Koliko su “Rusije” zapravo okupirali Nijemci u Drugom svjetskom ratu?

Koliko su “Rusije” zapravo okupirali Nijemci u Drugom svjetskom ratu?


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Dobro sam svjestan da je njemačka invazija na Sovjetski Savez, kako je prikazano na ovakvim kartama, pokazalo je velike njemačke dobitke 1941., a zatim i na putu za Staljingrad 1942. godine.

Moje je shvaćanje, međutim, bilo da su ti dobici bili uglavnom u baltičkim državama, Bjelorusiji i Ukrajini, te da su samo mali dio "Rusije" (kako bismo je mogli definirati danas) okupirali Nijemci, osim za klackalicu koja se borila na cesti prema Moskvi od listopada 1941. do ožujka 1942., tijekom koje je zauzeto i oslobođeno gotovo 100.000 četvornih kilometara zemlje. Slična "iznimka" može se napraviti za kopno između rijeka Don i Volga krajem 1942. koje su Nijemci zauzeli nekoliko mjeseci prije nego što su izgubili bitku za Staljingrad. Ako ništa drugo, Rusija je dobila trupe, civile i tvornice koje su povučene iz neruskog dijela Sovjetskog Saveza u očekivanju njemačke okupacije kako bi nadoknadili izgubljeni teritorij.

Koliko su "Rusije" (1941.) Nijemci okupirali u 1) svom najvećem opsegu u prosincu 1941. i/ili 1942.? i 2) nakon uspješnog završetka ruskih zimskih protuofenziva? (Molimo vas da njemačko ožujka 1943. ponovno zauzmete Harkov kao kraj ruske protuofenzive 1943.)

Moj je problem što nisam siguran kako definirati "Rusiju". Želim "prethodnika" 1941. današnjoj Rusiji (poslijeratne promjene vjerojatno znače da nisu potpuno iste). "Moja je najbolja pretpostavka da je najbolji zamjenik" Rusije "Ruska federalistička sovjetska republika, pod pretpostavkom da je to zapravo najbolji "prethodnik".

Drugim riječima, pitanje je koliko je teritorija okupiranog od Njemačke bila "Rusija" (koliko god bila definirana) za razliku od ostatka Sovjetskog Saveza?


Dopustite mi da počnem od vašeg pored posljednjeg pitanja:

... najbolji posrednik za "Rusiju" je Ruska federalistička sovjetska republika. Je li to usporedivo s današnjom Rusijom?

Da, kompatibilan je s današnjom Ruskom Federacijom. Postoji nekoliko iznimaka.

1941. Rusija nije imala:

  • Kalinjingradska regija (sjeverni dio Istočne Pruske, koja je uključena 1945.);
  • Tuva (koja se dobrovoljno pridružila 1944.);
  • regija Pechengsky (Petsamo) (koja je prilično zakomplicirala povijest pripadnosti Finske/SSSR -a, ali čini se da je posljednji put kada su neke od njenih zemalja prenesene 1947.).
  • Karelo-Finska SSR, koja je bila samostalna republika SSSR-a, koja nije dio RSFSR-a, ali je danas dio Ruske Federacije.

Također, ovisno o nečijem stavu prema krimskom referendumu i kasnijim događajima, može se reći da danas Rusija nema Krim u svom sastavu, ali svejedno ga je Rusija imala 1941. godine.

Također treba uzeti u obzir da granice Rusije s Ukrajinom, Bjelorusijom, Estonijom, a možda i Latvijom, nisu demarkirane, pa na kopnu nema "inčne preciznosti".

Sljedeći.

Ili postoji bolja definicija Rusije (možda s osvrtom na prošlost) u svrhu ovog pitanja

Postoji bezbroj definicija Rusije, a koja je najbolja uvelike ovisi o nečijim političkim stavovima. Čak je i definicija s nekim etničkim pristupom vrlo nepouzdana i skliska, ako želite slijediti ovaj put, sretno, ako pronađete bilo koje izvore koje ćete smatrati pouzdanima.

Dopustite mi da se držim definicije Rusije kao današnje Ruske Federacije (uključujući Krim), osim onih dijelova koji nisu bili dijelovi SSSR -a 1941. godine, to jest regije Pechengsky i Kalinjingrada, jer ste pitali o "Rusiji "iz 1941.

Koliko su "Rusije" (1941.) zauzeli Nijemci godine

… Njegov najveći opseg u prosincu 1941. i/ili 1942.?

To je ono što je okupirano 1941. (crvena rukom iscrtana linija) i oslobođeni tijekom protuofenzive u prosincu 1941. - travnju 1942. (zelena rukom iscrtana linija). Linije su povučene prema samoj karti, koja nije 100% točna (barem sam uočio odsustvo Izyuma, a poluotok Kerč na Krimu nije označen kao oslobođen, iako je to bilo krajem 1941.) . Narančasta rukom nacrtana linija trenutne su granice Rusije uključujući Krim i isključujući regiju Pechengsky i Kalinjingrad. Kao spomenar na toj karti, drugi tamnoplavi dio karte istočno od crvene crte je ono što su Nijemci zauzeli 1942. (uključujući Sevastopolj i poluotok Kerč na Krimu).

Koliko su "Rusije" (1941.) zauzeli Nijemci godine

... nakon uspješnog završetka ruskih zimskih protuofenziva? (Molimo vas da upotrijebite njemačko ponovno zauzimanje Harkova u ožujku 1943. kao kraj protuofenzive Rusije 1943.)

Ova karta prikazuje (osim ostalih stvari) njemačko napredovanje 1942. godine (crvenom rukom nacrtanom linijom) i kasniju rusku protuofenzivu do njemačkog ponovnog zauzimanja Harkova u ožujku 1943. (zelena rukom iscrtana linija). Narančasta rukom nacrtana linija trenutne su granice Rusije uključujući Krim i isključujući regiju Pechengsky i Kalinjingrad.

Je li istina da je okupirana Rusija bila "mala" u usporedbi s ostatkom okupiranog Sovjetskog Saveza?

Ako mislite na "mali" u značenju područja, možete ih usporediti pomoću karata, žao mi je što nisam uspio pronaći neki pouzdan izvor s brojevima. Veliki dio RSFSR-a bio je okupiran 1942., ali to je bilo mnogo kraće razdoblje pod okupacijom (7-8 mjeseci), nego što je na primjer Bjelorusija imala (tri godine), pa pretpostavljam da Njemačka nije bila u mogućnosti iskoristiti ovu zemlju u tolikoj mjeri, kao u zapadnim dijelovima SSSR -a.

Ako mislite na "malu" u smislu da je Rusija manje patila u ratu, nego drugi dijelovi SSSR -a, bojim se da je teško dati odgovor bez političke pristranosti itd. Unatoč tome (po mom subjektivnom dojmu) u našem historiografija smatra da je u Bjelorusiji uspostavljen najžešći okupacioni režim, neki dijelovi današnje Rusije mnogo su stradali, poput Staljingrada ili opsjednutog Lenjingrada. I drugi dijelovi SSSR -a koji nisu bili okupirani (poput Uzbekistana, Kazahstana, Turkmenije, Tadžikistana) dali su vlastiti trud i patnju za pobjedu.

