Luzitanija potonula - Povijest

Luzitanija potonula - Povijest



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Među 1.200 putnika linijskog broda Lusitania bilo je 128 američkih državljana. Luzitaniju je potopila njemačka podmornica. Potonuće Luzitanije zatrovalo je odnose između Sjedinjenih Država i Njemačke, ali nije odmah rezultiralo američkom intervencijom u ratu.


Prvi svjetski rat također nije zaustavio putovanje Amerikanaca i Britanaca da pređu Atlantik. Britanska linija Cunard nastavila je ploviti svojim velikim brodovima između Liverpoola i New Yorka. RMS Lusitania je pušten u rad 1907. godine i bio je najbrži brod u upotrebi za održavanje brzine od 25 čvorova. Dok su Nijemci počeli koristiti podmornice protiv britanskog brodarstva, Luzitanija je bila uvjerena da je dovoljno brza da pretekne bilo koju njemačku podmornicu. Britanci su velik dio oružja kupovali od Sjedinjenih Država, a velik dio tog naoružanja plovio je na putničkim brodovima. Njemačko veleposlanstvo u SAD -u upozorilo je Ameriku da bi putovanje tim brodovima moglo biti opasno.

1.265 putnika i 694 posade ukrcali su se na brod kada je 1. svibnja 1915. godine napustio newyorško pristanište 54. Osim putnika, brod je u svom teretnom teretu prevozio i streljivo za Veliku Britaniju. Kako se brod približavao Britanskim otocima, Kraljevska mornarica postala je zabrinuta za svoju sigurnost i poslala je razarače u pratnju. Brod je odbio komunicirati s Kraljevskom mornaricom, a brodovi za pratnju nikada se nisu križali s brodom. Dana 30. travnja njemačka podmornica U-20 krenula je iz Borkuma prema Irskom moru. Napala je brojne trgovačke brodove potopivši tri od njih. Britanski je admiralitet znao da djeluje kod obale Irske i upozorio je sve brodove. Kapetan luzitanijske kapetan William Turner poduzeo je ono što je smatrao razboritim koracima, zatvorio je vodonepropusna vrata i pripremio svoje čamce za spašavanje za porinuće u slučaju potrebe.

Do 7. svibnja kapetan U-20 Walther Schwieger odlučio je da će se, budući da mu je malo torpeda, vratiti kući. U 12:45, dok je podmornica izronila, vidikovci su uočili brod na horizontu. Pokazalo se da je to veliko trgovačko plovilo- Luzitanija. Schwieger je naredio podmornici da se približi meti. Kad je Lusitanija bila udaljena 700 metara, U-20 je ispalio jedno torpedo. Torpedo je palo ispod mosta uzrokujući snažnu sekundarnu eksploziju. Kapetan je naredio brodu da krene prema irskoj obali, ali motori nisu mogli odgovoriti. Ubrzo je naredio napuštanje broda- dok je bežični operater poslao SOS. Luzitanija je potonula 18 minuta nakon što ju je pogodilo torpedo. Od 1.959 ljudi na brodu kada je torpedo pogodilo 1.195 je izgubljeno.

Činjenica da je na brodu bilo 128 Amerikanaca potonuće je pretvorilo u krizu između Njemačke i Sjedinjenih Država. Iako će proći dvije godine prije nego što su Sjedinjene Države ušle u rat, potonuće je američko javno mnijenje počelo okretati protiv Njemačke.


5. Luzitanijski kapetan upozoren je na potonuće 6. svibnja 1915. navečer

U danima prije potonuća Luzitanije podmornice su bile aktivne oko južne i zapadne obale Irske: nekoliko je brodova potopljeno, a kapetanu Turneru poslana su najmanje dva upozorenja koja su ga upozorila na tu činjenicu.

Britanci nisu slali pratnju niti su poduzeli bilo kakve mjere opreza osim ove kako bi pomogli u zaštiti Luzitanije, vjerojatno zato što su vjerovali da neće biti potopljena bez poštenog upozorenja, s obzirom na njezin status putničkog broda.


Ipak nije tako nevin?

No ostaju pitanja kako je brod mogao tako brzo potonuti s tako velikim gubitkom života. Podmornica je ispalila samo jedno torpedo, koje je pogodilo linijski brod ispod mosta, no tada se dogodila mnogo veća sekundarna eksplozija, ispuhavši pramac.

Brod je tada naveden na desnoj strani pod kutom koji je iznimno otežao oslobađanje čamaca za spašavanje - od 48 na brodu, više nego dovoljno za sve, samo je šest ušlo u vodu i ostalo na površini.

Izvor druge eksplozije dugo će ostati misterij i mnogi vjeruju da je možda brod nosio nešto zlokobnije.

Godine 2008. ronioci su otkrili 15.000 metaka streljiva kalibra 0,303 u sanducima u brodskom pramcu i procijenili da je moglo nositi ukupno do 4 milijuna metaka, što bi moglo predstavljati drugu eksploziju i donijelo bi Luzitanija legitimna meta za Nijemce.

Do danas postoje oni koji vjeruju da olupina, koja se nalazi 11 milja od stare glave Kinsalea, ima otkriti još tajni.


Sadržaj

Luzitanija i Mauretanija naručio je Cunard, odgovarajući na pojačanu konkurenciju suparničkih transatlantskih putničkih kompanija, osobito njemačkih Norddeutscher Lloyda (NDL) i Hamburg America Line (HAPAG). Imali su veće, brže, modernije i luksuznije brodove od Cunarda, te su bili bolje pozicionirani, počevši od njemačkih luka, da uhvate unosnu trgovinu emigrantima koji napuštaju Europu u Sjevernu Ameriku. NDL košuljica Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse zauzeo Blue Riband od Cunarda Campania 1897., prije nego što je nagradu 1900. uzeo brod HAPAG Deutschland. NDL je uskoro osvojio nagradu 1903. s novom Kaiser Wilhelm II i Kronprinz Wilhelm. Cunard je vidio da je broj putnika smanjen zbog takozvanih "oceanskih brodova klase Kaiser". [15]

Američki milijunaš, poslovni čovjek JP Morgan odlučio je uložiti u transatlantski pomorski promet stvaranjem nove tvrtke International Mercantile Marine (IMM), a 1901. godine kupio je britanskog teretnog brodara Fredericka Leylanda & amp. Co. i kontrolni udio u britanskom putničkom poduzeću White Star Line i presavijte ih u IMM. Godine 1902. IMM, NDL i HAPAG ušli su u "Zajednicu interesa" kako bi utvrdili cijene i podijelili međuatlantsku trgovinu. Partneri su također stekli 51% udjela u nizozemskoj Holland America Line. IMM je dao ponude za kupnju Cunarda koji mu je, zajedno s francuskim CGT -om, sada bio glavni konkurent. [16]

Predsjednik Cunarda Lord Inverclyde tako se obratio britanskoj vladi za pomoć. Suočeni s nadolazećim kolapsom britanske linijske flote i posljedičnim gubitkom nacionalnog ugleda, kao i pričuvom brodskog prometa u ratne svrhe koju je ona predstavljala, pristali su pomoći. Ugovorom potpisanim u lipnju 1903. Cunard je dobio zajam od 2,6 milijuna funti za financiranje dva broda, otplativ tijekom 20 godina po povoljnoj kamatnoj stopi od 2,75%. Brodovi bi primali godišnju operativnu subvenciju od 75.000 funti svaki plus ugovor o pošti vrijedan 68.000 funti. Zauzvrat, brodovi će biti izgrađeni prema specifikacijama Admiraliteta kako bi se mogli koristiti kao pomoćni kruzeri u ratu. [17]

Uređivanje dizajna

Cunard je osnovao odbor za odlučivanje o dizajnu novih brodova, čiji je predsjedatelj James Bain, Cunardov pomorski upravitelj. Ostali članovi bili su kontraadmiral H. J. Oram, koji je bio uključen u projektiranje brodova na parne turbine za Kraljevsku mornaricu, i Charles Parsons, čija je tvrtka Parsons Marine sada proizvodila turbinske motore.

