.

An upper council (of twenty-four Aldermen, one Mayor and two Sheriffs), with members from ‘dignified’ society and given life-long membership, were to govern alongside the associated lower council, whose sixty members were to act as representatives from the local community. These changes to the political structure instigated a sense of civic pride among the citizens of Norwich many felt that the growth in the city’s responsibilities and self-governing power should be marked by the establishment of an equally fitting civic building.

Prisoners first occupied the crypts of the building in 1412. In 1511 both the tower at the west end and the roof of the Council Chamber, collapsed. The roof was reconstructed between 1534 and 1537 by Augustine Steward, at a cost of over £200. The destruction forced the Council Chamber to move to the east end of the building. As part of the works, the exterior wall of the eastern face of the new Chamber was faced with chequered flint work and freestone, and a central panel containing a fragment of the Arms of Henrik VIII, flanked by the City Arms and the arms of the St George’s Company.

In 1635 the Guildhall was almost accidentally demolished as salitra diggers went down too far. 1723 saw the reconstruction of the porch, and in 1747, after the destruction of the Shire Hall, the Guildhall took on further responsibilities and additional alterations were made. In 1850 the clock tower was erected as a gift from the Mayor, Henry Woodcock.

More renovations came in 1857, when the doorway of a house belonging to a Tudor goldsmith was taken down from its original location in London Street and placed in the south-west corner of the Guildhall. Additions to the south side of the building were constructed in 1861 by Thomas Barry, the City Surveyor, and further work was undertaken in 1908.

The Mayor and Officials Royal procession from Guildhall to open City Hall at Norwich in 1938

The Norwich Guildhall served as the seat of city government from the early 15th century until 1938, when it was replaced by the newly built City Hall. At the time of the building’s construction and for much of its history Norwich was one of the largest and wealthiest cities in England, and today the Guildhall is the largest surviving medieval civic building in the country outside of London.

As well as various courts, a prison and a chapel, the building contained facilities for accounting and tax collection, accommodation for civic officials (it remains the home of the Sheriff’s parlour today) and storage space for records, money and civic regalia. The Assembly Chamber (or Sheriff’s Court) was designed for meetings of the full medieval council. It now contains a virtually intact late Victorian courtroom.

The council chamber (or mayor’s court) is more elaborate with oak panelling, a 16-bay roof with tie-beams, renaissance decorative woodwork and stained glass. The undercroft, beneath the east end pre-dates the building, and is thought to be an original feature of the earlier toll-house on this site. It was used to accommodate more dangerous criminals.

The Norwich’s Heritage Economic and Regeneration Trust (HEART) has taken on a 25-year lease of the iconic landmark from Norwich City Council. As of January 2015 the building will be another place to explore Norwich’s past.

The Gates
The porch previously had a pair of iron gates to its outer threshold. These are thought to date from the 1720s and were removed several decades ago. They were recently ‘rediscovered’ and the City wishes to reinstate them.

I was asked to examine the paint on the gates.

BILJEŠKE
This has been taken from a variety of sources including Norwich HEART, Wikipedia and the Eastern Daily Press


Amazing Then and Now photos Show How Norwich Has Changed from the Norwich Blitz

During World War II, the German forces heavily bombarded Norwich and its surrounding areas, known as ‘The Norwich Blitz.’ The bombing was also launched in several other Britain’s cities in 1940. However, Norwich was not attacked until April and May 1942 as part of the so-called Baedeker raids. Targets were chosen for their cultural and historical value and not as strategic or military targets.

The furious bombing was launched on the evening of 27 April 1942, and it lasted for two days. There were further attacks in May and a heavy bombardment on 26 and 27 June in which Norwich Cathedral was damaged. Norwich Castle, the City Hall, and the Guildhall escaped while many residential streets were destroyed.

Here is a fantastic set of then and now photographs that show the Norwich landmarks immediately after the attack and how they look years later. Two pictures of the exact location in a single frame with the same angle.


Gledaj video: Guerre de Guilde #2 castle clash