Nadam se da je to odgovorilo na vaša pitanja, sljedeće su originalne karte bez mojih rukom iscrtanih linija:


maksimalno u prosincu 1941

To zapravo nije bio "maksimalni" opseg. Teritorij, protiv kojeg se SSSR borio u zimu 1941. - proljeće 1942., bio je mnogo manji od područja koje je njemačka vojska zauzela napredujući prema Staljingradu. Sljedeća karta to jasno pokazuje.

"Žuto" područje je ono što je SSSR stekao. Njemački dobitak nalazi se na jugu između dviju linija fronta: Voroshilovgrad (sada Lugansk, Ukrajina), Rostov na Donu, Krasnodar, Stavropol, Elista itd.-svi pripadaju RSFSR-u (i modernoj Rusiji).

Gubici 1941. uključivali su i više od "puta do Moskve". To su bili veliki gradovi (RSFSR -a) kao što su Smolensk, Belgorod, Bryansk, Kursk, Orel, Pskov itd.

Je li istina da je okupirana Rusija bila "mala" u usporedbi s ostatkom okupiranog Sovjetskog Saveza?

Administrativne granice vide se na karti. Ova su područja manje -više usporediva. Iako je gubitak RSFSR -a uglavnom "tanak" i "rastegnut" od sjevera prema jugu.

Također je vrijedno napomenuti da, iako je ukupna okupirana površina bila samo oko 7% SSSR-a, ipak je ukupni broj prijeratnog stanovništva ovih teritorija dosegao oko 40% cijeli SSSR (Grubo govoreći, prijeratna populacija Ukrajine+Bjelorusije+Baltika bila je oko 40-45 milijuna; prijeratna populacija okupiranih dijelova RSFSR-a 30-35 milijuna.)

Rusija je dobila trupe, civile i tvornice povučene iz neruskog dijela Sovjetskog Saveza u očekivanju njemačke okupacije kako bi nadoknadila izgubljeni teritorij

Trupe Zapadne fronte bile su potpuno poražene 1941. Zapravo su mnoge vojske iznova stvorene (tj. Raspuštene su redovite divizije, a novoformirane dobrovoljačke divizije dobile su svoje identitete).

Tvornice Ukrajine i Bjelorusije (uglavnom) nisu se mogle evakuirati zbog brzog napredovanja neprijatelja. SU su uspješno evakuirale tvornice europskog dijela RSFSR -a (uključujući moskovsku industrijsku regiju). Otišli su čak do Urala, što je bio veliki gubitak vremena za SU. A tvornice koje su još uvijek bile relativno blizu fronta bile su stalno pod napadima Luftwaffea.


Karta data u Mattovom odgovoru pokazuje što su Nijemci doista zauzeli. Preostalo je pitanje što to zapravo znači Rusija ili "ruski teritoriji". Mislim da je Tom Au to morao točno navesti kada je postavljao ovo pitanje. Ali ovo mogu komentirati.

Dvaput kliknite na kartu i vidjet ćete administrativne granice unutar Sovjetskog Saveza. Oni su prikazani ovako ----- i to su granice između "sovjetskih republika" od 1939. godine.

Dakle, ako je pitanje koliko su Rusku Federaciju (u granicama 1939.) Nijemci zauzeli, odgovor je također jasan s karte.

Od tada su se granice Ruske Federacije promijenile. Dakle, moderna Rusija se ne podudara s Ruskom Federacijom iz 1939. Najveće promjene su Kalinjingradska regija (bivša Istočna Pruska, povijesno njemačko područje, prikazano smeđom bojom) koja je pripojena Njemačkoj, te Krim koji je prebačen u sastav Ukrajine, a zatim je Rusija napala i pripojila 2014. godine.

No, pitanje je složenije/dvosmislenije od toga, jer sama Rusija sadrži takozvane "autonomne republike" i "autonomne regije" u kojima veliki dio stanovništva, ponekad i većina, nisu etnički Rusi. Granice ovih regija nisu prikazane na ovoj karti. To se uglavnom odnosi na Sjeverni Kavkaz, mjesto gdje su Nijemci prodrli najdalje na istok.

"Ruski" gradovi prikazani na karti su sljedeći: (SZ do JI) Petrozavodsk (autonomna republika Karelija), Pskov, Demiansk, Novgorod (na granici okupirane zone), Rzhev, Vyazma, Smolensk (sporno između Rusa i Bjelorusi, Poljaci i Litvanci stoljećima) Bryansk, Orel, Kursk, Belgorod (na samoj granici Ukrajine), Voronezh (na granici okupirane zone).

Zatim idite (JI Ukrajine) Rostov, Krasnodar, Kerč (regija u kojoj žive don kozaci, nekad je sve ovo bila Ukrajina) i poluotok Krim (naseljen Tatarima, Ukrajincima i Rusima, koji su trenutno okupirani i pripojeni Rusiji od Ukrajine), Elista ( autonomna Republika Kalmikija, sada u sastavu Rusije, 1939. dio Ruske republike), Stavropolj (Sjeverno-kavkaski kraj, s vrlo mješovitim stanovništvom. Veliko okupirano područje oko Stavropolja sastoji se od 6 autonomnih republika: Kalmikija, Dagestan, Čečenska Republika, Sjever Osetija-Alanija, Republika Kabardino-Balkar i Republika Karačay-Cherkess).

Svi drugi gradovi na okupiranom području prikazani na ovoj karti nalaze se u baltičkim republikama, Bjelorusiji, Ukrajini i Moldovi.

Vizualno ružičasti dio koji se nalazi u ruskoj republici 1939. je oko 1/4 do 1/3 cijelog ružičastog dijela. No, regije koje okupiraju etnički Rusi vjerojatno su 1/5 ružičaste površine.


Na današnji dan, 2. lipnja 1941 .: Brutalni nacistički masakr nad kritskim selom

2. lipnja 1941. dogodio se brutalni masakr u selu Kondomari, zapadno od grada Hania.

Bitka na Kreti bila je upravo završena i savezničke snage predale su otok nacistima koji su izvršili invaziju. Unatoč ishodu, bitka je promijenila tijek povijesti Drugoga svjetskog rata i bila je epska na toliko razina, uključujući žestok otpor na koji su nacisti naišli od lokalnog kritskog stanovništva.

Nacisti su zanijemili zbog otpora, nikada nisu doživjeli tako žestoke borbe civila nigdje drugdje u Europi.

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Masakr u Kondomariju bio je prvi koji je započeo brutalnu kampanju terora pokušavajući uliti strah u lokalno stanovništvo.

Pokolj je snimio ratni dopisnik njemačke vojske Franz-Peter Weixler čiji su negativi otkriveni nekoliko desetljeća kasnije u saveznim njemačkim arhivima.