Parsons je tvrdio da može projektirati motore sposobne održavati brzinu od 25 čvorova (46 km/h 29 mph), što bi zahtijevalo 68.000 konjskih snaga osovine (51.000 kW). Najveći do sada izgrađeni turbinski kompleti imali su 23.000 shp (17.000 kW) za Drednot-bojni brodovi klase i 41.000 shp (31.000 kW) za Nepobjediv-klasni bojni krstaši, što je značilo da će motori biti novog, neprovjerenog dizajna. Turbine su nudile prednosti stvaranja manje vibracija od klipnih motora i veću pouzdanost u radu pri velikim brzinama, u kombinaciji s manjom potrošnjom goriva. Dogovoreno je da će se probno postavljanje postaviti na turbine Karmanija, koji je već bio u izgradnji. Rezultat je bio brod 1,5 čvora (2,8 km/h 1,7 milja na sat) brži od njezine sestre s konvencionalnim pogonom Caronia uz očekivana poboljšanja udobnosti putnika i ekonomičnosti rada. [18]

Brod je projektirao Leonard Peskett [19], a izgradili su ga John Brown i tvrtka iz Clydebank, Škotska. Ime broda preuzeto je iz Lusitanije, drevne rimske provincije na zapadu Pirinejskog poluotoka - regije koja je danas južni Portugal i Extremadura (Španjolska). Naziv je koristio i prethodni brod izgrađen 1871. i olupina 1901., pa je naziv dostupan od Lloyds -a za Cunardovog diva. [20] [21]

Peskett je 1902. godine izgradio veliki model predloženog broda koji prikazuje dizajn s tri lijevka. Četvrti lijevak implementiran je u dizajn 1904. godine jer je bilo potrebno odzračiti ispušne plinove iz dodatnih kotlova postavljenih nakon što su se parne turbine naselile kao elektrana. Prvotni plan zahtijevao je tri propelera, ali je to promijenjeno u četiri jer se smatralo da se potrebna snaga ne može prenijeti kroz samo tri. Četiri turbine pokretale bi četiri zasebna propelera, s dodatnim turbinama za vožnju unatrag koje bi pokretale samo dvije unutarnje osovine. Kako bi se poboljšala učinkovitost, dva unutarnja propelera rotirala su se prema unutra, dok su se oni vanbrodski rotirali prema van. Vanbrodske turbine radile su pod visokim tlakom, a ispušna para zatim prolazila do onih unutarnjih pod relativno niskim tlakom.

Propelere su pokretale izravno turbine, jer dovoljno robusni mjenjači još nisu bili razvijeni, a postali su dostupni tek 1916. Umjesto toga, turbine su morale biti projektirane tako da rade na mnogo nižoj brzini od onih koje se obično prihvaćaju kao optimalne. Dakle, učinkovitost instaliranih turbina bila je manja pri malim brzinama od konvencionalnog parnog stroja s klipnim motorom (u klipu u cilindru), ali znatno bolja kada su motori radili velikom brzinom, kao što je to obično bio slučaj s ekspresnim brodom. Brod je bio opremljen s 23 dvostrana i dva jednokrilna kotla (koji su odgovarali prednjem prostoru gdje se brod sužavao), koji rade na maksimalno 195 psi i sadrže 192 pojedinačne peći. [22]

Rad na poboljšanju oblika trupa proveden je u eksperimentalnom tenku Admiralty u Haslaru, Gosport. Kao rezultat pokusa, snop broda povećan je za 10 stopa (3,0 m) u odnosu na onaj koji je prvotno imao namjeru poboljšati stabilnost. Trup neposredno ispred kormila i samo uravnoteženo kormilo slijedili su pomorsku praksu projektiranja kako bi poboljšali odziv plovila na okretanje. Ugovor o Admiralitetu zahtijevao je da svi strojevi budu ispod vodene linije, gdje se smatralo da su bolje zaštićeni od pucnjave, a stražnja trećina broda ispod vode korištena je za smještaj turbina, motora za upravljanje i četiri motora od 375 kilovata (503 KS) ) turbogeneratori na parni pogon. Središnja polovica sadržavala je četiri kotlovnice, a preostali prostor na prednjem kraju broda rezerviran je za teret i druga skladišta.

Bunkeri za ugljen postavljeni su duž broda izvan brodskih kotlovnica, s velikim poprečnim bunkerom neposredno ispred te najnaprednije kotlovnice (broj 1). Osim pogodnosti spremne za uporabu, smatralo se da ugljen pruža dodatnu zaštitu središnjih prostora od napada. Na samom prednjem dijelu bili su ormarići za lance za velike sidrene lance i balastne spremnike za podešavanje obloge broda.

Prostor trupa bio je podijeljen u dvanaest vodonepropusnih odjeljaka, od kojih su se svaka dva mogla poplaviti bez opasnosti od potonuća broda, spojena s 35 vodonepropusnih vrata s hidrauličkim pogonom. Kritična greška u rasporedu vodonepropusnih odjeljaka bila je ta što su klizna vrata bunkera za ugljen morala biti otvorena kako bi se osiguralo stalno napajanje ugljena tijekom rada broda, a njihovo zatvaranje u izvanrednim uvjetima moglo bi biti problematično. Brod je imao dvostruko dno s razmakom između podijeljen u zasebne vodonepropusne ćelije. Izvanredna visina broda bila je posljedica šest paluba za smještaj putnika iznad vodene linije, u usporedbi s uobičajenih četiri palube u postojećim brodovima. [23]

Za oblaganje broda korišten je čelik visoke čvrstoće, za razliku od konvencionalnijeg blagog čelika. To je omogućilo smanjenje debljine ploče, smanjenje težine, ali i dalje pružajući 26 posto veću čvrstoću nego inače. Ploče su bile spojene trorednim zakovicama. Brod se grijao i hladio tijekom cijelog sustava s ventilacijskim termo spremnikom, koji je koristio parne izmjenjivače za zagrijavanje zraka do konstantnih 65 ° F (18,3 ° C), dok se para ubrizgavala u protok zraka radi održavanja stalne vlažnosti.

Četrdeset i devet zasebnih jedinica koje pokreću električni ventilatori osiguralo je sedam potpunih izmjena zraka na sat u cijelom brodu, kroz međusobno povezani sustav, tako da su se pojedine jedinice mogle isključiti radi održavanja. Zasebni sustav ispušnih ventilatora odvodio je zrak iz kuhinja i kupaonica. Kako je izgrađen, brod je u potpunosti bio u skladu s sigurnosnim propisima Odbora za trgovinu koji su zahtijevali šesnaest čamaca za spašavanje kapaciteta otprilike 1.000 ljudi. [24]

U vrijeme kad je završila, Luzitanija je nakratko bio najveći brod ikad izgrađen, ali ga je ubrzo zasjenio nešto veći Mauretanija koji je nedugo zatim stupio u službu. Bila je 3 metra (0,91 m) dulja, puna 2 čvora (3,7 km/h 2,3 mph) brža i imala je kapacitet od 10.000 bruto tona iznad i najmodernijeg njemačkog broda, Kronprinzessin Cecilie. Putnički smještaj bio je 50% veći od bilo kojeg njezinog konkurenta, osiguravajući 552 klase salona, ​​460 klase kabine i 1,186 u trećoj klasi. Njena posada brojila je 69 ljudi na palubi, 369 motora i kotlova koji su radili, te 389 putnika. I ona i Mauretanija imao bežični telegraf, električno osvjetljenje, električne dizala, raskošne interijere i rani oblik klimatizacije. [25]

Uređivanje interijera

U vrijeme njihovog uvođenja na sjeverni Atlantik, oboje Luzitanija i Mauretanija koji se nalazi među najluksuznijim, prostranim i najudobnijim interijerima na površini. Za projektiranje je odabran škotski arhitekt James Miller Luzitanija interijera, a za dizajn je odabran Harold Peto Mauretanija. Miller je odabrao gips za izradu interijera, dok je Peto uvelike koristio drvene obloge, što je rezultiralo ukupnim dojmom Luzitanija bio svjetliji od Mauretanija.

Brodski putnički smještaj bio je raspoređen na šest paluba od gornje palube do vodene linije, a to su bile paluba brodova (A paluba), šetnica promenade (B paluba), sklonište (C paluba), gornja paluba (D paluba), glavna paluba (E paluba) i donja paluba (F paluba), pri čemu je svakoj od tri klase putnika dodijeljen vlastiti prostor na brodu. Kao što se vidi na svim putničkim brodovima tog doba, putnici prve, druge i treće klase bili su strogo odvojeni jedan od drugog. Prema svojoj izvornoj konfiguraciji 1907. godine, projektirana je za prijevoz 2.198 putnika i 827 članova posade. Cunard Line se pohvalio rekordom u zadovoljstvu putnika.

Luzitanija 'prvoklasni smještaj bio je u središnjem dijelu broda na pet gornjih paluba, uglavnom koncentriran između prvog i četvrtog lijevka. Kada je potpuno popunjeno, Luzitanija mogao je ugostiti 552 putnika prve klase. Zajedno sa svim većim brodovima tog razdoblja, Luzitanija 'prvoklasni interijeri bili su ukrašeni mješavinom povijesnih stilova. Prvoklasni blagovaonski salon bio je najveličanstvenija od brodskih javnih prostorija raspoređena na dvije palube s otvorenim kružnim bunarom u središtu i okrunjenom razrađenom kupolom dimenzija 29 stopa (8,8 m), ukrašenom freskama u stilu Françoisa Bouchera, elegantno je ostvaren u neoklasicističkom stilu Luja XVI. Donji kat dimenzija 85 metara (26 m) mogao bi smjestiti 323, a daljnjih 147 na gornjem katu od 65 stopa (20 metara). Zidovi su završeni bijelim i pozlaćenim rezbarenim pločama od mahagonija, s korintskim ukrašenim stupovima koji su bili potrebni za podupiranje gornjeg poda. Jedini ustupak života na moru bio je taj što je namještaj pričvršćen vijcima za pod, što znači da putnici nisu mogli preurediti svoja sjedišta radi svoje osobne udobnosti. [26]

Sve ostale prvoklasne javne prostorije bile su smještene na palubi broda i sastojale su se od dnevnog boravka, sobe za čitanje i pisanje, sobe za pušače i kafića na verandi. Posljednja je bila inovacija na liniji Cunard, a po toplom vremenu jedna se strana kafića mogla otvoriti kako bi se ostavio dojam sjedenja na otvorenom. To bi bila rijetko korištena značajka s obzirom na često loše vrijeme u sjevernom Atlantiku. [27]

Prvoklasni salon bio je uređen u gruzijskom stilu s umetnutim pločama od mahagonija koje okružuju tepison od nefrita sa žutim cvjetnim uzorkom, ukupne dimenzije 218 metara. Imao je bačvasto zasvođeno krovno prozorsko okno koje se uzdizalo do 20 stopa (6,1 m) sa vitražima od kojih svaki predstavlja jedan mjesec u godini.

Svaki kraj salona imao je kamin od zelenog mramora visok 4,3 m (4,3 m) s emajliranim pločama Alexandera Fishera. Dizajn je sveukupno povezan s ukrasnom žbukom. Zidovi knjižnice bili su ukrašeni rezbarenim pilastrima i lajsnama koje su označavale ploče od sivog i kremastog svilenog brokata. Tepih je bio ružičast, sa svilenim zavjesama Rose du Barry i presvlakama. Stolice i stolovi za pisanje bili su od mahagonija, a na prozorima je bilo urezano staklo. Soba za pušače bila je u stilu kraljice Ane, s talijanskim oblogama od oraha i talijanskim crvenim namještajem. Veliko stubište povezalo je svih šest paluba smještaja za putnike sa širokim hodnicima na svakoj razini i dva dizala. Prvoklasne kabine kretale su se od jedne zajedničke sobe kroz različite vlastite aranžmane u izboru dekorativnih stilova koji su kulminirali u dva kraljevska apartmana koji su svaki imali dvije spavaće sobe, blagovaonicu, salon i kupaonicu. Dekoracija lučkog apartmana bila je po uzoru na Petit Trianon. [28]

Luzitanija 'smještaj druge klase bio je ograničen na krmu, iza krmenog jarbola, gdje su bile smještene 460 putnika druge klase. Javne prostorije druge klase bile su smještene na pregrađenim dijelovima brodskih i šetališnih paluba smještenih u zasebnom dijelu nadgrađa na krmi prvoklasnih putničkih prostorija. Dizajn je preuzeo Robert Whyte, arhitekt zaposlen u Johnu Brownu. Iako manji i jednostavniji, dizajn blagovaonice odražavao je prvoklasni, sa samo jednim katom zalogajnica ispod stropa s manjom kupolom i balkonom. Zidovi su bili obloženi i klesani ukrašenim stupovima, svi u bijeloj boji. Kao što se moglo vidjeti u prvoj klasi, blagovaonica je bila smještena niže u brodu na palubi salona. Pušačke i ženske sobe zauzimale su prostor za smještaj drugorazredne šetnice, sa salonom na palubi za brodove.

Cunard prethodno nije osigurao zaseban salon za drugu klasu, a soba od 13 stopa (13 metara) imala je stolove, stolice i garniture od mahagonija postavljene na ružičastom tepihu. Soba za pušače bila je duga 16 metara s oblogama od mahagonija, bijelim gipsanim stropom i kupolom. Jedan zid imao je mozaik riječne scene u Bretanji, dok su klizni prozori bili plavo zatamnjeni. Putnici druge klase dobili su zajedničke, ali udobne kabine s dva i četiri ležaja raspoređene na skloništu, gornjoj i glavnoj palubi. [29]

Poznat je kao glavni hranitelj transatlantskih brodskih linija, treća klasa na brodu Luzitanija pohvaljen je zbog poboljšanja uvjeta putovanja koje je pružio emigrantskim putnicima Luzitanija pokazao se kao prilično popularan brod za useljenike. [30] U danima prije Luzitanija pa čak i još tijekom godina u kojima Luzitanija bio u službi, smještaj treće klase sastojao se od velikih otvorenih prostora u kojima bi stotine ljudi dijelilo otvorene vezove i užurbano izgrađene javne prostore, koji se često sastoje samo od manjeg dijela otvorene palube i nekoliko stolova izgrađenih u njihovim spavaćim sobama. U pokušaju da razbije taj kalup, Cunard Line je počeo projektirati brodove kao što su Luzitanija s udobnijim smještajem treće klase.

Kao i na svim putničkim brodovima Cunard, smještaj treće klase na brodu Luzitanija nalazio se na prednjem kraju broda na zaklonu, gornjoj, glavnoj i donjoj palubi, a u usporedbi s drugim brodovima tog razdoblja bio je udoban i prostran. Blagovaonica od 79 metara (24 m) nalazila se na pramcu broda na palubi salona, ​​završena uglačanim borom kao i druge dvije javne sobe treće klase, bile su pušnica i ženski toalet na palubi skloništa.

Kada Luzitanija bila potpuno popunjena u trećoj klasi, soba za pušenje i dame lako se mogla pretvoriti u pretrpane blagovaonice radi dodatne udobnosti. Obroci su se jeli za dugim stolovima s okretnim stolicama, a za ručak su bila i dva sjedenja. Za putnike je bio osiguran glasovir. Imigrantima i putnicima niže klase jako se svidjelo to što su umjesto na zatvorene spavaonice, na brodu Luzitanija bio je sać od dvije, četiri, šest i osam kabina za ležaj namijenjenih putnicima treće klase na glavnoj i donjoj palubi. [31]

Ceh Bromsgrovea projektirao je i izradio većinu ukrasa Luzitanija. [32] Waring i Gillow ponudili su se za ugovor o opskrbi cijelog broda, ali nisu uspjeli to nabaviti i dalje su dostavili određeni dio namještaja.

Konstrukcija i pokusi Edit

Luzitanija kobilica položena je u John Brown na Clydebank kao dvorište br. 367 17. kolovoza 1904., Lord Inverclyde je udario kućište prvu zakovicu. Za razliku od, Cunard joj je dao nadimak 'škotski brod' Mauretanija čiji je ugovor otišao u ruke Swan Hunteru u Engleskoj i koji je počeo graditi tri mjeseca kasnije. Konačni detalji o dva broda prepušteni su projektantima na dva dvorišta, tako da su se brodovi razlikovali u detaljima dizajna trupa i gotove konstrukcije. Brodovi se na fotografijama najlakše mogu razlikovati po ventilatorima s ravnim vrhovima koji se koriste na Luzitanija, dok su oni na Mauretanija upotrijebio je konvencionalniji zaobljeni vrh. Mauretanija je dizajniran malo dulje, šire, teže i s dodatnim stupnjem snage ugrađenim u turbine.

Brodogradilište u Johnu Brownu moralo se reorganizirati zbog njene veličine kako bi se moglo lansirati dijagonalno preko najšireg dostupnog dijela rijeke Clyde gdje se susrela s pritokom, pri čemu je uobičajena širina rijeke samo 190 metara u usporedbi na brod dug 240 metara (786 stopa). Novi navoz zauzeo je prostor dvaju postojećih, a izgrađen je na armaturnim hrpama zabijenim duboko u zemlju kako bi se osiguralo da može podnijeti privremenu koncentriranu težinu cijelog broda dok je klizio u vodu. Osim toga, tvrtka je potrošila 8.000 funti za bageriranje Clydea, 6.500 funti za novu plinsku tvornicu, 6.500 funti za novu električnu centralu, 18.000 funti za proširenje pristaništa i 19.000 funti za novu dizalicu sposobnu za podizanje 150 tona, kao i £ 20.000 na dodatne strojeve i opremu. [33] Gradnja je započela na pramcu unatrag, umjesto tradicionalnog pristupa izgradnje oba kraja prema sredini. To je bilo zato što projektiranje krme i rasporeda motora nisu bili dovršeni kad je započela gradnja. Željezničke pruge položene su uz brod i preko palube kako bi se dopremali materijali prema potrebi. Trup, završen do razine glavne palube, ali bez opreme, težio je približno 16.000 tona. [34]

Brodska sidra bez zaliha težila su 10 1⁄4 tona, pričvršćena na 125 tona, 330 lanaca za rastojanje, sve proizvedeno od strane N. Hingley & amp Sons Ltd. Turbine su bile dugačke 25 stopa (7,6 m) s rotorima promjera 12 ft (3,7 m), što je bilo potrebno zbog velikog promjera pri relativno malim brzinama. Rotori su konstruirani na licu mjesta, dok su kućišta i osovine izrađeni u radovima Atlasa Johna Browna u Sheffieldu. Strojeve za pogon kormila od 56 tona konstruirala su braća Brown iz Edinburga. Glavni motor za upravljanje upravljao je kormilom kroz pužni prijenosnik i spojku koji rade na nazubljenom nosaču kvadranta, a rezervni motor radi odvojeno na stalku preko lančanog pogona za hitnu uporabu. Propeleri od 17 stopa (5,2 m) s tri lopatice ugrađeni su, a zatim su obloženi drvom kako bi ih zaštitili tijekom lansiranja. [35]