Weixlerove fotografije prikazuju jezivu i detaljnu kronologiju onoga što se tog kobnog dana dogodilo u malom grčkom selu koje je izgubilo većinu muške populacije.

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33 komentara

Ενας σώθηκε σε μία εκτέλεση. Ηρθε ο πατέρας του οικιοθελώς, να τον αντικαταστήσει, και άρχισαν τον καυγά, διότι ήτε Μετά από αυτό οι γερμανοί δεν το εκτέλεσαν.

Nacistički revizionisti pokušavaju osloboditi Wehrmacht s udice tvrdeći da su SS bili ti koji su počinili sva zlodjela, dok je doktrina hladnokrvne rase nadmoći zahvatila čitavu njemačku kulturu. Ne možemo shvatiti ovu vrstu barbarstva iz zemlje Beethovena i Schillera sve dok ne shvatimo moć određenih iracionalnih doktrina koje su ovladale ranim nacističkim pokretom i oblikovale njegovu vjeru rasne superiornosti. Korijene nacizma možemo pronaći prije Prvog svjetskog rata u dementnim spisima utjecajnog okultista, Lansa Von Liebenfelsa (Google ga) koji je u velikom broju objavio časopis##8220Ostara ”, časopis koji su Hitler i njegove rane kolumne pohlepno čitali.

Narod koji zaboravi svoju povijest samo će je ponovno živjeti

Nikada ne zaboravite ljudsku patnju. Bilo gdje!

Ne samo da su ta čudovišta počinila ovo zlodjelo, otišla su čak i do toga da su ga fotografijom dokumentirala. Odvratno. Jesu li mislili da će se buduće generacije diviti njihovoj slavi i košenju nenaoružanih civila? I danas njihovo potomstvo vlada Europom? Koliko smo 've nazadovali …

Fotografije su snimljene protiv zapovijedi njemačkog propagandnog agenta koji je pokušavao izložiti Nijemce zvjerstvima koja su počinili. Uzeo je te negative i dao ih obraditi, ali je potom pronađen kod njih i osuđen na petnaest godina zatvora za zločine protiv države. Tijekom suđenja također su ga proglasili krivim za pomaganje nekoliko Krečana da pobjegnu s otoka, što mu je gotovo utrostručilo kaznu sa 15 na 40 godina. Pomalo zloglasni negativi su mu oduzeti, ali su pronađeni nakon rata (i nakon smrti fotografa).

Drago mi je što ste objavili ove uznemirujuće fotografije. Ljudi su znali istinu.

ovo selo nije bilo daleko od mjesta gdje sam živio i gdje imam prijatelje. Ovo su užasni svi oni zločini koji su učinjeni i nema povrata grčkom narodu, kažem Angela Merkel počela je iskašljavati novac zbog Grčke i ispriku Grčkom Peapleu koji su preživjeli ovaj zločin

Vrlo uznemirujuće slike. Nikada ne smijemo zaboraviti strahote rata, rat je stvaran i uznemirujući je. Jednako je uznemirujuće koliko sada u Grčkoj može držati nacističku zastavu i nazivati ​​se političkom strankom

Jebeš naciste i bilo koju političku stranku ili pojedinca koji ih podržava.

Čak i nakon svega toga neki ljudi podržavaju neonacističke skupine poput Zlatne zore u Grčkoj. Sramotno.

Ratni zločini ubijaju nedužne ljude i dokumentirati to je odvratno. Stanovnici Krete i Grčke općenito su patili od ruku Nijemaca, sada je vrijeme da Nijemci plate za te ratne zločine. Ovo je samo jedno od mnogih zvjerstava koja su se dogodila tijekom invazije na Grčku. U mojoj knjizi, ako su plaćeni za ratne zločine, Grčka ne bi trebala ništa vratiti po tekućem zajmu, a Nijemci ga moraju isisati. Zajebi EU Grčka ne treba njih oni trebaju nas. Moj muž rođen je na Kreti u svibnju 1941. u selu Maleš, on i njegova obitelj imali su sreću preživjeti. Ponosan što sam Grk, a ne Nijemac.

Fotograf, Nijemac, prkosio je naredbi da se slika jer se protivio ubojstvu seljana. Pokušao je uvjeriti glavnog časnika da nikoga ne ubije i spasio je dvojicu ili trojicu Krečana od strijeljanja. Bio je dobar čovjek. Vojska nije htjela snimanje klanja, ali je htio razotkriti zlodjelo. Bio je kažnjen za svoje postupke, jer sam i sam znao da će to i biti.

Drago mi je da ste objavili slike. Svi učimo iz svoje povijesti. Znao sam da je moj tata bio gerilac u Prvom svjetskom ratu i da je bio povezan s takvom grupom za borbu protiv Nijemaca. Ponosan sam i sretan što je to učinio. Da sam to bio ja taj dan, borit ću se i ja. Kao što Spartak kaže, želim biti slobodan čovjek, a ne rob. Vjerujem u taj princip! Svi se moramo ujediniti i uzvratiti. Bilo je to davno, davno, davno i ne znam što se dogodilo u godinama nakon toga, ali Njemačka mora vratiti u novčanom obliku one koje su ubili. Oni su to učinili Židovima. Moraju učiniti ljudima Krete. Ako nisu platili, vrijeme je da plate! Zauzvrat, naša vlada u Grčkoj mora zastupati ljude, a ne one koji su iznijeli novac iz zemlje. Grčka mora preživjeti. Mora rasti. Mora napredovati. Konačno, morate se sjetiti prošlosti. Prošlost je pokazatelj budućnosti!

Umjetnost. 43 HLKO
Kako bi se uspostavio red u okupiranoj zemlji/ u ratu, međunarodno pravo dopušta strijeljanje partizana. To uključuje i cijela sela, ako pružaju sklonište partizanima. To je bio i jest uobičajen način borbe protiv partizana, na pr. danas u 2015. ukrajinska zapadna vojska bombardira cijele gradove i sela u istočnoj Ukrajini, za supsikera da su proruski vojnici među civilima. Ovdje govorimo o više desetaka tisuća mrtvih civila.

Niste u pravu. Ako ubijete čitava sela ljudi, to je ratni zločin. Nijemci u Kondomariju ubili su starce kao i mladiće. Moguće je da je među njima bilo i nekih andartesa, ali Nijemce nije zanimalo jesu li nevini ili ne, samo su htjeli izbrisati svakog čovjeka u selu, njih gotovo 70. Kao što sam rekao, to je ratni zločin. Studenta i službenika zaduženog za ta ubojstva trebalo je objesiti. Što su uopće radili andarti? Jednostavno brane svoju zemlju od osvajača. Kad su Nijemci bombardirali Heraklion na početku invazije, civili iz stroja iz Luftwaffea bježali su iz grada. Ti se ljudi nisu borili protiv Nijemaca, samo su pokušavali pobjeći od bombi. Jesu li Nijemci doista vjerovali, kako je izviješteno, da će ih stanovnici Krete dočekati raširenih ruku kad su nevini muškarci, žene i djeca razneseni u komade? Kritski narod oduvijek se odupirao osvajaču. I pogodi što? Svi osvajači su otišli, a Krećani su još uvijek tu. Ne ispričavajte se da je barbarsko ratno vrijeme unutar međunarodnog prava jer je apsurdno pokušavati biti apologeta neoprostivog. Ovaj masakr bio je zao, odvratan zločin i da sam Nijemac, čak i nakon toliko vremena osjetio bih najdublju sramotu za Kondomarije.

General Kurt Student koji je u konačnici bio odgovoran za ovaj i druge ratne zločine na Kreti suđen je 1947. Osuđen je na samo pet godina zatvora, ali je 1948. pušten očito iz medicinskih razloga i živio je još 30 godina. Toliko o pravdi.

Drago mi je što ste objavili slike i priču. Povijest se ne može zaboraviti. Moramo se, očito, uvijek iznova prisjećati da je rat pakao i pretvara ljude u cijelom svijetu, bez obzira na nacionalnost ili etničku pripadnost, u čudovišta. Ja ’m Nijemac i sramim se gledajući ove slike. U njemačkim školama od 7. godine nadalje podsjećamo se na strašnu njemačku povijest - i učimo da se to više nikada ne smije ponoviti.

Ove fotografije trebale bi se objavljivati ​​uvijek iznova kako bi svijet vidio zvjerstva ovog rata. Pucanje na nenaoružane civile dogodilo se i u selu mojih roditelja Skine na Kreti. Odmazda za otmicu njemačkog generala također je uzrokovala paljenje cijelog sela. To je značilo da su seljani raštrkani živjeti u špiljama, kao i moja majka, ili pod drvećem s krhkim plahtama radi zaštite od nepogoda. Neki od sretnijih seljana imali su rodbinu u drugim selima kod kojih su ostali. Obnova siromašnih osiromašenih domova trajala je desetljećima i mnogi ljudi još uvijek žive u tim kućama. Mala plaćanja njemačke odmazde nikada nisu bila dovoljna da nadoknade bijedu i uništenje.

Vratili su se s bankama nego tenkovi … koliko je Europa već brzo zaboravila.

Bilo je krajnje vrijeme da je Grčkoj vraćen SVI novac koji je dospio od lopovačkih Nijemaca. ovo uključuje SVE zlato i SVU valutu. Ukrali su sve i većina bi krajem rata otišla u trezore švicarskih banaka. Svaka država EU i SAD trebaju zahtijevati naknadu od Merkel i njezine vlade. zadnji “zajam ” u Grčku otišao je izravno u njemačke banke da plati kamate. To je činjenica !!

Prvo, dopustite mi da kažem da je ono što jest ….

I ovdje sjedite i kukate, komentirate i ne razumijete zašto su padobranci popizdili ?! Znam priče o padobrancima snimljenim s leđa, bez obrane .. ali samo citiram tekst s prve slike u slideshowu.

” Otpor kretskog stanovništva bio je najžešći s kojim su se nacisti suočili u ratu do tog trenutka. Mnogi padobranci koji su zaglavili u drveću nikada nisu uspjeli živjeti s tla dok su mještani napadali kuhinjskim priborom, kamenjem i štapom … ”

Zatim, za razliku između civila i partizana, neka vrsta kukavice kao partizana sakriti se među civilnim stanovništvom.

VRIJEME JE GRČKA VLADA ZAHTJEVALA NJEMAČKU PRIPREMU OD 2. svjetskog rata u kratkom razdoblju njemačke okupacije, 1941.-1944., Nasiljem osvajačkih armija predvođenih Nijemcima, Grčka se pretvorila iz skromno dobrostojeće zemlje u zemlju na rubu smrti.
Sljedeća matematika masovnog gladovanja i ubojstva priča priču. Brojevi dolaze iz “Žrtve Grčke u Drugom svjetskom ratu”, izvješća iz 1946. koje je za grčku vladu pripremio arhitekt K. A. Doxiadis.
Priča o Drugom svjetskom ratu Grčka počinje hranom, oružjem gladovanja okupatora. Tijekom 1941-1944. Došlo je do dramatičnog pada proizvodnje grčke hrane: pšenica i ječam, usjevi života i smrti za Grke, pali su za 40 posto graha, 36 posto duhana, 89 posto pamuka, 75 posto maslinovog ulja, 16 posto grožđa i grožđice, 66 posto vina, 50 posto voća, 20 posto.


Jesu li ljudi Čehoslovačke prevarili Nijemce u Drugom svjetskom ratu?

Bio sam na besplatnom pješačkom obilasku Praga prije nekoliko godina i momak nam je ispričao priču o tome kako Nijemci nisu mogli 't pronaći Prag. Rekao je da su ljudi u Čehoslovačkoj u Drugom svjetskom ratu (možda jedan zapravo ..) zamijenili sve putokaze na nepostojeće mjesto zbog čega su Nijemci tjednima kružili. Bila je to smiješna priča i vjerovao sam .. sad nekoliko godina kasnije imam taj 'očekajte! ' osjećaj o tome i brzi Google to ne iznosi. Nadam se da će netko osvijetliti ovu priču ili ako sam lakovjeran.

Budući da su teritorije koje su postale Češkoslovačka bile dio Austro-Ugarske i stoga povezane s Njemačkom, malo je vjerojatno da je bilo u WW !.

Njemačka je u listopadu 1938. okupirala Sudete (zapadnu i sjevernu Čehoslovačku) i uključila ih u Reich. Oni su okupirali Češku i Moravsku (uključujući Prag) u ožujku 1939., znatno prije izbijanja Drugog svjetskog rata. Ova tri područja otprilike su teritorij moderne Češke Republike. Ostatak zemlje postala je marionetska Slovačka Republika (otprilike moderna Slovačka minus neki komadići koje je Mađarska prigrabila).

Za vrijeme okupacije bilo je malo borbi, uglavnom zato što je Hitler pozvao češkog predsjednika u Berlin i "ubedio ga" da ga uputi svom narodu da se ne odupire, što vjerojatno nije bilo teško jer je imao srčani udar tijekom sastanka. Nijemci se jednostavno voze do Praga, cijela okupacija je trajala samo nekoliko sati.

Češki otpor možda je zabrljao s putokazima tijekom rata, a neki su se Nijemci možda izgubili (Britanci su se uspjeli zbuniti kada su 1940. uklonili putokaze na južnoj obali), ali to nije moglo biti ništa više od manja iritacija.