Brod je porinut 7. lipnja 1906., osam tjedana kasnije od planiranog zbog štrajkova radnika i osam mjeseci nakon smrti lorda Inverclydea. Princeza Louise pozvana je da imenuje brod, ali nije mogla doći, pa je čast pripala Inverclydeovoj udovici Mary. [36] [1] Lansiranju je prisustvovalo 600 pozvanih gostiju i tisuće gledatelja. [37] Tisuću tona lanaca za vuču pričvršćeno je na trup privremenim prstenovima kako bi ga usporilo nakon ulaska u vodu. Prilikom lansiranja, propeleri su bili ugrađeni, ali pri kasnijim lansiranjima propeleri bi bili ugrađeni u suho pristanište jer bi se mogli oštetiti sudarom s drugim objektom pri lansiranju. [38] Drvena potporna konstrukcija bila je sputana kablovima tako da bi nakon što je brod ušao u vodu kliznuo naprijed iz nosača. Šest tegljača bilo je pri ruci da zauzmu trup i premjeste ga na odgovarajući vez. [39] Testiranje brodskih motora održano je u lipnju 1907. prije potpunih ispitivanja zakazanih za srpanj. Prethodno krstarenje, ili Proces graditelja, dogovoreno je 27. srpnja s predstavnicima Cunarda, Admiraliteta, Odbora za trgovinu i Johnom Brownom. Brod je postigao brzinu od 25,6 čvorova (47,4 km/h 29,5 milja na sat) tijekom izmjerenih 1,6 km (1,6 km) u Skelmorlieju s turbinama koje rade na 194 okretaja u minuti i proizvode 76 000 shp. Pri velikim brzinama utvrđeno je da brod trpi takve vibracije na krmi da smještaj druge klase čini nenastanjivim. VIP pozvani gosti sada su se ukrcali na dvodnevno krstarenje tijekom kojeg je brod bio testiran pri neprekidnom hodu pri brzinama od 15, 18 i 21 čvor, ali ne i najvećom brzinom. Dana 29. srpnja gosti su otišli i započela su tri dana punih suđenja. Brod je četiri puta putovao između svjetla Corsewall u blizini Škotske do svjetla Longship u blizini Cornwalla pri 23 i 25 čvorova, između svjetla Corsewall i otoka Man te otoka Arran i Ailsa Craig. Preko 480 milja postignuta je prosječna brzina od 25,4 čvora, udobno veća od 24 čvora potrebna prema ugovoru o admiralitetu. Brod bi se mogao zaustaviti za 4 minute u 3/4 milje počevši od 23 čvora pri 166 o/min, a zatim primijeniti potpunu vožnju unatrag. Postigla je brzinu od 26 čvorova na odmjerenoj milji opterećenoj na gaz od 10 metara, a uspjela je 26,5 čvorova na stazi od 60 kilometara (97 km) vukući 9,5 metara (9,5 metara). Na 180 okretaja provedeno je ispitivanje okretanja i brod je izveo potpuni krug promjera 1000 metara u 50 sekundi. Kormilo je zahtijevalo 20 sekundi da se jako okrene na 35 stupnjeva. [40] [41]

Utvrđeno je da je vibracija uzrokovana smetnjama između vanjskog i unutarnjeg propelera te se pogoršala pri okretanju. Pri velikim brzinama frekvencija vibracija rezonirala je s krmom broda pogoršavajući stvar. Rješenje je bilo dodati unutarnje ukrućenje na krmu broda, no to je zahtijevalo uništavanje područja druge klase i njihovu ponovnu izgradnju. To je zahtijevalo dodavanje niza stupova i lukova ukrasnoj shemi. Brod je napokon isporučen Cunardu 26. kolovoza, iako problem vibracija nikada nije u potpunosti riješen, a daljnji sanacijski radovi odvijali su se kroz njezin život. [42]

Usporedba s olimpijski razred Uredi

White Star Line's olimpijski-plovila klase bila su gotovo 30 metara dulja i nešto šira od Luzitanija i Mauretanija. Time su plovila Bijele zvijezde postala veća za oko 15.000 tona od posuda Cunard. Oba Luzitanija i Mauretanija su lansirani i bili su u službi prije nekoliko godina olimpijski, Titanski i Britannic bili spremni za sjevernoatlantsku vožnju. Iako znatno brži od olimpijski klase, brzina Cunardovih plovila nije bila dovoljna da omogući liniji da izvodi tjednu transatlantsku uslugu s dva broda sa svake strane Atlantika. Treći je brod bio potreban za tjednu uslugu, a kao odgovor na najavljeni plan White Star o izgradnji tri olimpijski-klase brodova, Cunard je naručio treći brod: Akvitanija. Kao olimpijski, Cunard's Akvitanija imao manju brzinu usluge, ali je bio veće i luksuznije plovilo.

Zbog povećane veličine olimpijski-klase klase mogle bi ponuditi mnogo više pogodnosti od Luzitanija i Mauretanija. Oba olimpijski i Titanski nudi bazene, turska kupatila, gimnastičku dvoranu, teren za squash, velike prijemne sobe, À la Carte restorane odvojene od blagovaonica i mnogo više kabineta s vlastitim kupaonicama od njihova dva rivala Cunarda.

Jake vibracije kao nusprodukt četiri uključene parne turbine Luzitanija i Mauretanija mučila bi oba broda tijekom njihovih putovanja. Kada Luzitanija plovio najvećom brzinom rezultirajuće vibracije bile su toliko jake da su dijelovi broda druge i treće klase mogli postati nenastanjivi. [43] Nasuprot tome, olimpijski-U klasama su korišteni dva tradicionalna klipna motora i samo jedna turbina za središnji propeler, što je uvelike smanjilo vibracije. Zbog veće tonaže i šire grede, olimpijski-klase klase također su bile stabilnije na moru i manje sklone kotrljanju. Luzitanija i Mauretanija obje su imale ravne noževe za razliku od kutnih olimpijski-razred. Dizajnirano tako da brodovi mogu probiti val, a ne griješiti ga, nepredviđena posljedica bila je da će se Cunardovi brodovi alarmantno pomaknuti naprijed, čak i po mirnom vremenu, dopuštajući ogromnim valovima da zapljusnu pramac i dio gornje konstrukcije. [44] To bi bio glavni čimbenik oštećenja Luzitanija pretrpio u rukama valovitog vala u siječnju 1910.

Posude olimpijski klase također se razlikovao od Luzitanija i Mauretanija na način na koji su bili odjeljeni ispod vodene linije. Plovila Bijele zvijezde bila su podijeljena poprečnim vodonepropusnim pregradama. Dok Luzitanija također je imao poprečne pregrade, također je imao uzdužne pregrade koje su prolazile duž broda sa svake strane, između kotlovnice i strojarnice i bunkera za ugljen s vanjske strane plovila. Britansko povjerenstvo koje je istraživalo potonuće Titanski 1912. čuo svjedočanstvo o poplavi bunkera za ugljen koji leže izvan uzdužnih pregrada. Budući da su znatne duljine, kad su poplavljene, to bi moglo povećati popis brodova i "učiniti spuštanje brodova s ​​druge strane neizvodljivim" [45] - a upravo se to kasnije dogodilo s Luzitanija. Stabilnost broda nije bila dovoljna za korišteni pregradni aranžman: poplava samo tri bunkera ugljena s jedne strane mogla bi rezultirati negativnom metacentričnom visinom. [46] S druge strane, Titanski dobio je dovoljnu stabilnost i potonuo je sa samo nekoliko stupnjeva, a dizajn je bio takav da je postojao vrlo mali rizik od nejednakih poplava i mogućeg prevrtanja. [47]

Luzitanija nije nosila dovoljno čamaca za spašavanje za sve svoje putnike, časnike i posadu na brodu u vrijeme svog prvog putovanja (nosila je četiri čamca za spašavanje manje od Titanski nosio bi 1912). To je u to vrijeme bila uobičajena praksa za velike putničke brodove, jer se vjerovalo da će u prometnim prometnim trakama pomoć uvijek biti u blizini, a nekoliko dostupnih brodova bit će primjereno za prijevoz svih brodova prije spašavanja brodova. Nakon što Titanski potonuo, Luzitanija i Mauretanija bili opremljeni s dodatnih šest drvenih brodova izrađenih od klinkera pod dafovima, što je činilo ukupno 22 broda opremljena u dafovima. Ostatak njihovih brodova za spašavanje nadopunjen je s 26 sklopivih čamaca za spašavanje, 18 spremljenih izravno ispod običnih čamaca za spašavanje, a osam na stražnjoj palubi. Sklopivi sklopovi izgrađeni su sa šupljim drvenim dnom i stranicama od platna te su trebali montažu u slučaju da se moraju koristiti. [48]

To je u suprotnosti sa olimpijski i Britannic koji je dobio potpuni komplet čamaca za spašavanje koji su bili opremljeni pod davcima. This difference would have been a major contributor to the high loss of life involved with Lusitania ' s sinking, since there was not sufficient time to assemble collapsible boats or life-rafts, had it not been for the fact that the ship's severe listing made it impossible for lifeboats on the port side of the vessel to be lowered, and the rapidity of the sinking did not allow the remaining lifeboats that could be directly lowered (as these were rigged under davits) to be filled and launched with passengers. Kada Britannic, working as a hospital ship during World War I, sank in 1916 after hitting a mine in the Kea channel the already davited boats were swiftly lowered saving nearly all on board, but the ship took nearly three times as long to sink as Lusitania and thus the crew had more time to evacuate passengers.