Koliko su & ldquoRusije & rdquo zapravo zauzeli Nijemci u Drugom svjetskom ratu? - Povijest

Hektor Vrijedna imovina
Postovi: 3778 Spojen: Ned 25. lipnja 2006. 7:59

Poljski zločini nad Nijemcima prije 1. rujna 1939

Objavio / la autor Hektor & raquo prije 8 godina i 5 mjeseci (srijeda, 02. siječnja 2013. 05:48)

Re: Poljski zločini nad Nijemcima prije 1. 19. rujna

Objavio / la autor Balsamo & raquo prije 8 godina i 5 mjeseci (srijeda, 02. siječnja 2013. 10:35)

Kao i obično :
- fotografije koje su napravili Nijemci
- Službena istraga Wehrmachta
- priznanje zarobljenih Poljaka (vojnika i civila)
- Nijemci očevici

Kao i obično
rasprava o broju umrlih: od 100 (poljski povjesničari) do 415 (njemački povjesničari) do 5500 (mislite da je to bio službeni njemački broj 1939.), pa čak i 60.000 prema nekim jezicima poput GermanicPower na Youtubeu.

Hektor Vrijedna imovina
Postovi: 3778 Spojen: Ned 25. lipnja 2006. 7:59

Re: Poljski zločini nad Nijemcima prije 1. 19. rujna

Objavio / la autor Hektor & raquo prije 8 godina i 5 mjeseci (srijeda, 02. siječnja 2013. u 13:58)

Čini se da su brojke od prije 1. rujna 1939. i nakon ovog datuma ponekad zbunjene. Dio literature zajedno se bavi oboje:
http://archive.org/details/Auswaertiges. usamkeiten

Od kraja Prvog svjetskog rata učestalo je nasilje nad Nijemcima u područjima koja kontrolira Poljska. Da se netko zaista potrudio prebrojati incidente i ocijeniti dokaze, još nisam vidio. Bilo je nasilja i nad drugim manjinama, poput Ukrajinaca.

Možda bi trebalo pogledati i lik njemačkih izbjeglica iz Poljske.

Hannover Vrijedna imovina
Postovi: 10362 Spojen: Ned 24. studenog 2002. 19:53

Re: Poljski zločini nad Nijemcima prije 1. 19. rujna

Objavio / la autor Hannovera & raquo prije 8 godina i 5 mjeseci (srijeda, 02. siječnja 2013. 17:53)

Pogledajte ovdje:
http://www.jrbooksonline.com/polish_atrocities.htm
Uglavnom ubrzo nakon 1. rujna 39. godine, ali ima nekih predratnih podataka. i tekst Hitlerova govora (Danzig, 19. rujna 1939.) koji razrađuje prijeratni teror nad njemačkom manjinom.
Također vjerujem da su postojale brojne, njemačke novine koje su imale informacije o zvjerstvima.

U tim tvrdnjama protiv Poljaka nema ništa znanstveno nemoguće, kao ni tvrdnje unutar kanona 'holokausta'.

Hektor Vrijedna imovina
Postovi: 3778 Spojen: Ned 25. lipnja 2006. 7:59

Re: Poljski zločini nad Nijemcima prije 1. 19. rujna

Objavio / la autor Hektor & raquo prije 8 godina 5 mjeseci (četvrtak, 03. siječnja 2013, 07:07)

Hannover Vrijedna imovina
Postovi: 10362 Spojen: Ned 24. studenog 2002. 19:53

Re: Poljski zločini nad Nijemcima prije 1. 19. rujna

Objavio / la autor Hannovera & raquo prije 8 godina i 5 mjeseci (četvrtak, 03. siječnja 2013. 14:31)

. ”Pod poljskim pritiskom Nijemci u južnim i istočnim okruzima bili su izloženi ugnjetavajućem tretmanu. Dana 19. kolovoza 1920. Poljaci su se zaista osjećali dovoljno snažnima da pokušaju silom zauzeti zemlju. Sa svih strana bande Poljaka, uglavnom regrutirane iz Kongresa Poljske, uzurpirale su vlast. Određeni broj Nijemaca nasilno je prebačen preko granice u Poljsku, a mnogi su ubijeni. Prošlo je nekoliko tjedana prije nego što je bilo moguće ugušiti ovaj uspon i uspostaviti red ... Antanta je predložila da nerezidentni gornji šlezijci Njemačkog Reicha trebaju glasovati izvan Šlezije, u Kölnu. Njemačka je prosvjedovala protiv toga, a njezin je prosvjed Antanta priznala valjanim. U siječnju 1921. datum plebiscita određen je za 20. ožujka 1921. godine.
Odmah je došlo do oživljavanja korištenja terorizma od strane Poljaka, osobito u okruzima Rybnik, Pless, Kattowitz i Beuthen. Vrhunac je dosegla u danima koji su prethodili plebiscitu. Glasačima iz drugih dijelova njemačkog Reicha često je odbijen ulazak na birališta, ponekad su bili maltretirani, pa čak i u nekim slučajevima ubijeni, a kuće u kojima su boravili glasači zapaljene ... Dan nakon plebiscita poljski ekscesi su ponovo počeli, a od tog datuma nadalje su se nastavili bez prekida ... Praktički svi su gradovi glasali za Njemačku ... prvih dana svibnja svjedočili smo novoj poljskoj pobuni koja je poprimila daleko veće razmjere od prethodne. Korfanty je potajno podigao dobro organizirane poljske snage koje su opskrbljene oružjem i municijom s druge strane granice, a pojačane su velikim tijelima muškaraca iz Poljske ...
Do 20. lipnja britanske trupe ponovno su zauzele veće gradove, dok su Poljaci imali prednost u ruralnim četvrtima. Zbog poteškoća u plaćanju svojih ljudi i opskrbi hranom, Korfanty je sada izgubio kontrolu nad svojim sljedbenicima. Osnovane su neovisne grupe koje su pljačkale sela, zlostavljale Nijemce i ubijale mnoge od njih. ”

- 1922. Britanska enciklopedija, "SILESIA, UPPER"

Ovaj se članak pojavio u poljskim novinama Die Liga der Grossmacht listopada 1930 .:

"Tannenberg" se odnosi na bitku kod Tannenberga 1410. godine kada je poljska vojska porazila njemačke teutonske vitezove. Članak je pun još mnogo antinjemačkih primjedbi.

Također, Von Ribbentrop branio je napad Poljske navodeći da je između 1919.-1939. Milijun Nijemaca protjerano s poljskog teritorija popraćeno brojnim zvjerstvima, te da su podnesene pritužbe Svjetskom sudu u Haagu i Ligi naroda u Ženevi zanemarila.

Daljnje čitanje:
knjiga: & quotDokumente polnischer Grausamkeiten. Verbrechen an Deutschen 1919-1939 nach amtlichen Quellen & quot (Dokumentacija o poljskim okrutnostima. Zločini nad Nijemcima 1919-1939 prema službenim izvorima).


Najčudnija bitka Drugog svjetskog rata: Kad su se Amerikanci i Nijemci borili zajedno

Samo jednom su se Nijemci i saveznici borili zajedno u Drugom svjetskom ratu. Andrew Roberts o priči tako divljoj da se od nje mora napraviti film.

Andrew Roberts

The most extraordinary things about Stephen Harding's Posljednja bitka, a truly incredible tale of World War II, are that it hasn’t been told before in English, and that it hasn’t already been made into a blockbuster Hollywood movie.