Lusitania, commanded by Commodore James Watt, moored at the Liverpool landing stage for her maiden voyage at 4:30 p.m. on Saturday 7 September 1907 as the onetime Blue Riband holder RMS Lucania vacated the pier. At the time Lusitania was the largest ocean liner in service and would continue to be until the introduction of Mauretanija in November that year. A crowd of 200,000 people gathered to see her departure at 9:00 p.m. for Queenstown (renamed Cobh in 1920), where she was to take on more passengers. She anchored again at Roche's Point, off Queenstown, at 9:20 a.m. the following morning, where she was shortly joined by Lucania, which she had passed in the night, and 120 passengers were brought out to the ship by tender bringing her total of passengers to 2,320.

At 12:10 p.m. on Sunday Lusitania was again under way and passing the Daunt Rock Lightship. In the first 24 hours she achieved 561 miles (903 km), with further daily totals of 575, 570, 593 and 493 miles (793 km) before arriving at Sandy Hook at 9:05 a.m. Friday 13 September, taking in total 5 days and 54 minutes, 30 minutes outside the record time held by Kaiser Wilhelm II of the North German Lloyd line. Fog had delayed the ship on two days, and her engines were not yet run in. In New York hundreds of thousands of people gathered on the bank of the Hudson River from Battery Park to pier 56. All New York's police had been called out to control the crowd. From the start of the day, 100 horse-drawn cabs had been queuing, ready to take away passengers. During the week's stay the ship was made available for guided tours. At 3 p.m. on Saturday 21 September, the ship departed on the return journey, arriving Queenstown 4 a.m. 27 September and Liverpool 12 hours later. The return journey was 5 days 4 hours and 19 minutes, again delayed by fog. [49]

On her second voyage in better weather, Lusitania arrived at Sandy Hook on 11 October 1907 in the Blue Riband record time of 4 days, 19 hours and 53 minutes. She had to wait for the tide to enter harbour where news had preceded her and she was met by a fleet of small craft, whistles blaring. Lusitania averaged 23.99 knots (44.43 km/h) westbound and 23.61 knots (43.73 km/h) eastbound. In December 1907, Mauretanija entered service and took the record for the fastest eastbound crossing. Lusitania made her fastest westbound crossing in 1909 after her propellers were changed, averaging 25.85 knots (47.87 km/h). She briefly recovered the record in July of that year, but Mauretanija recaptured the Blue Riband the same month, retaining it until 1929, when it was taken by SS Bremen. [50] During her eight-year service, she made a total of 201 crossings on the Cunard Line's Liverpool-New York Route, carrying a total of 155,795 passengers westbound [51] and another 106,180 eastbound. [52]


Sadržaj

Kada Lusitania was built, her construction and operating expenses were subsidized by the British government, with the provision that she could be converted to an Armed Merchant Cruiser if need be. At the outbreak of the First World War, the British Admiralty considered her for requisition as an armed merchant cruiser, and she was put on the official list of AMCs. [5]

The Admiralty then canceled their earlier decision and decided not to use her as an AMC after all large liners such as Lusitania consumed enormous quantities of coal (910 tons/day, or 37.6 tons/hour) and became a serious drain on the Admiralty's fuel reserves, so express liners were deemed inappropriate for the role when smaller cruisers would do. They were also very distinctive so smaller liners were used as transports instead. Lusitania remained on the official AMC list and was listed as an auxiliary cruiser in the 1914 edition of Jane's All the World's Fighting Ships, along with Mauretanija. [6]

At the outbreak of hostilities, fears for the safety of Lusitania and other great liners ran high. During the ship's first eastbound crossing after the war started, she was painted in a drab grey colour scheme in an attempt to mask her identity and make her more difficult to detect visually. When it turned out that the German Navy was kept in check by the Royal Navy, and their commerce threat almost entirely evaporated, it very soon seemed that the Atlantic was safe for ships like Lusitania, if the bookings justified the expense of keeping them in service.

Many of the large liners were laid up over the autumn and winter of 1914–1915, in part due to falling demand for passenger travel across the Atlantic, and in part to protect them from damage due to mines or other dangers. Among the most recognizable of these liners, some were eventually used as troop transports, while others became hospital ships. Lusitania remained in commercial service although bookings aboard her were by no means strong during that autumn and winter, demand was strong enough to keep her in civilian service. Economizing measures were taken, however. One of these was the shutting down of her No. 4 boiler room to conserve coal and crew costs this reduced her maximum speed from over 25 to 21 knots (46 to 39 km/h). Even so, she was the fastest first-class passenger liner left in commercial service.

With apparent dangers evaporating, the ship's disguised paint scheme was also dropped and she was returned to civilian colors. Her name was picked out in gilt, her funnels were repainted in their usual Cunard livery, and her superstructure was painted white again. One alteration was the addition of a bronze/gold colored band around the base of the superstructure just above the black paint. [7]

1915. Urediti

The British established a naval blockade of Germany on the outbreak of war in August 1914, issuing a comprehensive list of contraband that included even foodstuffs, and in early November 1914 Britain declared the North Sea to be a war zone, with any ships entering the North Sea doing so at their own risk. [8] [9]

By early 1915, a new threat to British shipping began to materialise: U-boats (submarines). At first, the Germans used them only to attack naval vessels, and they achieved only occasional—but sometimes spectacular—successes. U-boats then began to attack merchant vessels at times, although almost always in accordance with the old cruiser rules. Desperate to gain an advantage on the Atlantic, the German government decided to step up its submarine campaign. On 4 February 1915, Germany declared the seas around the British Isles a war zone: from 18 February, Allied ships in the area would be sunk without warning. This was not wholly unrestricted submarine warfare, since efforts would be taken to avoid sinking neutral ships. [10]

Lusitania was scheduled to arrive in Liverpool on 6 March 1915. The Admiralty issued her specific instructions on how to avoid submarines. Despite a severe shortage of destroyers, Admiral Henry Oliver ordered HMS Louis i Laverock to escort Lusitania, and took the further precaution of sending the Q ship Lyons to patrol Liverpool Bay. [11] One of the destroyers' commanders attempted to discover the whereabouts of Lusitania by telephoning Cunard, who refused to give out any information and referred him to the Admiralty. At sea, the ships contacted Lusitania by radio, but did not have the codes used to communicate with merchant ships. Captain Daniel Dow of Lusitania refused to give his own position except in code, and since he was, in any case, some distance from the positions he gave, continued to Liverpool unescorted. [2] : 91–2 [12] [13] : 76–7

It seems that, in response to this new submarine threat, some alterations were made to Lusitania and her operation. She was ordered not to fly any flags in the war zone a number of warnings, plus advice, were sent to the ship's commander to help him decide how to best protect his ship against the new threat and it also seems that her funnels were most likely painted a dark grey to help make her less visible to enemy submarines. There was no hope of disguising her actual identity, since her profile was so well known, and no attempt was made to paint out the ship's name at the prow. [14]

Captain Dow, apparently suffering from stress from operating his ship in the war zone, and after a significant "false flag" controversy [ potrebno dodatno objašnjenje ] left the ship Cunard later explained that he was "tired and really ill." [15] He was replaced with a new commander, Captain William Thomas Turner, who had commanded Lusitania, Mauretanija, i Aquitania in the years before the war.

On 17 April 1915, Lusitania left Liverpool on her 201st transatlantic voyage, arriving in New York on 24 April. A group of German–Americans, hoping to avoid controversy if Lusitania were attacked by a U-boat, discussed their concerns with a representative of the German Embassy. The embassy decided to warn passengers before her next crossing not to sail aboard Lusitania, and on 22 April placed a warning advertisement in 50 American newspapers, including those in New York: [16]

This warning was printed adjacent to an advertisement for Lusitania ' s return voyage. The warning led to some agitation in the press and worried the ship's passengers and crew.

Departure Edit

While many British passenger ships had been called into duty for the war effort, Lusitania remained on her regular route between Liverpool and New York. She departed Pier 54 in New York on 1 May 1915 on her return trip to Liverpool with 1,959 people aboard. In addition to her crew of 694, she carried 1,265 passengers, mostly British nationals as well as a large number of Canadians, along with 128 Americans. [17] Her First Class accommodations, for which she was well regarded on the North Atlantic run, were booked at just over half capacity at 290. Second Class was severely overbooked with 601 passengers, far exceeding the maximum capacity of 460. While a large number of small children and infants helped reduce the squeeze into the limited number of two- and four-berth cabins, the situation was rectified by allowing some Second Class passengers to occupy empty First Class cabins. In Third Class, the situation was considered to be the norm for an eastbound crossing, with only 373 travelling in accommodations designed for 1,186. [18]

Captain Turner, known as "Bowler Bill" for his favourite shoreside headgear, had returned to his old command of Lusitania. He was commodore of the Cunard Line and a highly experienced master mariner, and had relieved Daniel Dow, the ship's regular captain. Dow had been instructed by his chairman, Alfred Booth, to take some leave, due to the stress of captaining the ship in U-boat infested sea lanes and for his protestations that the ship should not become an armed merchant cruiser, making her a prime target for German forces. [19] Turner tried to calm the passengers by explaining that the ship's speed made her safe from attack by submarine. [20] However, Cunard shut down one of the ship's four boiler rooms to reduce costs on sparsely subscribed wartime voyages, reducing her top speed from 25.5 to around 22 knots. [21]

Lusitania steamed out of New York at noon on 1 May, two hours behind schedule, because of a last-minute transfer of forty-one passengers and crew from the recently requisitioned Cameronia. [2] : 132–33 Shortly after departure three German-speaking men were found on board hiding in a steward's pantry. Detective Inspector William Pierpoint of the Liverpool police, who was travelling in the guise of a first-class passenger, interrogated them before locking them in the cells for further questioning when the ship reached Liverpool. [2] : 156, 445–46 Also among the crew was an Englishman, Neal Leach, who had been working as a tutor in Germany before the war. Leach had been interned but later released by Germany. The German embassy in Washington was notified about Leach's arrival in America, where he met known German agents. Leach and the three German stowaways went down with the ship. They had probably been tasked with spying on Lusitania and her cargo. Most probably, Pierpoint, who survived the sinking, [22] would already have been informed about Leach. [2] : 131–32, 445

Submarine activity Edit

As the liner steamed across the ocean, the British Admiralty had been tracking the movements of U-20, kojim zapovijeda Kapitänleutnant Walther Schwieger, through wireless intercepts and radio direction finding. The submarine left Borkum on 30 April, heading north-west across the North Sea. On 2 May, she had reached Peterhead and proceeded around the north of Scotland and Ireland, and then along the western and southern coasts of Ireland, to enter the Irish Sea from the south. Although the submarine's departure, destination, and expected arrival time were known to Room 40 in the Admiralty, the activities of the decoding department were considered so secret that they were unknown even to the normal intelligence division which tracked enemy ships or to the trade division responsible for warning merchant vessels. Only the very highest officers in the Admiralty saw the information and passed on warnings only when they felt it essential. [23]

On 27 March, Room 40 had intercepted a message which clearly demonstrated that the Germans had broken the code used to pass messages to British merchant ships. Cruisers protecting merchant ships were warned not to use the code to give directions to shipping because it could just as easily attract enemy submarines as steer ships away from them. However, Queenstown (now Cobh) was not given this warning and continued to give directions in the compromised code, which was not changed until after Lusitania ' s sinking. At this time, the Royal Navy was significantly involved with operations leading up to the landings at Gallipoli, and the intelligence department had been undertaking a program of misinformation to convince Germany to expect an attack on her northern coast. As part of this, ordinary cross-channel traffic to the Netherlands was halted from 19 April and false reports were leaked about troop ship movements from ports on Britain's western and southern coasts. This led to a demand from the German army for offensive action against the expected troop movements and consequently, a surge in German submarine activity on the British west coast. The fleet was warned to expect additional submarines, but this warning was not passed on to those sections of the navy dealing with merchant vessels. The return of the battleship Orion from Devonport to Scotland was delayed until 4 May and she was given orders to stay 100 miles (160 km) from the Irish coast. [24]

On 5 May, U-20 stopped a merchant schooner, Earl of Lathom, off the Old Head of Kinsale, examined her papers, then ordered her crew to leave before sinking the schooner with gunfire. On 6 May, U-20 fired a torpedo at Cayo Romano from Cuba, a British steamer flying a neutral flag, off Fastnet Rock narrowly missing by a few feet. [25] At 22:30 on 5 May, the Royal Navy sent an uncoded warning to all ships – "Submarines active off the south coast of Ireland" – and at midnight an addition was made to the regular nightly warnings, "submarine off Fastnet". [26] On 6 May U-20 sank the 6,000 ton steamer Kandidat. It then failed to get off a shot at the 16,000 ton liner arapski, because although she kept a straight course the liner was too fast, but then sank another 6,000 ton British cargo ship flying no flag, Centurion, all in the region of the Coningbeg light ship. The specific mention of a submarine was dropped from the midnight broadcast on 6–7 May as news of the new sinkings had not yet reached the navy at Queenstown, and it was correctly assumed that there was no longer a submarine at Fastnet. [27]

Captain Turner of Lusitania was given a warning message twice on the evening of 6 May, and took what he felt were prudent precautions. That evening a Seamen's Charities fund concert took place throughout the ship and the captain was obliged to attend the event in the first-class lounge. [2] : 197

At about 11:00 on 7 May, the Admiralty radioed another warning to all ships, probably as a result of a request by Alfred Booth, who was concerned about Lusitania: "U-boats active in southern part of Irish Channel. Last heard of twenty miles south of Coningbeg Light Vessel". Booth and all of Liverpool had received news of the sinkings, which the Admiralty had known about by at least 3:00 that morning. [28] Turner adjusted his heading northeast, not knowing that this report related to events of the previous day and apparently thinking submarines would be more likely to keep to the open sea, so that Lusitania would be safer close to land. [13] : 184 At 13:00 another message was received, "Submarine five miles south of Cape Clear proceeding west when sighted at 10:00 am". This report was inaccurate as no submarine had been at that location, but gave the impression that at least one submarine had been safely passed. [29]

U-20 was low on fuel and had only three torpedoes left. On the morning of 7 May, visibility was poor and Schwieger decided to head for home. He submerged at 11:00 after sighting a fishing boat which he believed might be a British patrol and shortly after was passed while still submerged by a ship at high speed. This was the cruiser Juno returning to Queenstown, travelling fast and zig-zagging having received warning of submarine activity off Queenstown at 07:45. The Admiralty considered these old cruisers highly vulnerable to submarines, and indeed Schwieger attempted to target the ship. [2] : 216 [30]

Potonulo Edit

On the morning of 6 May, Lusitania was 750 miles (1,210 km) west of southern Ireland. By 05:00 on 7 May, she reached a point 120 miles (190 km) west south west of Fastnet Rock (off the southern tip of Ireland), where she met the patrolling boarding vessel Partridge. [31] By 06:00, heavy fog had arrived and extra lookouts were posted. As the ship came closer to Ireland, Captain Turner ordered depth soundings to be made and at 08:00 for speed to be reduced to eighteen knots, then to 15 knots and for the foghorn to be sounded. Some of the passengers were disturbed that the ship appeared to be advertising her presence. By 10:00, the fog began to lift, by noon it had been replaced by bright sunshine over a clear smooth sea and speed increased to 18 knots. [2] : 200–2

U-20 surfaced again at 12:45 as visibility was now excellent. At 13:20, something was sighted and Schwieger was summoned to the conning tower: at first it appeared to be several ships because of the number of funnels and masts, but this resolved into one large steamer appearing over the horizon. At 13:25, the submarine submerged to periscope depth of 11 metres and set a course to intercept the liner at her maximum submerged speed of 9 knots. When the ships had closed to 2 miles (3.2 km) Lusitania turned away, Schwieger feared he had lost his target, but she turned again, this time onto a near ideal course to bring her into position for an attack. At 14:10, with the target at 700m range he ordered one gyroscopic torpedo to be fired, set to run at a depth of three metres. [2] : 216–17 [32]

In Schwieger's own words, recorded in the log of U-20:

Torpedo hits starboard side right behind the bridge. An unusually heavy detonation takes place with a very strong explosive cloud. The explosion of the torpedo must have been followed by a second one [boiler or coal or powder?]. The ship stops immediately and heels over to starboard very quickly, immersing simultaneously at the bow. the name Lusitania becomes visible in golden letters. [33]

U-20 ' s torpedo officer, Raimund Weisbach, viewed the destruction through the vessel's periscope and felt the explosion was unusually severe. U roku od šest minuta, Lusitania ' s forecastle began to submerge. Though Schwieger states the torpedo hit beneath the bridge, survivor testimony, including that of Captain Turner, gave a number of different locations: some stated it was between the first and second funnels, others between the third and fourth, and one claimed it struck below the capstan.