Here are the basic facts: on 5 May 1945—five days after Hitler’s suicide—three Sherman tanks from the 23rd Tank Battalion of the U.S. 12th Armored Division under the command of Capt. John C. ‘Jack’ Lee Jr., liberated an Austrian castle called Schloss Itter in the Tyrol, a special prison that housed various French VIPs, including the ex-prime ministers Paul Reynaud and Eduard Daladier and former commanders-in-chief Generals Maxime Weygand and Paul Gamelin, amongst several others.

Yet when the units of the veteran 17th Waffen-SS Panzer Grenadier Division arrived to recapture the castle and execute the prisoners, Lee’s beleaguered and outnumbered men were joined by anti-Nazi German soldiers of the Wehrmacht, as well as some of the extremely feisty wives and girlfriends of the (needless-to-say hitherto bickering) French VIPs, and together they fought off some of the best crack troops of the Third Reich. Steven Spielberg, how did you miss this story?


Five Badass Female Spies Who Deserve Their Own World War II Movie

Left, from Rex/Shutterstock From Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images Courtesy of The Smithsonian/Lorna Catling.

Pisac Steven Knight has said that his new film, Saveznički, is based on a story about World War II spies that he heard third-hand from an old girlfriend. It could well have been more than an urban legend, though: dozens of remarkable women played a key role in “the Resistance,” much as Marion Cotillard’s character does in the film.

These women were especially prevalent in the Special Operations Executive, a cobbled-together network of spies and amateurs that wrought havoc on German-occupied Europe President Eisenhower later credited the organization with reversing the fortunes of the Allies against Hitler.

Scores of female operatives worked for the S.O.E. These women were trained to handle guns and explosives, memorize complex codes, organize munitions and supplies drops, endure harsh interrogation, and, in some cases, were in charge of thousands of men. To follow their stories is to follow the trajectory of the war.

It also made for tales that read like spy thrillers, the kind that should look like gold to any screenwriter. This winter, Jessica Chastain will star in Žena čuvara zoološkog vrta, based on the true story of a Polish woman undermining the Nazi occupation 2001’s Charlotte Grey, another story of a female resistance fighter, is said to be based on a composite of real-life women. But for every Spašavanje vojnika Ryana i Tanka crvena linija, there’s an equally dramatic tale about a wartime heroine waiting to be told. Here are five real women whose stories would make compelling cinematic thrillers.

Vera Atkins was a young Romanian working in Bucharest when she met the dashing Canadian William Stephenson, according to William Stevenson’s Spymistress: The True Story of the Greatest Female Secret Agent of World War II. Later, he would be known as agent “Intrepid,” the supposed inspiration for James Bond—but for now, he supplying pre-war intelligence to Britain.

Charmed by Vera, he introduced her the German ambassador to Romania (who, it’s said, loved beautiful women) in order to get information from him, Stevenson writes in Spymistress. The ploy worked. Soon, Vera began gathering intelligence for the British while outwardly working as a translator for Stephenson’s steel business.

Vera Atkins was Jewish (her real name was Rosenberg), a fact she didn't readily disclose to the high-ranking anti-Nazi bureaucrats she worked with. In the years leading up to the war, she smuggled information to Churchill as he railed against Hitler’s regime in political exile—while the nervous English government tried to quiet him, believing Hitler’s promise not to invade.

When Churchill was brought back to power to steel England against imminent German invasion, Vera was assigned to a high-ranking position in the Special Operations Executive, also known as “Churchill’s secret army.” In spite of the S.O.E.’s success, England still needed American support. Churchill had secretly been in contact with Franklin D. Roosevelt, but it was well known the Americans were deeply against entering another world war—especially with Britain’s gloomy prospects. Roosevelt sent his head of intelligence, William Donovan—the future creator of the C.I.A.—to scout the situation on the ground in Europe. Churchill made sure Donovan spent substantial time with Vera, according to Spymistress.

Vera was a firm believer in the power of ordinary citizens to wreak havoc. Stevenson writes in Spymistress that she liked invented weapons that could be assembled on the fly, like rats stuffed with explosives. Instead of trying to impress Donovan with fancy dinners, Vera deliberately took him to the heart of the S.O.E., where “underpaid amateurs . . . fiddled with bits of metal bicycle tubing for guns” and “faked horse manure to conceal explosives,” according to Spymistress. University students worked furiously to translate codes. In the end, Donovan was so impressed with the underdog S.O.E.’s effect on its formidable German enemy that he outlined the S.O.E.’s activities for Roosevelt, who in turn permitted Donovan to return to monitor the S.O.E.’s progress.

Krystyna Skarbek was the daughter of Polish aristocracy. Her doting father taught her horsemanship and shooting for the rest of her life she excelled in charming men. And as she roamed Europe on secret missions, she left many of them heartbroken. In 1939, the Germans invaded, quickly followed by the Russians. Krystyna was overseas, and her attempts to enlist were frustrated by the fact she was a woman. In London, according to Clare Mulley’s The Spy Who Loved, she presented the British secret service with a plan: she would ski into Nazi-occupied Poland and deliver British propaganda. Positive news about the fight against Hitler was vital to fuel the resistance, especially now that the Polish government had fled the country.

She convinced the Olympic skier Jan Marusarz to escort her over the Tatras mountains from Hungary. It was the coldest winter in memory—German patrols found so many bodies in the following spring thaw that they doubled their patrols the following winter.

Krystyna craved danger, even as her very existence was perilous: her mother was a fabulously wealthy Jewish banking heir. Though her Jewish blood meant that she would never fully be accepted by the Polish aristocracy, Krystyna’s love for Poland never wavered.

Krystyna became a vital part of the resistance, smuggling intelligence out of Poland to the allies, using her wits to evade capture and execution over and over again—including the time she bit her own tongue bloody to fake tuberculosis. She once saved the life of one of her lovers, Francis Cammaerts, by skulking around the prison where he was being held and singing one of their favorite tunes, until she heard him sing it back. Now that she knew where he was located, she entered the prison and told the guards that she was related to a senior British diplomat. The Allies had just landed over the course of three hours, she convinced the guards that the only way they might receive mercy would be to release the prisoners. Složili su se.

After the war, Krystyna led a somewhat aimless existence, and was eventually stabbed to death by another obsessed admirer.

Winston Churchill’s daughter Sarah was pitched to play Krystyna in a movie about her life. When asked why, according to The Spy Who Loved, she said that Krystyna was “my father’s favorite spy.”

Born in New Zealand in 1912 and raised in Australia, Nancy Wake’s life couldn’t have been sweeter. She married a wealthy man in Marseille, and was accustomed to breakfasting in a large bath with champagne and caviar on toast.

However, when war came, Wake didn’t shy away. She told her devoted husband, Henri, that she would become an ambulance driver. Since France had almost no ambulances, she made him buy her one, according to Russell Braddon’s Nancy Wake: SEO’s Greatest Heroine. She was a horrendous driver, but very determined .