On board the Lusitania, Leslie Morton, an eighteen-year-old lookout at the bow, had spotted thin lines of foam racing toward the ship. He shouted, "Torpedoes coming on the starboard side!" through a megaphone, thinking the bubbles came from two projectiles. The torpedo struck Lusitania under the bridge, sending a plume of debris, steel plating, and water upward and knocking lifeboat number five off its davits. "It sounded like a million-ton hammer hitting a steam boiler a hundred feet high," one passenger said. A second, more powerful explosion followed, sending a geyser of water, coal, dust, and debris high above the deck. Schwieger's log entries attest that he launched only one torpedo. Some doubt the validity of this claim, contending that the German government subsequently altered the published fair copy of Schwieger's log, [2] : 416–19 but accounts from other U-20 crew members corroborate it. The entries were also consistent with intercepted radio reports sent to Germany by U-20 once she had returned to the North Sea, before any possibility of an official coverup. [34]

German drawing of Lusitania being torpedoed which incorrectly depicts the torpedo hitting the port side of ship

British drawing of Lusitania being torpedoed shows disputed "second torpedo"

Lusitania is shown sinking as Irish fishermen race to the rescue. In fact, the launching of the lifeboats was more chaotic

At 14:12, Captain Turner ordered Quartermaster Johnston stationed at the ship's wheel to steer 'hard-a-starboard' towards the Irish coast, which Johnston confirmed, but the ship could not be steadied on the course and rapidly ceased to respond to the wheel. Turner signalled for the engines to be reversed to halt the ship, but although the signal was received in the engine room, nothing could be done. Steam pressure had collapsed from 195 psi before the explosion, to 50 psi and falling afterwards. [2] : 227 Lusitania ' s wireless operator sent out an immediate SOS, which was acknowledged by a coastal wireless station. Shortly afterward he transmitted the ship's position, 10 miles (16 km) south of the Old Head of Kinsale. [2] : 228 At 14:14, electrical power failed, plunging the cavernous interior of the ship into darkness. Radio signals continued on emergency batteries, but electric lifts failed, trapping passengers and crew bulkhead doors, that were closed as a precaution before the attack, could not be reopened to release trapped men. [2] : 238–40

About one minute after the electrical power failed, Captain Turner gave the order to abandon ship. Water had flooded the ship's starboard longitudinal compartments, causing a 15-degree list to starboard.

Lusitania ' s severe starboard list complicated the launch of her lifeboats. Ten minutes after the torpedoing, when she had slowed enough to start putting boats in the water, the lifeboats on the starboard side swung out too far to step aboard safely. [35] While it was still possible to board the lifeboats on the port side, lowering them presented a different problem. As was typical for the period, the hull plates of Lusitania were riveted, and as the lifeboats were lowered they dragged on the inch-high rivets, which threatened to seriously damage the boats before they landed in the water.

Many lifeboats overturned while loading or lowering, spilling passengers into the sea others were overturned by the ship's motion when they hit the water. It has been claimed [36] that some boats, because of the negligence of some officers, crashed down onto the deck, crushing other passengers, and sliding down towards the bridge. This has been disputed by passenger and crew testimony. [37] Some crewmen would lose their grip on ropes used to lower the lifeboats while trying to lower the boats into the ocean, and this caused the passengers to spill into the sea. Others tipped on launch as some panicking people jumped into the boat. Lusitania had 48 lifeboats, more than enough for all the crew and passengers, but only 6 were successfully lowered, all from the starboard side. Lifeboat 1 overturned as it was being lowered, spilling its original occupants into the sea, but it managed to right itself shortly afterwards and was later filled with people from in the water. Lifeboats 9 (5 people on board) and 11 (7 people on board) managed to reach the water safely with a few people, but both later picked up many swimmers. Lifeboats 13 and 15 also safely reached the water, overloaded with around 150 people. Finally, Lifeboat 21 (52 people on board) reached the water safely and cleared the ship moments before her final plunge. A few of her collapsible lifeboats washed off her decks as she sank and provided flotation for some survivors.

Two lifeboats on the port side cleared the ship as well. Lifeboat 14 (11 people on board) was lowered and launched safely, but because the boat plug was not in place, it filled with seawater and sank almost immediately after reaching the water. Later, Lifeboat 2 floated away from the ship with new occupants (its previous ones having been spilled into the sea when they upset the boat) after they removed a rope and one of the ship's "tentacle-like" funnel stays. They rowed away shortly before the ship sank.

There was panic and disorder on the decks. Schwieger had been observing this through U-20 's periscope, and by 14:25, he dropped the periscope and headed out to sea. [38] Later in the war, Schwieger was killed in action when, as he commanded U-88 the vessel struck a British mine and sank on 5 September 1917, north of Terschelling. There were no survivors from U-88 's sinking.

The track of Lusitania. View of casualties and survivors in the water and in lifeboats. Painting by William Lionel Wyllie

The second explosion made passengers believe U-20 had torpedoed Lusitania a second time

The effect of U-20's torpedo

Captain Turner was on the deck near the bridge clutching the ship's logbook and charts when a wave swept upward towards the bridge and the rest of the ship's forward superstructure, knocking him overboard into the sea. He managed to swim and find a chair floating in the water which he clung to. He survived, having been pulled unconscious from the water after spending three hours there. Lusitania ' s bow slammed into the bottom about 100 metres (330 ft) below at a shallow angle because of her forward momentum as she sank. Along the way, some boilers exploded. As he had taken the ship's logbook and charts with him, Turner's last navigational fix had been only two minutes before the torpedoing, and he was able to remember the ship's speed and bearing at the moment of the sinking. This was accurate enough to locate the wreck after the war. The ship travelled about two miles (3 km) from the time of the torpedoing to her final resting place, leaving a trail of debris and people behind. After her bow sank completely, Lusitania ' s stern rose out of the water, enough for her propellers to be seen, and went under. None of the four funnels collapsed, although some survivors testified that the third funnel swung and struck their lifeboat as they boarded it.

Lusitania sank in only 18 minutes, at a distance of 11.5 miles (19 km) off the Old Head of Kinsale. Despite being relatively close to shore, it took several hours for help to arrive from the Irish coast. By the time help arrived, however, many in the 52 °F (11 °C) water had succumbed to the cold. By the days' end, 764 passengers and crew from Lusitania had been rescued and landed at Queenstown. The final death toll for the disaster came to a catastrophic number. Of the 1,959 passengers and crew aboard Lusitania at the time of her sinking, 1,195 had been lost. [39] In the days following the disaster, the Cunard line offered local fishermen and sea merchants a cash reward for the bodies floating all throughout the Irish Sea, some floating as far away as the Welsh coast. Only 289 bodies were recovered, 65 of which were never identified. The bodies of many of the victims were buried at either Queenstown, where 148 bodies were interred in the Old Church Cemetery, [40] or the Church of St Multose in Kinsale, but the bodies of the remaining 885 victims were never recovered.

Two days before, U-20 had sunk Earl of Lathom, but first allowed the crew to escape in boats. According to international maritime law, any military vessel stopping an unarmed civilian ship was required to allow those on board time to escape before sinking it. The conventions had been drawn up in a time before the invention of the submarine and took no account of the severe risk a small vessel, such as a submarine, faced if it gave up the advantage of a surprise attack. Schwieger could have allowed the crew and passengers of Lusitania to take to the boats, but he considered the danger of being rammed or fired upon by deck guns too great. [ potreban je citat ] Merchant ships had, in fact, been advised to steer directly at any U-boat that surfaced. A cash bonus had been offered for any that were sunk, though the advice was carefully worded so as not to amount to an order to ram. [41] This feat would be accomplished only once during the war by a commercial vessel when in 1918 the White Star Liner HMT olimpijski, sister ship to the Titanic, rammed SM U-103 in the English Channel, sinking the submarine.

According to Bailey and Ryan, Lusitania was travelling without any flag and her name painted over with darkish dye. [42]

One story—an urban legend—states that when Lieutenant Schwieger of U-20 gave the order to fire, his quartermaster, Charles Voegele, would not take part in an attack on women and children, and refused to pass on the order to the torpedo room – a decision for which he was court-martialed and imprisoned at Kiel until the end of the war. [43] This rumour persisted from 1972, when the French daily paper Le Monde published a letter to the editor. [44] [45]


8 Famous People Who Missed the Lusitania

When the First World War began, in the summer of 1914, the Lusitania was among the most glamorous and celebrated ships in the world—at one time both the largest and fastest afloat. But the British passenger liner would earn a far more tragic place in history on May 7, 1915, when it was torpedoed by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland, with the loss of nearly 1,200 lives.

The Lusitania was not the first British ship to be torpedoed, and the German Navy had publicly vowed to destroy “every enemy merchant ship” it found in the waters surrounding Great Britain and Ireland. On the day the Lusitania set sail from New York, the German Embassy ran ads in U.S. newspapers, warning travelers to avoid liners flying the British flag.  But in the case of the Lusitania the warnings went largely unheeded, due in part to the belief that the powerful ship could outrun any pursuant. The ship's captain, W. T. Turner, offered additional reassurance. “It's the best joke I've heard in many days this talk of torpedoing,” he supposedly told reporters.

England and Germany had been at war for close to a year by that point, but the United States, whose citizens would account for about 120 of the Lusitania’s victims, had remained neutral ships sailing under the stars and stripes would not be the deliberate targets of German torpedoes. Though the U.S. didn’t officially enter the war until 1917, the sinking of the Lusitania, and the propaganda blitz that followed, proved a major factor in swaying public opinion in that direction.

Among the prominent American victims were such luminaries of the day as the theatrical impresario Charles Frohman, the popular writer Elbert Hubbard and the very rich Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt. But the list of passengers who missed the Lusitania’s last voyage was equally illustrious. Ironically, it wasn’t the fear of a German U-boat attack that kept most of them off the doomed liner but more mundane matters, such as unfinished business, an uncooperative alarm clock or a demanding mistress.

Here are the stories of eight famous men and women who were lucky enough to dodge the torpedo.

Arturo Toscanini

The conductor Arturo Toscanini was set to return to Europe aboard the Lusitania when his season at New York’s Metropolitan Opera ended. Instead, he cut his concert schedule short and left a week earlier, apparently aboard the Italian liner Duca degli Abruzzi. Contemporary newspaper accounts attributed his hasty departure to doctor’s orders. “His illness amounts practically to a nervous breakdown due to overwork during the season and also to excitement over the European war,” The New York Tribune izvijestio.

In the years since, historians have offered other explanations, including the maestro’s battles with the Met’s management over budget cutbacks, a particularly bad performance of the opera Carmen and a recent ultimatum from his mistress, the singer and silent-movie actress Geraldine Farrar, that he leave his wife and family. Little wonder he set to sea.

Toscanini, who was then in his late 40s, lived for another four decades, until his death at age 89, in 1957. He recorded prolifically—an 85-disc boxed set released last year represents just a portion of his output—and became a celebrity in the U.S., conducting the NBC Symphony Orchestra on radio and later television. In 1984, a quarter-century after his death, he received a Grammy Award for lifetime achievement, sharing the honor that year with Charlie Parker and Chuck Berry.

Jerome Kern

Broadway composer Jerome Kern, then just 30 years old, supposedly planned to sail on the Lusitania with the producer Charles Frohman, but overslept when his alarm clock didn’t go off and missed the ship. The makers of the 1946 MGM musical biopic of Kern’s life, Till the Clouds Roll By, apparently didn’t consider that sufficiently dramatic, so the movie has Kern (played by Robert Walker) racing to the pier in a taxi and arriving just as the ship starts to pull away.

Kern would live for another three decades and write the music for such classics of the American songbook as “Ol’ Man River,” “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes,” and “The Way You Look Tonight.”

He died in 1945 at the age of 60 of a cerebral hemorrhage.

Isadora Duncan

With her latest tour of the United States just ended, the American-born dancer Isadora Duncan had a number of ships to choose from for her return to Europe, where she was then living, among them the Lusitania. Though she had crossed the Atlantic on the luxurious liner before, she passed it up this time in favor of the more humble Dante Alighieri, which left New York eight days later. One reason may have been money: Her tour had been a financial disaster.

In fact, Duncan’s creditors had threatened to seize her trunks and keep her from leaving the country at all until she paid about $12,000 in debts racked up during her visit. In a newspaper interview Duncan pleaded, “I appeal to the generosity of the American people and ask them if they are willing to see me and my pupils disgraced after all I have done in the cause of art.”  Fortunately, within hours of the Dante’s departure, Duncan’s creditors had been placated and a benefactor had given her two $1,000 bills to buy the steamship tickets.

Several histories of the Lusitania disaster give the impression that Duncan sailed on the liner New Yorku with Ellen Terry (see below). Though Duncan idolized the older actress and even had a child with her son, theater director Edward Gordon Craig, it seems to have been one of Duncan’s young dancers rather than Duncan herself who accompanied Terry.

Duncan mentions the Lusitania briefly in her autobiography: “Life is a dream, and it is well that it is so, or who could survive some of its experiences? Such, for instance, as the sinking of the Lusitania. An experience like that should leave for ever an expression of horror upon the faces of the men and women who went through it, whereas we meet them everywhere smiling and happy.”

A dozen years later, Duncan would have a famously fatal encounter with another form of transportation, strangled when her scarf became entangled in one of the wheels of a car in which she was riding.


The primary events that led to the United States declaration of war against Germany were the Zimmerman Telegram and Germany’s announced intention to resume unrestricted submarine warfare. American sentiment had leaned toward the Allies and against the Central powers for some time.

On April 2, 1917, President Woodrow Wilson went before a joint session of Congress to request a declaration of war against Germany. Germany’s resumption of submarine attacks on passenger and merchant ships in 1917 became the primary motivation behind Wilson’s decision to lead the United States into World War I.


Spotted by a U-Boat

Approximately 14 miles off the coast of Southern Ireland at Old Head of Kinsale, neither the captain nor any of his crew realized that German U-boat U-20 had already spotted and targeted them. At 1:40 p.m., the U-boat launched a torpedo. The torpedo hit the starboard (right) side of the Lusitania. Almost immediately, another explosion rocked the ship.

At the time, the Allies thought the Germans had launched two or three torpedoes to sink the Lusitania. However, the Germans say their U-boat only fired one torpedo. Many believe the second explosion was caused by the ignition of ammunition hidden in the cargo hold. Others say that coal dust, kicked up when the torpedo hit, exploded. No matter what the exact cause, it was the damage from the second explosion that made the ship sink.


Lusitania Sunk - History

The Lusitania had left New York City on May 1 bound for Liverpool. On the afternoon of May 7 she was steaming off the coast of Ireland within easy sailing distance of her destination. Known as the "Greyhound of the Seas," the Lusitania was the fastest liner afloat and relied on her speed to defend against submarine attack. However, she was not running at full speed because of fog. Nor was the ship taking an evasive zigzag course. It was a sitting duck and was headed straight into the sights of the U-20.

The two ships converged at about 2 pm. After stalking his prey for an hour, Captain Schwieger unleashed one torpedo that hit its target amidships. The initial explosion was followed quickly by a second, more powerful, detonation. Within 20 minutes the great liner had slipped under the water, taking 1,198 victims with her. Among the dead were 138 Americans. Many in the United States were outraged. A declaration of war was narrowly averted when Germany vowed to cease her policy of unrestricted submarine warfare that allowed attacks on merchant ships without warning. However, American public opinion had turned against Germany and when she resurrected her unrestricted submarine warfare policy in February of 1917, America decided to go to war.

"Great confusion arose on the ship. . ."

Captain Schwieger kept a diary of the voyage. We join his story as he first catches sight of the Lusitania in the early afternoon of May 7, 1915:

Went to 11m and ran at high speed on a course converging with that of the steamer, in hopes that it would change course to starboard along the Irish Coast.

The steamer turned to starboard, headed for Queenstown and thus made it possible to approach for a shot. Ran at high speed till 3 pm in order to secure an advantageous position.

Clear bow shot at 700 m. . . angle of intersection 90 [degrees] estimated speed 22 nautical miles.

A contemporary illustration of the
attack shows the Lusitania hit
by 2 torpedoes. This was
the explanation at the time
for the 2 explosions and the
rapid sinking of the ship.

Shot struck starboard side close behind the bridge. An extraordinary heavy detonation followed, with a very large cloud of smoke (far above the front funnel). A second explosion must have followed that of the torpedo (boiler or coal or powder?).

The superstructure above the point of impact and the bridge were torn apart fire broke out light smoke veiled the high bridge. The ship stopped immediately and quickly listed sharply to starboard, sinking deeper by the head at the same time.

Great confusion arose on the ship some of the boats were swung clear and lowered into the water. Many people must have lost their heads several boats loaded with people rushed downward, struck the water bow or stern first and filled at once.

On the port side, because of the sloping position, fewer boats were swung clear than on the starboard side.

The ship blew off steam at the bow the name &ldquoLusitania&rdquo in golden letters was visible. It was running 20 nautical miles.

Since it seemed as if the steamer could only remain above water for a short time, went to 24m. and ran toward the Sea. Nor could I have fired a second torpedo into this swarm of people who were trying to save themselves.

Went to 11m and took a look around. In the distance straight ahead a number of life-boats were moving nothing more was to be seen of the Lusitania. The wreck must lie 14 nautical miles from the Old Head of Kinsale light-house, at an angle of 358 degrees to the right of it, in 90m of water (27 nautical miles from Queenstown) 51 degrees 22&rsquo 6&rdquo N and 8 degrees 31&rsquo W. The land and the lighthouse could be seen very plainly.

Conditions for shot very favorable: no possibility of missing if torpedo kept its course. Torpedo did not strike. Since the telescope was cut off for some time after this shot the cause of failure could not be determined. . . The steamer or freighter was of the Cunard Line.

. . . Izvanredno je da na ovaj dan ima toliko prometa, iako su dva velika parobroda potopljena dan prije južno od kanala George & rsquos. Također je neobjašnjivo da je Luzitanija nije poslan Sjevernim kanalom. & quot

Reference:
Walter Schwieger & rsquos dnevnik dio je zbirke Nacionalnog arhiva: Grupa zapisa 45: Zbirka pomorskih zapisa Ureda pomorskih zapisa i knjižnice, 1691 & ndash 1945.
Ostale reference: Hickey, Des & Smith, Gus, Seven Days to Disaster (1982) Simpson, Colin, The Lusitania (1972).