Wake spread her husband’s wealth as far as she could, and inadvertently started running a sort of underground railway from her flat in Marseille. The Gestapo was soon buzzing about “the White Mouse,” a woman who was helping hundreds of downed Allied servicemen and would-be political prisoners escape to England via Spain and the Pyrenees (which Wake claimed to have walked 17 times). She was their No. 1 most-wanted fugitive, with a price of 5 million francs on her head.

After being arrested and then escaping to Britain, Wake joined the S.O.E. Then she parachuted straight back in to France. She became ensconced with the Maquis, the guerrilla resistance army pocketed through some of Southern France’s more rugged terrain. She won over local clan leaders with her know-how and became the administrative head of around 7,000 fighters, coordinating secret nighttime airdrops of weapons, explosives, and supplies. She participated in raids and killed Germans with her bare hands. According to Braddon’s Nancy Wake, one of the Maquis called her “the most feminine woman I know—until the fighting starts. And then she is like five men.”

After the war, she returned to her flat in Marseille, which had been commandeered by female Gestapo, who had also stolen all her furniture, writes Braddon in Nancy Wake. Wake’s husband, who was also captured in their arrest, had been tortured to death by the Gestapo searching for her. She retired to London, where she lived until she died, aged 98. Her final wish was to have her ashes sprinkled over the mountains where she had fought her hardest battles.


Early modern Germany

Flag of the Holy Roman Empire 15th to 19th century.

The Holy Roman Empire, 1512

Reformacija

In the early 16th century there was much discontent occasioned by abuses such as indulgences in the Catholic Church, and a general desire for reform.

In 1517 the Reformation began with the publication of Martin Luther's 95 Theses he had posted them in the town square, and gave copies of them to German nobles, but it is debated whether he nailed them to the church door in Wittenberg as is commonly said. The list detailed 95 assertions Luther believed to show corruption and misguidance within the Catholic Church. One often cited example, though perhaps not Luther's chief concern, is a condemnation of the selling of indulgences another prominent point within the 95 Theses is Luther's disagreement both with the way in which the higher clergy, especially the pope, used and abused power, and with the very idea of the pope.

In 1521 Luther was outlawed at the Diet of Worms. But the Reformation spread rapidly, helped by the Emperor Charles V's wars with France and the Turks. Hiding in the Wartburg Castle, Luther translated the Bible from Latin to German, establishing the basis of the German language. A curious fact is that Luther spoke a dialect which had minor importance in the German language of that time. After the publication of his Bible, his dialect suppressed the others and evolved into what is now the modern German.

In 1524 the German Peasants' War broke out in Swabia, Franconia and Thuringia against ruling princes and lords, following the preachings of Reformist priests. But the revolts, which were assisted by war-experienced noblemen like Götz von Berlichingen and Florian Geyer (in Franconia), and by the theologian Thomas Münzer (in Thuringia), were soon repressed by the territorial princes. It is estimated that as many as 100,000 German peasants were massacred during the revolt, usually after the battles had ended. With the protestation of the Lutheran princes at the Reichstag of Speyer (1529) and rejection of the Lutheran "Augsburg Confession" at Augsburg (1530), a separate Lutheran church emerged.

From 1545 the Counter-Reformation began in Germany. The main force was provided by the Jesuit order, founded by the Spaniard Ignatius of Loyola. Central and northeastern Germany were by this time almost wholly Protestant, whereas western and southern Germany remained predominantly Catholic. In 1547, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V defeated the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Protestant rulers.

The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 brought recognition of the Lutheran faith. But the treaty also stipulated that the religion of a state was to be that of its ruler (Cuius regio, eius religio).

In 1556 Charles V abdicated. The Habsburg Empire was divided, as Spain was separated from the Imperial possessions.

In 1608/1609 the Protestant Union and the Catholic League were formed.

Pismenost

Bible translated into Modern High German by Luther, 1534

The Reformation was a triumph of literacy and the new printing press. Luther's translation of the Bible into German was a decisive moment in the spread of literacy, and stimulated as well the printing and distribution of religious books and pamphlets. From 1517 onward religious pamphlets flooded Germany and much of Europe. By 1530 over 10,000 publications are known, with a total of ten million copies. The Reformation was thus a media revolution. Luther strengthened his attacks on Rome by depicting a "good" against "bad" church. From there, it became clear that print could be used for propaganda in the Reformation for particular agendas. Reform writers used pre-Reformation styles, clichés, and stereotypes and changed items as needed for their own purposes. Especially effective were Luther's Small Catechism, for use of parents teaching their children, and Larger Catechism, for pastors. Using the German vernacular they expressed the Apostles' Creed in simpler, more personal, Trinitarian language. Illustrations in the newly translated Bible and in many tracts popularized Luther's ideas. Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472–1553), the great painter patronized by the electors of Wittenberg, was a close friend of Luther, and illustrated Luther's theology for a popular audience. He dramatized Luther's views on the relationship between the Old and New Testaments, while remaining mindful of Luther's careful distinctions about proper and improper uses of visual imagery.

Thirty Years War

Reduction of the population of the Holy Roman Empire as a consequence of the Thirty Years War

From 1618 to 1648 the Thirty Years' War ravaged in the Holy Roman Empire. The causes were the conflicts between Catholics and Protestants, the efforts by the various states within the Empire to increase their power and the Catholic Emperor's attempt to achieve the religious and political unity of the Empire. The immediate occasion for the war was the uprising of the Protestant nobility of Bohemia against the emperor, but the conflict was widened into a European War by the intervention of King Christian IV of Denmark (1625–29), Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (1630–48) and France under Cardinal Richelieu. Germany became the main theatre of war and the scene of the final conflict between France and the Habsburgs for predominance in Europe.

The fighting often was out of control, with marauding bands of hundreds or thousands of starving soldiers spreading plague, plunder, and murder. The armies that were under control moved back and forth across the countryside year after year, levying heavy taxes on cities, and seizing the animals and food stocks of the peasants without payment. The enormous social disruption over three decades caused a dramatic decline in population because of killings, disease, crop failures, declining birth rates and random destruction, and the out-migration of terrified people. One estimate shows a 38% drop from 16 million people in 1618 to 10 million by 1650, while another shows "only" a 20% drop from 20 million to 16 million. The Altmark and Württemberg regions especially hard hit. It took generations for Germany to fully recover. The war ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia. Imperial territory was lost to France and Sweden and the Netherlands officially left the Empire. The imperial power declined further as the states' rights were increased.

Znanost

Decisive scientific developments took place during the 16th and 17th centuries, especially in the fields of astronomy, mathematics and physics. In 1543, astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus from Toruń (Thorn) published his work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium and became the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. Almost 70 years after Copernicus' death and building on his theories, mathematician, astronomer and astrologer Johannes Kepler from Stuttgart would be a key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution. He is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers, based on his works Astronomia nova i Harmonices Mundi. These works also influenced contemporary scientist Galileo Galilei and provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.


Retribution

Presenting what happened after liberation is easy to show. Explaining it, and trying to pinpoint how far justice was served and how far short it actually came is not. In any event, justice was swift – perhaps too swift.

Belgian women who had collaborated with the Germans are shaved, tarred and feathered and forced to give a Nazi salute.

However, the Allies returned, and their German beaus left in a hurry, often not surviving the journey home and perhaps having left somebody behind there if they made it. Usually, the photos of collaborator girls are identified nowadays as “found on a dead German soldier.” Naturally, we almost certainly would not have many of these photos at all if the soldier had survived and put them in safe-keeping. There are likely countless others sitting long-forgotten in attics and basements across Europe.

A Nazi “collaborator” – a French woman having her head shaved following liberation, as punishment for an on-going sexual relationship with a Nazi soldier during the occupation of France. There appears to be another one waiting her turn. Even voluntary relationships were not always what they seemed. This woman, for instance was singled out for shameful retribution following the liberation of France. She is believed to have been a prostitute who serviced German occupiers. Even though that was her business, it did not lessen her punishment. She is having her head shaved by French civilians to publicly mark her. This picture was taken in Montelimar, France, August 29, 1944.

Even if neither situation applied, and the German soldier made it back to Germany alive, it is difficult to do much when you are sitting in a prison camp awaiting processing, or when you are jobless due to the post-war labor laws and destitute.

Drugi Svjetski rat. Collaboration. Shaving and tarring [pitch] of [‘Kraut whores’] after the liberation of Holland. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, May, 1945.

The bottom line is that the collaborator girls were left without any protectors, and all their friends noticed what they had been doing. Scenes of tarring and feathering and hair-cutting and all sorts of retribution went on all over Europe.

French Militiaman is Fastened to Stake Before his Execution, France, 1944 – HU031043 – Rights Managed – Stock Photo – Corbis. One of the six French militiamen found guilty of treason by collaborating with the Germans is fastened to a stake by a guard before his execution. September 13, 1944

It is easy to apply modern standards to this process and claim it is hateful to women and so forth and so on. The guys were usually just shot or knifed, or maybe beaten until they were bloody and mangled, all done out in the woods or in a back alley.

But, when done more formally, they were tried in an afternoon, then simply lined up without too much fuss and gunned down.

A sketch drawn for the US Army ‘Stars and Stripes’ newspaper shows French Partisans executing male French collaborators in 1944 in Grenoble, France. Would you rather be shot – or shamed and forced to leave town forever? Not always an easy answer.

Lest you think that the French were, oh, over-reacting or something about collaborators, well, they had some good teachers. The Germans ritualistically tied partisans to posts and shot them as spies without any fuss at all. They routinely hung female partisans, too.

Everyone is entitled to his or her own opinion as to what is appropriate, here we just present what happened. If you look at the pictures, you will see that some of the people taking the greatest delight in this public shaming of women, laughing gleefully, and even performing some of the haircuts, also are women.

In the streets of Brignoles, angry French citizens publicly rebuke a woman who is suspected of having collaborated with the Germans.

Women really let their feelings show once the Nazis were gone. For instance, women were just as angered by male collaborators and German POWs as anyone else – and let them know it.

So, as a historical record, these photographs are important for any number of reasons: they show offenses, they show punishment, and they show universal condemnation. People are people, whether they be men or women, and when it came to collaboration, it made little difference what you were other than a foul traitor. Barbarity has no gender.

Members of the French resistance in Cherbourg shear the hair of women who collaborated with the Germans during the occupation.

To sum it up, when a woman who had engaged in collaboration horizontale — collaboration with, and by that we mean having sex with, occupying troops — her head was forcibly shaved. Tens of thousands of women, many of whom were merely accused of collaboration, suffered similar fates after liberation: some were killed a good number were beaten almost all were humiliated.

Female French Collaborator Having Her Head Shaved During Liberation of Marseilles

One further aspect of this should be noted: there was an awful lot of collaboration in France. That’s just a fact, it extended throughout the government and extensively among ordinary people. Many partisans themselves had, shall we say, less-than-impeccable bona fides and perhaps even a bit of guilt about things that nobody else knew about. The partisans did not really become very populous until liberation was assured – but then, everyone who could ( i.e. , was not a known collaborator) jumped on the bandwagon. There is an awful lot of posturing in the photos by partisans crowded around shamed collaborators, perhaps just a tad too much here and there everyone was anxious to prove that they were on the right ( i.e., the winning) side.

Women who consorted with the Germans during the occupation are driven through the streets of Cherbourg by members of the French resistance. Their head were shaved in order to humiliate them. The perks of sleeping with SS men were extra rations or quality food, access to forbidden luxury goods and freedom from certain restrictions. The downside was complicity in – or, at the very least, likely knowledge of – the hell and slaughter of the concentration camps.

Posing in a picture with a shorn or shot collaborator while holding a gun on them was a pretty definitive way of establishing where you stood once and for all – at least at that precise moment. This has remained a murky subject in France ever since, and from time to time the “secret files” of who really collaborated and how are threatened to be released. Everyone knows there are some “partisans” who are glad their secrets remain unknown.

Let’s also go in a different direction with this as well. Some French women befriended (and more) the Nazis because they were coerced or forced. This angered their neighbors, who were not about to draw any fine lines or distinctions. That’s what courts are for – and the partisans were not waiting for any lengthy judicial proceedings to take place. If a prostitute happened to entertain Germans who had all the money in order to survive, well, that wasn’t about to be a point in their favor with angered partisans.

Women accused of having collaborated with Nazi personnel are humiliated in public. This may seem like a bit much to today’s audience, but during a time when people were overjoyed at seeing the Nazis leave, this image would have evoked feelings of victory. Some probably wanted them shot out of hand.
Accused collaborators photographed after being punished by the French resistance. Funnily enough, the resistance punished collaborators in the same manner that only years early the Nazi party had used on perpetrators who had been perpetrators of “race crimes” ( i.e. , having sex with the wrong people) in Germany and Austria.
Members of the French resistance lead two women accused of being German sympathizers to the local prison, where their heads will be shaved as punishment for collaboration. Notice how they are touching their soon-to-be-shorn locks. August 29, 1944. National Archives via United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
A French woman collaborator and her baby, whose father is German, returns to her home followed by a throng of taunting townspeople after having her head shaven following the capture of Chartres by the Allies, August 1944. It appears that she is passing some women who suffered a similar fate. Photo by Robert Capa.
In the Normandy village of Liesville, angry French patriots take hold of Juliette Audieve, thought to have been a collaborator with the Germans. It appears the two ladies standing casually by are also partisans.

French women who befriended the Nazis, through coerced, forced, or voluntary relationships, were singled out for shameful retribution following the liberation of France. The woman here, believed to have been a prostitute who serviced German occupiers, is having her head shaved by French civilians to publicly mark her. This picture was taken in Montelimar, France, August 29, 1944.


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